本研究以量化方式探討老人社會參與能力與活動參與之間的關係因素，由訪員面訪協助老人填答問卷。以臺北市各區最大及次大之「社區照顧關懷據點」之老人，以及各區接受「失能老人營養餐飲服務」或「居家照顧服務」之老人為對象，有效問卷計307份。研究發現：生產性活動、共同性活動、獨自性活動以及社交性活動，其預測因子各不相同。其中，最大影響因素均為社會參與能力，又以社會角色履行能力為最有影響力者。具體而言，生產性活動以具備勞動能力為重，因此特別要求具備日常活動的能力，亦與性別有特別關聯；共同性活動會受社團成員身份所影響，另，疾病會影響老人參與所有類型的活動，尤其對生產性活動和共同性活動最有影響；經濟能力在獨自性活動面向上有其影響力；社交性活動多侷限於家庭活動。最後針對上述結果，提出實務、政策和研究上建議。 The quantitative method was applied to investigate the relationship between social participation performance & activity participation. The purpose of this study intented to explore how senior adults participated in different activities & how the related factors affected the participation using social participation performance or accomplishment model. Survey research with face to face interview was employed including 307 older people. The sample was selected from the largest & the second largest community care caring bases along with the elderly who were receiving home care services or meals on wheels services in each Taipei City Administrative District. The sample thus included both healthy elderly people & not so healthy elderly people. Stepwise multiple regressions were used to examine how important variables affected four types of activity participation. The findings revealed that every activity had its different predicting variables. Among the predicting variables, ability of social role performance was the most affecting one. For the productive activities, ability of daily activity & gender were significant. For the mass activities, the social group membership was important. For the Solitary activities, although age & health status were not so important, financial status was an important affecting one. For the social activities, the elderly limited their participation to the family activities still. Furthermore, the practice, policy & research implications were provided.