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    Title: 技術性貿易障礙協定下之透明化規範的研究
    A Study on Transparency Provisions under Agreement on Technical Barrier to Trade
    Authors: 劉瑋佳
    Liu, Wei-Jia
    Contributors: 施文真
    Shih, Wen-Chen
    劉瑋佳
    Liu, Wei-Jia
    Keywords: 透明化
    TBT委員會決議
    爭端案件
    透明化義務
    WTO改革
    transparency
    TBT Committee
    dispute
    transparency obligation
    WTO reform
    Date: 2020
    Issue Date: 2020-09-02 11:40:27 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 近年來,以美國為首的會員國對世界貿易組織改革的呼聲高漲,透明化的改革也是其中一項重點。許多學科都可以看到透明化的運用,而對世界貿易組織而言,透明化是加強組織正當性和課責制的重要機制,在眾多協定中,本文以技術性貿易障礙協定下的透明化機制為探討的核心。為了瞭解透明化在技術性貿易障礙協定的應用,本文首先釐清世界貿易組織架構下透明化理論和原則,接著從技術性貿易障礙協定的條文、委員會決議文件、秘書處出版品、以及爭端案件,藉由該脈絡,奠基對條文內涵的認知,再瞭解WTO會員履行透明化義務的情況,並探討這些透明化義務是否為有效的政策工具。
    本文發現,儘管技術性貿易障礙協定中的透明化條文繁多,但是條文中有不少未被明確規範的字詞和概念,因此實際操作上多仰賴技術性貿易障礙委員會決議文件的補充和闡釋。雖然有世界貿易組織會員於爭端案件中主張委員會的闡釋不具有約束性,但是爭端解決機構數次引用決議內容或維持小組原判決,皆間接肯認技術性貿易障礙委員會決議的價值與貢獻。再者,技術性貿易障礙委員會決議文件提供這些具體的指示,令會員於實務操作上有較明確的方向,從而提升履行透明化義務的情形。整體而言,技術性貿易障礙協定下的透明化架構是健全的。
    Many of the current concerns raised by the Trump Administration and are shared by other WTO members towards World Trade Organization’s reform. Admist, transparency reforms is one of the core issues. The concept of transparency is widely applied in many realms. Being the only global international trading organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations, transparency is a vital mechanism to reinforce the legitimacy and accountability of World Trade Organization. This study focuses on the transparency provisions under Agreement on Technical Barrier to Trade.
    In order to realize the application of transparency in Agreement on Technical Barrier to Trade, the study starts from clarifying the theories and principles of transparency under the framework of the World Trade Organization, and then compiling the provisions of Technical Barriers to Trade Agreements, Committee Documents, Secretariat publications, and dispute cases. In this context, we could firstly build a preliminary understanding of the provisions, understand how WTO members fulfill their obligations of transparency, and explore whether these transparency obligations are effective policy tools.
    The study indicates that there are many transparency provisions in the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, yet many words and concepts in the provisions are not clearly defined. Therefore, the practical operation depends on the supplement and interpretation of the documents of the Technical Barriers to Trade Committee. Although WTO member argues that the interpretation of the Committee is not binding nor mandatory, the dispute settlement body has repeatedly cited the content of the documents or maintained the primary decision of Panel, which indirectly affirms the contribution of the Technical Barrier to Trade Committee. Furthermore, the document of the Technical Barriers to Trade Committee elaborates on specific instructions, so that members have a clearer direction in practical operations, thereby somehow improving the condition of fulfilling the obligation of transparency. In general, the transparency mechanism under Agreement on Technical Barrier to Trade is well-developed.
    Reference: 英文部分
    官方資料(依照出版時間排序)
    Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1A, 1868 U.N.T.S. 120.

    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Updating the Decisions and Recommendations Taken by the Tokyo Round Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade Regarding Procedures for Notification and Information Exchange, WTO Doc. G/TBT/W/2/Rev.1 (June 21, 1995).

    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Minutes of the Meeting Held on 14 July 1995, WTO Doc. G/TBT/M/2 (Oct. 4, 1995).

    WTO, Report of the Working Group on Notification Obligations and Procedures, WTO Doc. G/L/112 (Oct. 7, 1996).

    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, First Triennial Review of the Operation and Implementation of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, WTO Doc. G/TBT/5 (Nov. 19, 1997).

    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Minutes of the Meeting Held on 31 March 1999, WTO Doc. G/TBT/M/15 (May 3, 1999).

    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Second Triennial Review of the Operation and Implementation of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, WTO Doc. G/TBT/9 (Nov. 13, 2000).

    WTO, Doha Ministerial Declaration of 20 November 2001, WTO Doc. WT/MIN(01)/DEC/1 (2001), http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/minist_e/min01_e/mindecl_e.htm (last visited July 27, 2020) .

    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Third Triennial Review of the Operation and Implementation of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, WTO Doc. G/TBT/13 (Nov. 11, 2003).

    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Fifth Triennial Review of the Operation and Implementation of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade under Article 15.4, WTO Doc. G/TBT/26 (Nov. 13, 2009).

    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Sixth Triennial Review of the Operation and Implementation of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade under Article 15.4, WTO Doc. G/TBT/32 (Nov. 29, 2012).

    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Coherent Use of Notification Formats—Recommendation—Adopted at the Meeting of 18-19 June 2014, WTO Doc. G/TBT/35 (June 24, 2014).

    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Seventh Triennial Review of the Operation and Implementation of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade under Article 15.4, WTO Doc. G/TBT/37 (Dec. 3, 2015).

    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Eighth Triennial Review of the Operation and Implementation of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade under Article 15.4, WTO Doc. G/TBT/41 (Nov. 19, 2018).

    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Decisions and Recommendations Adopted by the WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade Since 1 January 1995, WTO Doc. G/TBT/1/Rev.14 (Sept. 24, 2019).

    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Coherent Use of Notification Formats—Recommendation—Adopted at the Meeting of 13-15 November 2019—Revision, WTO Doc. G/TBT/35/Rev.1 (Nov. 21, 2019).

    WTO, WTO TBT Enquiry Point Guide — Making Transparency Work.

    Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Twenty-Fifth Annual Review of the Implementation and Operation of the TBT Agreement, WTO Doc. G/TBT/44 (Feb. 19, 2020).

    Panel Report, US—Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes, WTO Doc. WT/DS406/R (Apr. 24, 2012).

    Appellate Body Report, United States—Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes, WTO Doc. WT/DS406/AB/R (Apr. 24, 2012).

    其他參考資料(依照作者姓氏排序)
    Aaronson, S. A. & Abouharb, M. R., Does the WTO Help Member States Clean Up?, INSTITUTE FOR INT’L ECONOMIC POL’Y 1 (2014).

    Ala’i, P., From the Periphery to the Center? The Evolving WTO Jurisprudence on Transparency and Good Governance, 11(4) J. OF INT’L ECON. L. 779 (2008).

    Cho, Sungjoon, A Quest for WTO’s Legitimacy, 4 WORLD TRADE REV. 391 (2005).

    Curtin D. & Meijer, A., Does Transparency Strengthen Legitimacy?——A Critical Analysis of European Union Policy Documents, INFO. POLITY 11 (2006), https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9612/d45b87c77258e52747e5ea6b3566aec66786.pdf.

    Halle, M. & Wolfe,R., A New Approach to Transparency and Accountability in the WTO, ISSUE BRIEF 1 (2010).

    Marceau, G. & Hurley, M., Transparency and Public Participation in the WTO: A Report Card on WTO Transparency Mechanisms, 4 TRADE L. & DEV. 19 (2012).

    Mavroidis, P. C. & Wolfe, R., From Sunshine to a Common Agent. The Evolving Understanding of Transparency in the WTO, ROBERT SHUMAN CENTRE FOR ADVANCED STUDIES GLOBAL GOVERNANCE PROGRAMME (2015).

    Panezi, M., Through the Looking Glass: Transparency in the WTO, OSGOODE DIGITAL COMMONS 124.

    PRÉVOST, D. (TRACEY EPPS & MICHAEL J. TREBILCOCK EDS.) , RESEARCH HANDBOOK ON THE WTO AND TECHNICAL BARRIERS TO TRADE (2014).

    Smythe, E. & Smith, P. J., Legitimacy, Transparency, and Information Technology: The World Trade Organizaion in Era of Contentious Trade Politics, 12 GLOBAL GOVERNANCE 31 (2006).

    Waincymer, J., Transparency of Dispute Settlement within the World Trade Organization, 24 MELB. U. L. REV. 797 (2000).

    Wolfe, R., Regulatory Transparency, Developing Countries and the WTO, 2 WORLD TRADE REV. 157 (2003).

    WOLFRUM, R. ET AL., WTO-TECHNICAL BARRIERS AND SPS MEASURES (SEIBERT-FOHR EDS.) (2007).

    網際網路
    Ambassador Dennis C. Shea, Statement: Procedures to Enhance Transparency and Strengthen Notification Requirements Under WTO Agreements, U.S. MISSION TO INT’L ORGANIZATIONS IN GENEVA, https://geneva.usmission.gov/2019/04/12/procedures-to-enhance-transparency-and-strengthen-notification-requirements-under-wto-agreements/ (last visited July 27, 2020).
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    國際經營與貿易學系
    107351040
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0107351040
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202001345
    Appears in Collections:[國際經營與貿易學系 ] 學位論文

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