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    Title: 金融科技發展與創新之監理問題與挑戰 —以我國監理沙盒制度為中心
    Problems and Challenges of Development and Innovation in Regulating FinTech: Focusing on Regulatory Sandbox in Taiwan
    Authors: 黃劭敏
    Huang, Shao-Min
    Contributors: 方嘉麟
    臧正運

    Faung, Kai-Lin
    Tsang, Cheng-Yun

    黃劭敏
    Huang, Shao-Min
    Keywords: 金融科技
    金融科技監理
    監理沙盒
    金融科技創新實驗
    金融科技發展與創新實驗條例
    FinTech
    Regulating FinTech
    Regulatory Sandbox
    FinTech innovative experimentation
    Financial Technology Development and Innovative Experimentation Act
    Date: 2020
    Issue Date: 2020-09-02 12:23:40 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 當代「金融科技(FinTech)」所帶來的法規與監理難題,除了傳統法規中即存在之市場公平與效率的價值取捨,還加上「市場變動速度」與「新進市場參與者」的新挑戰。首先,受到過去半導體界「摩爾定律(Moore's law)」的影響,金融市場也正隨著科技發展邁向倍速變動的新紀元。此外,網際網路與資訊科技的普及,也使非金融業者得以利用科技發展所佈建的基礎設施,以低廉的成本提供金融服務給更廣大的消費者。
    2015年11月,英國金融主管機關金融行為監理局(Financial Conduct Authority, FCA)首先提出「監理沙盒(Regulatory Sandbox)」制度概念,率先以「服務提供者」的角色接觸新興市場,扭轉過去政府與業者之間的垂直互動關係,藉此制度搭建一個更貼近市場的水平溝通管道。2018年1月31日,我國也經總統公布《金融科技發展與創新實驗條例》,使台灣正式成為採用監理沙盒制度的國家之一,同時也是第一個將監理沙盒機制訂入專法的大陸法系國家。
    然而,本文以為,儘管是相同的法規概念,仍會因各國政治、社會、文化與經濟環境等差異,運作出不同的在地用途與發展,故在推動新進法規時,仍需不斷檢視我國既有環境脈絡(context)的獨特性,方能破除盲從或全盤移植的窠臼,建立自己的發展路徑與利基。
    故此,本文旨在以台灣「金融科技監理沙盒」作為案例,參考研究創新之國內管理學者所提出的脈絡學方法,從歷史與環境脈絡中,分析出監理沙盒制度的兩大特徵,即:「平台模式」之治理架構,及「疊代式」的政策訂定過程。接著,再依前述歸納之特徵,以個案研究的角度觀察英國、新加坡、日本之相關規範政策、比較分析各國制度發展脈絡與實際運作之差異,藉此演繹出監理者「運用平台模式促進疊代式政策訂定」的可能框架,進而從市場、政策、行政、法制與制度運作等五大面向進行檢討,從中探討並具體化我國金融科技發展與創新的監理挑戰,最後針對我國相關政策之形成過程提出原則性的建議。
    Nowadays the financial industry is facing a fundamental shock to its structure with new technology stepping in. The main current legal and supervision challenges brought by the rise of financial technology (or "FinTech"), is not merely the existing issue of balancing economic efficiency and fairness, but also the speed of this market’s development and the entry of new participants. First of all, influenced by "Moore's law" in the semiconductor industry, the financial market is ushered towards an era of rapid changes. In addition, the popularization of the Internet and information technology has also enabled non-financial companies to use the infrastructure built by technological development to provide financial services to a wider range of consumers at a low cost.
    In November 2015, the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), the British financial authority, first proposed the concept of "regulatory sandbox," taking the lead in reaching out to the emerging market as a "service provider." This revolutionized the traditionally vertical hierarchy between government and market, creating a more communicative horizontal relationship instead. On January 31, 2018, Taiwan’s president also announced effective the “Financial Technology Development and Innovative Experimentation Act,” making Taiwan one of the countries to implement regulatory sandbox, and also the first country to incorporate such a mechanism into its law.
    Nevertheless, this article argues that even while regulatory concepts may be similar, other factors such as political, social, cultural, or economical differences may cause the mechanism to evolve in unique ways. Due to this reason, a constant observation on environmental contexts is required to eliminate chances of incompatible implementations, and aid in paving a more fitting developmental path and niche.
    The aim of this article is to analyze the characteristics of the regulatory sandbox using Taiwan's FinTech regulatory sandbox as a case study, referencing research methodology proposed by domestic management scholars. This article will then propose two characteristics – the “platform model” of governance, and “iterative” policy formation process – by observing relevant regulations and policies of the United Kingdom, Singapore, and Japan, and comparing the disparity between policy development and actual operation in these countries. This will be used as a basis to form a potential framework for using the “platform model” to facilitate “iterative” policy formations. Five main aspects including market, policy, administration, legislation and operation will be covered in exploring and specifying the supervisory challenges focused by Taiwan’s FinTech development and innovation. Finally, recommendations for Taiwan’s relevant policy formation process will be discussed.
    Reference: 中文資料(按筆劃排序)

    一、書籍
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    二、專書論文
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    三、期刊論文
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    四、研究計畫與研討報告
    1. 台灣金融服務業聯合總會委託辦理金融科技創新創業及人才培育計畫(2018),「從國際觀點分析金融監理沙盒法制之現狀與前瞻」研究報告。
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    5. 金融監督管理委員會(2018),107年度金管會推動金融科技發展暨法規調適書面報告。
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    7. 陳小紅、劉德勳、方萬富(2018),107財調0038,監察院調查報告。

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    三、官方文件

    國際組織
    1. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (2019), The market risk framework in brief (January). [available at https://www.bis.org/bcbs/publ/d457_inbrief.pdf ]
    2. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (2018), Sound Practices: Implications of Fintech Developments for Banks and Bank Supervisors (February 19), [available at https://www.bis.org/bcbs/publ/d431.htm]
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    4. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (2000). Electronic Banking Group Initiatives and white paper. [available at https://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs76.pdf ]
    5. Financial Stability Board (FSB) (2017), Financial Stability Implications from FinTech: Supervisory and Regulatory Issues that Merit Authorities’ Attention (June 27), [available at https://www.fsb.org/2017/06/financial-stability-implications-from-fintech/ ]
    6. Financial Stability Board (FSB) (2014), Key attributes of effective resolution regimes for financial institutions.
    7. International Organization of Securities Commission (IOSCO) (2017), IOSCO Research Report on Financial Technologies (FinTech).

    英國監理沙盒
    1. FCA (2019), The Impact and Effectiveness of Innovate.
    2. FCA (2017), Regulatory Sandbox Lessons Learned Report.
    3. FCA (2015), Regulatory Sandbox.
    4. FCA (2014), Project Innovate: Feedback from Roundtables.
    5. FCA (2014), Project Innovate: Call for input-Feedback Statement.
    6. FCA (2014), Project Innovate: Call for input.

    新加坡監理沙盒
    1. MAS (2019), Sandbox Express.
    2. MAS (2019), Response to feedback received –Sandbox Express.
    3. MAS (2018), Consultation Paper on Sandbox Express.
    4. MAS (2016), Response to feedback received – FinTech Regulatory Sandbox Guidelines.
    5. MAS (2016), Fintech Regulatory Sandbox Guidelines.
    6. MAS (2016), Consultation Paper on FinTech Regulatory Sandbox Guidelines

    日本監理沙盒
    1. 內閣官房 日本經濟再生綜合事務局(2019),規制のサンドボックス制度について(關於沙盒系統)政策簡報。
    2. 日本內閣府(2018),規制のサンドボックス制度の基本方針。
    3. 柿沼重志、中西信介(2014),産業競争力強化法の概要と国会論議の整理~期待される産業競争力強化法の効果的な運用~,日本経済産業委員会調査室,経済のプリズムNo126。
    4. 革新的事業活動評価委員会(2018),革新的事業活動評価委員会運営規則。
    5. 革新的事業活動評価委員会(2018),新技術等実証計画の認定に関する調査審議の視点。

    四、網路資源
    1. IBM Knoledge Center,https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/。
    2. 公司法全盤修正修法委員會修法建議,http://www.scocar.org.tw/。
    3. 日本「新日本法規WEBサイト」網站,https://www.sn-hoki.co.jp/。
    4. 日本內閣府網站,https://www.cao.go.jp/index.html。
    5. 日本法務省法規翻譯網站,http://www.japaneselawtranslation.go.jp/?re=2。
    6. 日本金融科技高峰會(FIN/SUM)網站,https://finsum.jp/。
    7. 日本首相官邸網站,https://www.kantei.go.jp/。
    8. 日本眾議院網站,http://www.shugiin.go.jp/internet/index.nsf/html/index.htm。
    9. 日本經濟產業省網站,https://www.meti.go.jp/。
    10. 日本監理沙盒統一聯繫窗口,https://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/keizaisaisei/regulatorysandbox.html。
    11. 日本數位媒體Love Tech Media網站,https://lovetech-media.com/。
    12. 世界銀行(World Bank Group)網站,https://www.worldbank.org/。
    13. 台北市政府觀光傳播局網站,https://www.tpedoit.gov.taipei/。
    14. 行政院網站,https://www.ey.gov.tw/Index。
    15. 金融科技產業研究MEDICI Global網站,https://gomedici.com/。
    16. 金融科技創新園區FintechSpace,https://www.fintechspace.com.tw/zh-hant/。
    17. 金融監督管理委員會網站,https://www.fsc.gov.tw。
    18. 科技媒體平台Computerworld網站,https://www.computerworld.com/。
    19. 科技媒體平台Finextra Research網站,https://www.finextra.com。
    20. 科技媒體平台Tech Wire Asia網站,https://techwireasia.com/。
    21. 科技媒體平台TechCrunch網站,https://techcrunch.com/。
    22. 科學月刊部落格,http://scimonth.blogspot.com/。
    23. 美國史丹佛大學新創資訊平台eCorner網站,https://ecorner.stanford.edu/。
    24. 美國全國公共廣播電台(NPR)網站,https://www.npr.org/。
    25. 美國消費者金融保護局(CFPB)網站,https://www.consumerfinance.gov/。
    26. 美國消費者新聞與商業頻道(CNBC)網站,https://www.cnbc.com/world/。
    27. 美國財政部網站,https://home.treasury.gov/。
    28. 美國富國銀行(Wells Fargo)網站,https://www.wellsfargo.com/。
    29. 美國聯邦準備理事會網站,https://www.federalreserve.gov/。
    30. 英國巴克萊銀行(Barclays)網站,https://home.barclays/。
    31. 英國央行(Bank of England)網站,https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/。
    32. 英國金融行為監理局(FCA)網站,https://www.fca.org.uk/。
    33. 英國銀行自動清算業務(BACS)網站資料庫,https://www.bacs.co.uk/resources/pages/documentlibrary.aspx。
    34. 桑幣筆記Zombit資訊網站,https://zombit.info/。
    35. 紐約時報The New York Times網站,https://www.nytimes.com/。
    36. 紐約郵報New York Post網站,https://nypost.com/。
    37. 紐約聯邦儲備銀行網站,https://www.newyorkfed.org/。
    38. 財團法人國家政策研究基金會網站,https://www.npf.org.tw/。
    39. 國家發展委員會,https://www.ndc.gov.tw/。
    40. 國家發展委員會法規鬆綁建言暨新創法規調適平台https://law.ndc.gov.tw/。
    41. 國際非營利組織扶貧協商小組(CGAP)部落格,https://www.cgap.org/blog。
    42. 國際結算銀行(Bank for International Settlements)網站,https://www.bis.org/。
    43. 產學合作監理沙盒模擬器網站,http://www.ftrc.nccu.edu.tw/wordpresseng/?page_id=5700。
    44. 新加坡金融管理局(MAS)網站,https://www.mas.gov.sg/。
    45. 新加坡政府開放資料平台,https://data.gov.sg/。
    46. 新加坡統計局網站,https://www.singstat.gov.sg/。
    47. 新加坡總理辦公室網站,www.pmo.gov.sg/。
    48. 經濟部商工登記公示資料查詢服務網站,https://findbiz.nat.gov.tw/fts/query/QueryBar/queryInit.do。
    49. 經濟部創新法規沙盒案件申請平台,https://www.sandbox.org.tw/。
    50. 數位時代新聞網站,https://www.bnext.com.tw/。
    51. 歐洲核子研究組織(CERN)網站,https://home.cern/。
    52. 環球銀行金融電信協會SWIFT網站,https://www.swift.com/。
    53. 聯合新聞網,https://udn.com/news/index。
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    法律科際整合研究所
    104652013
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0104652013
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202001390
    Appears in Collections:[法律科際整合研究所] 學位論文

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