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    Title: 試論《電動汽車安全全球技術法規》是否為WTO《技術性貿易障礙協定》下之國際標準
    Legal Analysis on Whether the Global Technical Regulation on Electric Vehicle Safety is an International Standard under WTO TBT Agreement
    Authors: 林玫君
    Lin, Mei-Chun
    Contributors: 施文真
    Shin, Wen-Chen
    林玫君
    Lin, Mei-Chun
    Keywords: 電動車
    技術性貿易障礙協定
    國際標準
    電動汽車安全全球技術法規
    Electric Vehicles
    TBT Agreement
    International Standard
    EVS-GTR
    Date: 2020
    Issue Date: 2020-03-02 10:58:42 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 由於全球氣候暖化,各國致力減少二氧化碳之排放,紛紛祭出電動汽車產業發展政策。惟車輛生產與貿易過程中,時常因技術及法規差異而形成貿易障礙,製造商須耗費大量成本及時間遵循各國不同規範,對汽車產業發展及貿易形成不利影響。2018年3月14日,世界車輛法規協調論壇通過《電動汽車安全全球技術法規》,其乃由美國、歐盟、日本與中國共同帶頭制定,為第一個專門規範電動車安全的技術性法規,內容主要針對車輛性能訂有規範,同時也規定電動汽車滿足安全性能要求的試驗方法。
    世界貿易組織訂有《技術性貿易障礙協定》,該協定規範目的在於進一步實踐《1994年關稅暨貿易總協定》之目標,消弭技術性法規或標準所形成的貿易障礙。《電動汽車安全全球技術法規》為全球第一個針對電動車安全技術制定之法規,目的在於調和國際上不同體系之安全技術法規,具有重要意義。本文將從《技術性貿易障礙協定》相關條文、技術性貿易障礙委員會相關文件、爭端解決機構之報告、世界車輛法規協調論壇官方資料等文獻進行研究,分析《電動汽車安全全球技術法規》是否符合《技術性貿易障礙協定》下「國際標準」定義,藉此了解該技術法規是否可達到推展國際貿易之目的,消弭因法規差異而衍生之貿易障礙。
    Due to the global warming, countries are committed to reducing CO2 emissions, developing some policies for promoting the electric vehicle industry. However, during the production and the trade of vehicles, the differences of the techniques and the regulations often result in trade barriers. Manufacturers have to spend a lot of cost and time to follow different regulations in various countries, which adversely affects the development of the automotive industry and the trade between countries. On March 14, 2018, WP.29 adopted the “Global Technical Regulations on the Safety of Electric Vehicles (EVS-GTR)”, which was jointly developed by the United States, the European Union, Japan, and China. It is the first technical regulation specifically regulating the safety of electric vehicles. It’s mainly related to performance requirement of the electric vehicles and some test procedures for meeting the safety performance requirements of electric vehicles.
    WTO TBT Agreement aims to further implement the objectives of the GATT 1994 and eliminate trade barriers resulted from technical regulations or standards. EVS-GTR is the first regulation related to the safety techniques of electric vehicles in the world. It plays an important role since the purpose is to harmonize the safety technical regulations between FMVSS and ECE. This thesis will analyze whether the EVS-GTR is the international standard under the TBT Agreement through the relevant provisions of the TBT Agreement, relevant documents of the TBT Committee, reports of the WTO Dispute Settlement Body and official information from the WP.29. After that, we will know whether the EVS-GTR will achieve the purpose of promoting international trade, and whether the EVS-GTR eliminate trade barriers resulted from the differences of the regulations of electric vehicles.
    Reference: 中文部分
    書籍:
    車輛研究測試中心,電動車安全入門,初版,頁11(2015年)。
    林彩瑜,WTO制度與實務,二版,頁172(2013年)。
    洪德欽,WTO法律與政策專題研究,二版,頁23(2013年)。
    楊培侃,從WTO「澳洲—菸品素面包裝案」論必要性與合理性作為合法政策空間之衡量標準,收於:楊光華編,第十九屆國際經貿法學發展學術研討會論文集,頁299(2019年)。

    期刊:
    陳信志,台灣智慧電動車推動現況與政策方向,車輛研測資訊,104期,頁19(2015年)。

    法律條文:
    貨物稅條例,第12-3條。
    使用牌照稅法,第5條。

    網際網路:
    吳湘平,APEC 電動車標準合作促進機制對話會議報導,車安通訊季刊,2014年,網址:http://vsccdms.vscc.org.tw/webfile/Epaper/500000152/File/4a03a8db-a28b-4940-ab13-e19850be3706.pdf(最後瀏覽日:2020年1月4日)。
    吳湘平,第16屆APEC汽車對話會議(Automotive Dialogue)報告,車輛安全審驗中心,網址:http://vsccdms.vscc.org.tw/webfile/Epaper/500000083/File/213bdc2b-815d-4690-86fa-e55c81916ffe.pdf(最後瀏覽日:2018年10月22日)。
    施冠廷,電動車輛電池系統的驗證與測試,車輛研究測試中心,網址:https://www.artc.org.tw/upfiles/ADUpload/knowledge/tw_knowledge_530087054.pdf(最後瀏覽日:2020年1月4日)。
    財團法人車輛研究測試中心,電動車法規現況,財團法人車輛研究測試中心,2012年,網址:https://www.artc.org.tw/chinese/03_service/03_02detail.aspx?pid=2115(最後瀏覽日:2019年3月20日)。
    陳彥亨、黃敬洲,FMVSS 108 及E-MARK法規來源之介紹,車輛研究測試中心,網址:https://www.artc.org.tw/chinese/03_service/03_02detail.aspx?pid=1642(最後瀏覽日:2018年10月22日)。
    新華網,我國等牽頭制定的電動汽車安全全球技術法規獲表決通過,新華網,2018年3月21日,網址:http://www.xinhuanet.com/2018-03/21/c_1122570563.htm(最後瀏覽日:2019年12月28日)。
    潘姿羽,禁售燃油車 賴清德:解決空污兼顧能源轉型,中央社,2018年5月9日,網址:https://www.cna.com.tw/news/afe/201805090072.aspx(最後瀏覽日:2020年1月4日)。
    鄭有青,談電動車觸電安全,車輛研究測試中心,網址:https://www.artc.org.tw/upfiles/ADUpload/knowledge/tw_knowledge_401927031.pdf(最後瀏覽日:2019年12月27日)。

    英文部分
    書籍:
    MICHAEL J. TREBILCOCK, ADVANCED INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW 156 (Edward Elgar Publishing ed., 1st ed. 2015).

    期刊:
    Erik Wijkström & Devin Mcdaniels, Improving Regulatory Governance: International Standards and the WTO TBT Agreement 1033, 47(5) JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE 1013 (2013).
    Michael A. Livermore, Authority and Legitimacy in Global Governance: Deliberation, Institutional Differentiation, and the Codex Alimentarius, 81 N.Y.U.L. REV. 766, 795-796 (2006).
    Panagiotis Delimatsis, Global Standard-Setting 2.0: How the WTO Spotlights ISO and Impacts the Transnational Standard-Setting Process 274, 28 DUKE J. COMP. & INT'L L. 273 (2018).

    機構文件:
    ICTSD, INTERNATIONAL TRADE GOVERNANCE AND SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT: THE EXPANSION OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES (2017), https://www.ictsd.org/sites/default/files/research/international-trade-governance-and-sustainable-transport-mahesh-sugathan.pdf.
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) and the Health Effects Institute (HEI), State of Global Air 2017: A Special Report on Global Exposure to Air Pollution and its Disease Burden, HEI, http://ccacoalition.org/en/resources/state-global-air-2017-special-report-global-exposure-air-pollution-and-its-disease-burden (last visited Mar. 20, 2019).
    International Energy Agency (IEA), Global EV Outlook 2018 Towards cross-modal electrification, 10 OECD/IEA (2018), https://www.connaissancedesenergies.org/sites/default/files/pdf-actualites/globalevoutlook2018.pdf.
    International Energy Agency (IEA), Key CO2 Emission Trends, IEA 7 (2016), https://safety4sea.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/IEA-Key-CO2-Emissions-Trends-2016.pdf.
    Kiran S. Desai, Electric Vehicles—EU Legal Issues, MAYER BROWN 2 (2011), https://m.mayerbrown.com/Files/Publication/e9a77539-8168-4db3-99dd-270efe5dafa8/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/e3b546d3-b681-4769-85d4-3b090b29932b/10950.pdf.
    OECD, The Cost of Air Pollution: Health Impacts of Road Transport, OECD 11 (May 21, 2014), https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264210448-en.
    UNECE, (China, Japan, the United States of America and the European Union) Second progress report of the Informal Working Group on Electric Vehicle Safety, at 2, ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2014/87 (Aug. 26, 2014), https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2014/wp29/ECE-TRANS-WP29-2014-87e.pdf.
    UNECE, (China, Japan, USA and EU) Fourth progress report of the Informal Working Group on Electric Vehicle Safety, at 2, ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2016/30 (Dec. 23, 2015), https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2016/wp29/ECE-TRANS-WP29-2016-030e.pdf.
    UNECE, (European Union, Japan and United States of America) Proposal for Establishment of Two Informal Working Groups Addressing the Safety and Environmental Requirements for Electric Vehicles to Enhance Regulatory Cooperation Including Developing Global Technical Regulations in the Framework of the 1998 Agreement, at 2, WP.29-155-38 (Nov. 18, 2011), https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/wp29/WP29-155-38e.pdf.
    UNECE, (representatives of the European Union, Japan and United States of America) Proposal for establishing two informal working groups addressing the safety and environmental requirements for electric vehicles to enhance regulatory cooperation including developing global technical regulations in the framework of the 1998 Agreement, at 7, ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2012/36 (Dec 26, 1011), https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2012/wp29/ECE-TRANS-WP29-2012-36e.pdf.
    UNECE, (USA) Terms of Reference of the Informal Working Group on Electric Vehicle Safety, at 2, ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2012/121 (July 24, 2012), https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2012/wp29/ECE-TRANS-WP29-2012-121e.pdf.
    UNECE, Agreement Concerning the Adoption of Uniform Conditions for Periodical Technical Inspections of Wheeled Vehicles and the Reciprocal Recognition of such Inspections, at 4, ECE/RCTE/CONF/4 (Nov. 13, 1997), https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/1997agr/conf4efr.pdf.
    UNECE, Agreement Concerning the Establishment of Global Technical Regulations for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts which can be fitted and/or be used on wheeled Vehicles, at 6-10, ECE/TRANS/132 (June 25, 1998), https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp29glob/tran132.pdf.
    UNECE, Concerning the Adoption of Harmonized Technical United Nations Regulations for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts which can be Fitted and/or be Used on Wheeled Vehicles and the Conditions for Reciprocal Recognition of Approvals Granted on the Basis of these United Nations Regulations, at 8-9, E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.3 (Oct. 20, 2017), https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs/2017/E-ECE-TRANS-505-Rev.3e.pdf.
    UNECE, Concerning the Common Definitions of Vehicle Categories, Masses and Dimensions (S.R. 1), at 14, ECE/TRANS/WP.29/1137 (Sept. 15, 2005), https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2005/wp29/TRANS-WP29-1045e.pdf.
    UNECE, Global Technical Regulation on the Electric Vehicle Safety (EVS), at 1, ECE/TRANS/180/Add.20 (May 3, 2018), http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp29registry/ECE-TRANS-180a20e.pdf.
    UNECE, Reports of the World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations on its 174th Session, Reports of the Administrative Committee of the 1958 Agreement on its sixty-eighth Session, Reports of the Executive Committee of the 1998 Agreement on its fifty-second Session, Reports of the Administrative Committee of the 1997 Agreement on its eleventh Session, ¶ 134 (Apr. 13, 2018), http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2018/wp29/ECE-TRANS-WP.29-1137e.pdf.
    UNECE, Reports of the World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations on its 155th session, Administrative Committee of the 1958 Agreement on its forty-ninth session, Executive Committee of the 1998 Agreement on its thirty-third, session, Administrative Committee of the 1997 Agreement on its ninth session, ¶ 141, at 25, ECE/TRANS/WP.29/1093 (Dec. 16, 2011), https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2011/wp29/ECE-TRANS-WP29-1093e.pdf.
    UNECE, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29), Terms of Reference and Rules of Procedure, at 4, TRANS/WP.29/690 (Nov. 18, 1999), https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/wp29/tor/tor_wp29_TRANS-WP.29-690e.pdf.
    UNECE, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29), How it Works, How to Join it, at 3, ECE/TRANS/NONE/2012/1 (2012), http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp29pub/WP29_Blue_Book_2012_ENG.pdf.
    WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM, ENABLING TRADE: ENABLING AUTOMOTIVE TRADE, http://reports.weforum.org/enabling-trade-from-valuation-to-action/wp-content/blogs.dir/38/mp/files/pages/files/3-enabling-automotive-trade.pdf.

    WTO協定與其他法律條文:
    7 C.F.R. §§ 60.300, 65.400 (2009).
    Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, Apr. 15, 1994, 1868 U.N.T.S. 120.
    Codex Alimentarius Comm’n, Codex Stan 1-1985 General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods, art. 4.5 (1985).
    Codex Alimentarius Comm’n, Codex Stan 94-1981 Standard for Canned Sardines and Sardine-type Products, art. 6.1 (1978).
    Codex Alimentarius Commission, Procedural Manual, art. 10.2 (2001).
    Council Regulation (EEC) 2136/89, of 21 June 1989 Laying Down Common Marketing Standards for Preserved Sardines, art. 2, 1989 O.J. (L 212) 79, 79.
    Dolphin Protection Consumer Information Act, 16 U.S.C. § 1385 (1990); 50 C.F.R. §§ 216.91, 216.92 (2000).
    Int’l Org. for Standardization & Int’l Electrotechnical Comm’n, ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1, art. 2.7.3 (2015).
    Int’l Org. for Standardization & Int’l Electrotechnical Comm’n, ISO/IEC Guide 2: 1991 Standardization and related activities—General Vocabulary (1991), § 3.2.
    Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization art. 9.1, Apr. 15, 1994 1867 U.N.T.S. 154, 33 I.L.M. 1144 (1994).
    Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, art. 31.3(a), May 23, 1969, 1155 U.N.T.S. 331.
    World Health Org., Constitution of the World Health Organization, art. 60.b (2006).
    World Org. for Animal Health, General Rules of the World Organization for Animal Health, art. 50 (2011).

    WTO小組報告:
    Panel Report, Australia — Certain Measures Concerning Trademarks, Geographical Indications and Other Plain Packaging Requirements Applicable to Tobacco Products and Packaging, WTO Doc. WT/DS435/R, WT/DS441/R, WT/DS458/R, WT/DS467/R (adopted Aug. 27, 2018).
    Panel Report, European Communities—Trade Description of Sardines, WTO Doc. WT/DS231/R (adopted Oct. 23, 2002) [hereinafter EC—Sardines].
    Panel Report, United States—Certain Country of Origin Labelling (COOL) Requirements, WTO Doc. WT/DS384/R, WT/DS386/R (adopted July 23, 2012) [hereinafter US—COOL].
    Panel Report, United States—Measures Concerning the Importation, Marketing and Sale of Tuna and Tuna Products, WTO Doc. WT/DS381/R (adopted June 13, 2012) [hereinafter US—Tuna II].

    WTO上訴機構報告:
    Appellate Body Report, EC—Sardines, WTO Doc. WT/DS231/AB/R (adopted Oct. 23, 2002).
    Appellate Body Report, European Communities—Measures Affecting Asbestos and Products Containing Asbestos, ¶ 67, WTO Doc. WT/DS135/AB/R (adopted Apr. 5, 2001).
    Appellate Body Report, United States—Sunset Reviews of Anti-Dumping Measures on Oil Country Tubular Goods from Argentina, ¶ 187, WTO Doc. WT/DS268/AB/R (adopted Dec. 17, 2004).
    Appellate Body Report, US—Tuna II, WTO Doc. WT/DS381/AB/R (adopted June 13, 2012).

    WTO其他文件:
    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Decision of the Committee on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations with Relation to Articles 2, 5 and Annex 3 of the Agreement, Second Triennial Review of the Operation and Implementation of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, Annex 4, WTO Doc. G/TBT/9 (Nov. 13, 2002).
    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Decisions and Recommendations adopted by the WTO committee on Technical Barriers to Trade since 1 January 1995, at 16, G/TBT/1/Rev. 12 (Jan. 21, 2015).
    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Issues Concerning International Standards and International Stnadardization Bodies, ¶ 4, WTO Doc. G/TBT/W/113 (June 15, 1999).
    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Minutes of the Meeting Held on 1 October 1999, ¶¶ 54-55, WTO Doc. G/TBT/M/17, (Nov. 12, 1999).
    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, On the Conditions for the Acceptance and Use of International Standards in the Context of the WTO Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement, ¶ 4, WTO Doc. G/TBT/W/87/Rev. 1 (Sep. 30, 1999).
    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Transparency in International Standards Draft U.S. Proposal for a Decision, ¶ 1, WTO Doc. G/TBT/W/75/Rev.1 (June 17, 1999).

    網際網路:
    Clean Energy Ministerial, About the Clean Energy Ministerial, CLEAN ENERGY MINISTERIAL, http://www.cleanenergyministerial.org/about-clean-energy-ministerial (last visited Mar. 20, 2019).
    Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), CODEX ALIMENTARIUS COMMISSION, http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/committees/cac/about/en/ (last visited Dec. 25, 2019).
    Simon Flowers, How Will the Electric Vehicle Market Rev Up?, FORBES (July 27, 2018), https://www.forbes.com/sites/woodmackenzie/2018/07/27/how-will-the-electric-vehicle-market-develop/#60919c7e4056.
    UNCEC, UNECE>Transport>Areas of Work>Vehicle Regulations>About Us>WP.29 - Introduction, UNECE, https://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/introduction.html (last visited Mar. 20, 2019).
    UNECE, UNECE>Transport>Areas of Work>Vehicle Regulations>About Us>FAQ, UNECE, https://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/faq.html (last visited Mar. 20,2019).
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    國際經營與貿易學系
    106351041
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0106351041
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202000365
    Appears in Collections:[國際經營與貿易學系 ] 學位論文

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