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Inner Harmony and External Harmony: the Origin and Value of ＂Zhong He＂ Theory Proposed by Chien Mu in Zhong Yong Xin Yi
Zhong He;Zhong Yong(Doctrine of the Mean);Zhong Yong Xin Yi(New Meaning of Doctrine of the Mean);Chien Mu;Xu Fu-Guan
|Issue Date: ||2020-05-25 15:44:43 (UTC+8)|
Zhong Yong(Doctrine of the Mean) was originally a chapter in Category of Li in Han dynasty. In Sung dynasty, under Cheng-Zhu school scholars' promotion, Zhong Yong became a classic along with Analects, The Great Learning and Mencius, and it also symbolized the lineage of Dao from Confucius, Zengzi, Zisi to Mencius. These pre-Qing classics correspondently extended many detailed academic issues. Among these issues, ＂Zhong He＂ (equilibrium and harmony) theory is a significant one. ＂Zhong He＂ theory came from the first chapter of Zhong Yong, Zhu Xi interpreted it through the division of ＂body-use＂ and ＂character＂. Such opinion is also succeeded and promoted by contemporary scholars. However, among these scholars' interpretations, Zhong Yong Xin Yi (New Meaning of Doctrine of the Mean),published by Chien Mu in 1955, is worthy of note because his interpretation is different from ＂body-use＂ understanding proposed by Cheng-Zhu school scholars, and he also uses ＂balance＂ and ＂weight＂ to paraphrase ＂Zhong He＂, emphasizing different things' sympathy and coordination rather than promoting individual's natural character. In detail, Chien Mu's theory should be understood in the dynamic process of sympathy between things and I. External ＂things＂ must come and stir pleasure, anger, sorrow, or joy. When these two wouldn’t interfere with each other, they could reach the status of ＂He＂ (harmony). This ＂He＂ is not just confined in inner harmonious status, but also the external harmonious status between things and I. In Chien Mu's interpretation, the judgment of whether pleasure, anger, sorrow, or joy ＂act in their due degree＂ lies not just in the no stirring ＂Zhong＂ (equilibrium), but in stirred phase, seeing if it can exist with other things in perfection. Chien's opinion drew harsh criticisms from scholars like Xu Fu-Guan at that time. After compared with other classical annotations and modern interpretation, this article believes that Chien's opinion is also a good way to understand ＂Zhong He＂ theory in Zhong Yong. No matter the inner evidence in Category of Li, or other ＂Zhong He＂ theories different from Cheng-Zhu school, we can find some supportive instances, not just like Xu Fu-Guan's saying ＂put illustrations on ancient people and cause chaos.＂ What's more, Chien Mu's Zhong Yong Xin Yi, contrary to the previous interpretation model of ＂body-use＂ theory, put emphasis on ＂He＂ rather than ＂Zhong＂. It can be said that he provided another interpretation space for ＂Zhong He＂.
|Relation: ||子衿論衡：中正文哲研究集刊, No.3, pp.53-88|
|Data Type: ||期刊論文|
|Appears in Collections:||[中國文學系] 期刊論文|
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