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    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 中國文學系 > 期刊論文 >  Item 140.119/130699
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    Title: 「體離」的焦慮:杜恕《體論》的思想與儒家挫折
    The Thoughts in Du Shu's Tilun and Confucian's Frustration
    Authors: 蘇子齊
    Su, Zi-qi
    Contributors: 中文系
    Keywords: 《體論》; 君臣一體 ; 杜恕; 法家  
    Tilun; Du Shu; Monarch and Subject as a Body; Legalist
    Date: 2019-11
    Issue Date: 2020-07-21 11:46:47 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 杜恕《體論》是三國時代少數留存至今的子書之一,主要倚賴唐代魏徵等人編撰的《群書治要》保存了部分內容,在該書收錄的三國子書當中對法家的批判最為直切。本文透過對於《體論》「體」義及思想的梳理,得知「君臣一體」與「各達其體」為現存《體論》內容的主要核心,乃針對商鞅、韓非與申不害法術會造成「君臣相疑,上下離心」的弊端而發。也因此,雖然提取的經典來源和其他三國子書近似,卻實有自身獨到的關懷,對於管窺曹魏崇尚名法之治的流風與批判或有助益。然本文認為,其對於法家關懷與理論未能有相應的理解,連帶影響其批判的有效性。如此一來,《體論》雖為杜恕應世而作,恐怕也難以對抗當時「法家大行」的士風;另一方面也象徵儒家思想在曹魏中後期的短暫挫折,預告士人將採取嵇康或阮籍的姿態回應當朝。而章太炎曾在〈學變〉一文將杜恕視為嵇阮之前「反抗禮教」的先聲,乃未能真正把捉住杜恕的真正關懷。
    Du Shu's Tilun is one of the rare Zi books from the Three Kingdoms that is preserved nowadays. Part of its content is collected in The Governing Principles of Ancient China compiled by Wei Zeng in the Tang Dynasty. Among those Zi books compiled in The Governing Principle of Ancient China, Tilun voices the most direct criticism of Legalist. Through the summary of the meanings of Ti and thoughts in Tilun, we see that 〞monarch and subject as a body〞 and 〞fulfillment of each's duties〞 are Tilun's key ideas. The concept of 〞monarch and subject as a body〞 originates from the metaphor of 〞head/thighs and arms〞 in 〞Gaoyaomo〞 of Shangshu. It manifests that the monarch and subject have to do their duties and supervise each other. Thus, it can avoid the suspicion between the monarch and subject. What's more, according to the usage of the metaphor 〞head/thighs and arms〞 in other historical books and Zi books, we can see 〞monarch and subject as a body〞 is not empty words. However, the existing Tilun is incomplete for it has been selected by the Tang scholars. Tilun has two points at issue. Firstly, the understanding of Legalist's care and theory is disproportionate; therefore, it influences the effectiveness of Tilun's criticism. Secondly, like other contemporary Zi books, Tilun also has the flaws in repetition and imitation. In this case, Du Shu might not be able to resist Legalist's trend at that time. The situation also symbolizes Confucian's frustration in the mid-to-late Cao-Wei Dynasty, forecasting that Confucians were going to react to the court as Ji Kang or Ruan Ji did.
    Relation: 《臺大文史哲學報》, No.92, pp.49-83
    Data Type: article
    DOI 連結: https://doi.org/10.6258/bcla.201911_(92).02
    DOI: 10.6258/bcla.201911_(92).02
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學系] 期刊論文

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