English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Post-Print筆數 : 27 |  Items with full text/Total items : 95940/126530 (76%)
Visitors : 31804290      Online Users : 348
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/131924

    Title: 非政府組織作為美國國家安全戰略的機制:非政府組織參與尼加拉瓜的未遂政權變革
    Non-Governmental Organizations As Mechanisms for the National Security Strategy of the United States: Participation of NGOs in the Attempted Regime Change in Nicaragua
    Authors: 雷南
    Serrano, Renan Guevara
    Contributors: 吳考甯
    Courtney Work
    Renan Guevara Serrano
    Keywords: 非政府組織
    international aid
    United States
    Latin America
    Date: 2020
    Issue Date: 2020-09-02 13:12:47 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在國際合作領域,隨著時間的推移,非政府組織的作用日益重要。就美國而言,非政府組織是確保國家安全的工具。為了試圖在2018年改變尼加拉瓜的政權,由美國資助的非政府組織開展的活動有助於建立一個框架,通過該框架,美國有理由參與衝突。這項研究分析了國際援助方法的演變以及美國確保其在拉丁美洲的國家安全計劃的策略。結果表明,國際援助是旨在維持既定現狀的一系列政治指導方針。在本文分析的具體案例中,美國向符合美國目標的團體提供了援助,同時合法化了使用暴力和強制性經濟措施的使用,並授權了為實現懷特設定的目標而必要的危害人類罪屋。通過根據當代事件分析歷史數據,本白皮書將顯示國際社會認為通過其機制和框架可以將尼加拉瓜2018年抗議活動的破壞和暴力視為必要和有益的。
    In the sphere of international cooperation, non-governmental organizations have, over time, taken an increasingly important role. In the case of the United States, non-governmental organizations are tools to ensure national security. In the attempt to change the regime in Nicaragua in 2018, the activities carried out by the NGOs funded by the United States contributed towards the creation of a framework through which the involvement of the United States in the conflict would be justified. This study analyzes the evolution of International Aid approaches and the United States’ strategies to ensure its national security plan in Latin America. The results show that international aid is a set of political guidelines aimed at maintaining a given status quo. In the specific case analyzed in the paper, the United States provided aid to groups aligning with American goals, while legitimizing the use of violence and coercive economic measures and authorizing to commit crimes against humanity when these were necessary to meet the goals set by the White House. By analyzing historical data in light of contemporary events, this paper will show the mechanisms and frameworks through which the destruction and violence of the 2018 protests in Nicaragua could be perceived as necessary and beneficial by the international community.
    Reference: Abellán, V. (1997) "La acción de las Naciones Unidas a favor del desarrollo", en Mario Menéndez, F. M. y Fernández Liesa, C., El desarrollo y la cooperación internacional, Universidad Carlos III, Boletín Oficial del Estado, Madrid, 1997, Pág. 75-92.
    Abiew, F. (2012) Humanitarian Action under Fire: Reflections on the Role of NGOs in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations, International Peacekeeping, 19:2, 203-216, DOI: 10.1080/13533312.2012.665698
    Agren, D. (2018, July 11). Cardinal, nuncio and bishop attacked by mob in Nicaragua. Catholic Herald. Retrieved from https://catholicherald.co.uk/news/2018/07/11/cardinal-nuncio-and-bishop-attacked-by-mob-in-nicaragua/.
    ALBA. (2012, junio 22). Resolución de ALBA para inmediato retiro de USAID de los países miembros. Recuperado de: http://www.contrainjerencia.com/?p=47357
    Aldashev, G. and Verdier, T. (2010). Goodwill bazaar: NGO competition and giving to development. Journal of Development Economics, 91(1), pp.48-63.
    Alvarez, C. (2018, August 12). Familiares de Lenin Mendiola exigen justicia por su asesinato a manos de terroristas. El 19 Digital. Retrieved from https://www.el19digital.com/articulos/ver/titulo:80203-familiares-de-lenin-mendiola-exigen-justicia-por-su-asesinato-a-manos-de-terroristas-
    Ana. (2018, July 3). Denuncian secuestro de 400 transportistas en tranque de Jinotepe. La Voz Del Sandinismo. Retrieved from https://www.lavozdelsandinismo.com/nicaragua/2018-07-03/denuncian-secuestro-de-400-transportistas-en-tranque-de-jinotepe/.
    Anderson, J. L. (2018, April 27). Nicaragua on the Brink, Once Again. The Yorker. Retrieved from https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/nicaragua-on-the-brink-once-again..
    An evaluation of and response to Amnesty International’s report of October 2018 (p. 9, Rep.). (2018). The Alliance for Global Justice.
    Anfruns , A. (2018, June 26). Nicaragua: del terrorismo considerado como el arte de manifestar. La Tercera Informacion. Retrieved from https://www.tercerainformacion.es/opinion/opinion/2018/06/26/nicaragua-del-terrorismo-considerado-como-el-arte-de-manifestar.
    Aravena, O. (2000). A Decade of Structural Adjustment in Nicaragua: An Assessment. International Journal of Political Economy, 30(1), 55-71. Retrieved August 9, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/40470766
    Araya, M. (2010). El alba de una revolución: la izquierda y el proceso de construcción estratégica de la «via chilena al socialismo» 1956-1970. Lom Ediciones.
    A Review of U.S. Policy Toward Venezuela November 2001 - April 2002 (Rep. No. 02-OIG-003). (2002). United States Department of State and the Broadcasting Board of Governors Office of Inspector General.
    Ashcroft, B. (1998). Modernity’s First Born: Linked Histories, 29:2, 189-208. doi:10.2307/j.ctv6gqskt.12
    Baez Silvio (2018/22/05) Tweet text [Concluye por hoy el Diálogo Nacional. Se respalda plenamente el informe y recomendaciones de la@CIDH. No hay consenso para retirar los tranques, como propuso el gobierno. No es un acto violento sino expresión de protesta pacífica y de protección.] Retrieved from: https://twitter.com/silviojbaez/status/998722539689070593
    Baltazar, T. (2007). The role of the United States Agency for International Development and aid to combat terrorism. United States Agency for International Development
    Barahona, A. (1989). Estudio sobre la Historia de Nicaragua. Del auge cafetalero al triunfo de la revolución. Managua, Nicaragua: INIES.
    Barahona, A. (2018, November 7). Nicaragua: El "golpe blando" aún no ha sido derrotado. LaHaine.org. Retrieved from https://www.lahaine.org/mundo.php/nicaragua-el-golpe-blando-aun.
    Bateson G. A (1955) Theory of play and fantasy; a report on theoretical aspects of the project of study of the role of the paradoxes of abstraction in communication. Psychiatr Res Rep Am Psychiatr Assoc. 1955;(2):39-51.
    Becker, S. (2014) Ex-CIA agent reveals how Venezuelan “students” get putschist training [Interview by S. Becker]. (2014, March 23). News of the Restless.
    Black, G. (1988). The good neighbor: How the United States wrote the history of Central America and the Caribbean. New York: Pantheon Books.
    Blum, William. (2004). Killing Hope: U.S. military and CIA interventions since World War II. Monroe: Common Courage Press,
    Blumenthal, M., & McCune, N. (2019). How Nicaragua defeated a right-wing US-backed coup: A report from Managua. In Live from Nicaragua: Uprising or Coup? The Alliance for Global Justice.
    Blumenthal , M. (2004, July 17). The Other Regime Change. Salon. Retrieved from https://www.salon.com/2004/07/17/haiti_coup/.
    Blumenthal, M. (2018, August 3). How Washington and Soft Power NGOs Manipulated Nicaragua's Death Toll to Drive Regime Change and Sanctions. Global Research. Retrieved from https://www.globalresearch.ca/how-washington-and-soft-power-ngos-manipulated-nicaraguas-death-toll-to-drive-regime-change-and-sanctions/5649500.
    Blumenthal, M. (2018, June 19). US govt meddling machine boasts of ‘laying the groundwork for insurrection’ in Nicaragua. The Gray Zone. https://thegrayzone.com/2018/06/19/ned-nicaragua-protests-us-government/
    Boyd, G. (1985, March). Reagan Terms Nicaraguan Rebels ‘Moral Equal of Founding Fathers'. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/1985/03/02/world/reagan-terms-nicaraguan-rebels-moral-equal-of-founding-fathers.html
    Bratich, J. Z. (2004). Trust No One (On the Internet). Television & New Media, 5(2), 109–139. doi: 10.1177/1527476403255810.
    Cáceres, Eduardo. (2014, octubre). El Rol de las ONG en América Latina: Los Desafíos de un presente cambiante. Asociación Chilena de Organismos No Gubernamentales.
    Campbell-Jeffrey, N., & Sjoberg, G. (2005). Social movement theory and the reconstruction of the past: A case study of Augusto César Sandino and the Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (Doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, 2005). Austin, Texas.
    Carrión, G. (2020). The Political Economy of Domestic Resource Mobilization in Nicaragua: Changing State-Citizen Relations and Social Development. Social Policy in a Development Context the Politics of Domestic Resource Mobilization for Social Development, 305-338. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-37595-9_10
    Carter, Jimmy. (2004, agosto 19). President Jimmy Carter: Venezuela Election Trip Report, Aug 13-18, 2004. Recuperado el 22 de noviembre de 2014 de: http://www.cartercenter.org/news/documents/doc1801.html
    Carter Must End Aid To Somoza. (1978, September 19). The Harvard Crimson.
    Carrion, G. (2020). The Backgroung: DRM and Social Spending in Nicaragua from Historical Perspective. In Politics of domestic resource mobilization for social development (p. 319). Place of publication not identified: Springer Nature.
    Castro, E. (2004). El Vocabulario de Michael Foucault: Un Recorrido Alfabetico Por sus Temas, Conceptos y Autores. Universidad Nacional de Quilmes.
    Cerda, A. (2018, April 22). Los muertos de la represión que Daniel Ortega oculta. Confidencial.
    Chandler, D. (2001). The Road to Military Humanitarianism: How the Human Rights NGOs Shaped a New Humanitarian Agenda. Human Rights Quarterly, 23(3), p.700
    Chávez, K. (2018, June 22). Gobierno de Nicaragua rechaza informe de la CIDH ante el Consejo Permanente de la OEA. 19 Digital.
    Chomsky, N. (1992). What Uncle Sam Really Wants. Odonian.
    CIA, Central Intelligence Agency, (2000) CIA Activities in Chile (Rep.).
    Civic Alliance and Government to Reconcile List of Political Prisoners. (2019, March 24). Confidencial.
    Coma, Manuel. (2002, septiembre 11). La Estrategia Nacional de Seguridad de Bush: Misión liberal, antiterrorismo y defensa preventiva -Elcano. Real Instituto Elcano.
    Comisión de la Verdad, Justicia y Paz. (2019). Iii Informe de la Comisión de la Verdad, Justicia y Paz República de Nicaragua. III Informe de la Comisión de la Verdad, Justicia y Paz República de Nicaragua (pp. 1–73). Managua. Retrieved from https://www.cvjp.org.ni/uploads/documentos/20190205111744901.pdf?fbclid=IwAR1CljU2JkqHm9KSIo8CSl0GhLY3Imf5K5Z1DJcZLykcmC_8PBgS466_JT87GH23PJueGhn.
    Comunicado Conjunto sobre el reinicio del trabajo de la Mesa de Negociación. (2019, March 13). 19 Digital.
    Corrales, G., & Dávila, J. (2014). Analisis de la Condicionalidad de la Cooperación Internacional: Ámbito Regional (Master's thesis, Universidad Nacional Autónoma De Nicaragua, 2014). Leon: Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales.
    Country Watch. (2016). Nicaragua Country Review. Available at: http://www.countrywatch.com/Content/pdfs/reviews/B3Z8QZ3Z.01c.pdf
    Crane, K., Oliker, O., Bensahel, N., Eaton, D., Gayton, S., Lawson, B., Martini, J., Nasier, J., Reyna, S., Parker, M., Sollinger, J. and Williams, K. (2009). Guidebook for Supporting Economic Development in Stability Operations. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation.
    Creffield, J. (2019). The Carter Administration and Human Rights in Chile, 1977-81. E-International Relations.
    Crisis en Nicaragua: Más de 100 detenidos y duras críticas a la "violencia y represión" de la policía en protesta contra el gobierno. (2019, March 17). BBC News.
    Curtis, D. (2001). Politics and Humanitarian Aid: Debates, Dilemmas and Dissension. HPG Report of a conference organised by ODI, POLIS at the University of Leeds and CAFOD. London: Overseas Development Institute, p.4.
    Dada, C. (2018, June 10). “La prioridad ahorita es que no nos maten; luego, la justicia y la democracia.” El Faro. Retrieved from https://elfaro.net/es/201806/centroamerica/22015/
    Delcid, M. (2018, June 8). Obispos entregan una carta de propuestas a Daniel Ortega. CNN . Retrieved from https://cnnespanol.cnn.com/video/reunion-de-obispos-en-nicaragua-pkg-merlin-delcid/.
    ¿De qué trata la reforma al Seguro Social en Nicaragua? (2018, April 20). TeleSur.
    De Volo, L. (2004). Mobilizing Mothers for War: Cross-National Framing Strategies in Nicaragua's Contra War. Gender and Society, 18(6), 715-734. Retrieved from www.jstor.org/stable/4149391
    DeYoung, K. (1979, June 21). Somoza Guard Kills American. The Washington Post.
    Dialogue in Nicaragua an Inauspicious Start. (2018, May 12). TeleSur.
    Dick, and Emanuelsson, M. (2019, June 1). Así quisieron asesinar al presidente de la UNEN Upoli. La Gente. Retrieved from http://www.radiolaprimerisima.com/noticias/general/263872/asi-quisieron-asesinar-al-presidente-de-la-unen--upoli/
    Dick, S. (1975). Trade and Hemisphere: The Good Neighbor Policy and Reciprocal Trade. University of Missouri Press.
    Dieterich, Heinz. (2003). El socialismo del siglo XXI. Fica (Fundacion para la Investigacion y la Cultura). Recuperado de: https://www.rebelion.org/docs/121968.pdf
    Dijkstra, A. G. (2002), The Effectiveness of Policy Conditionality: Eight Country Experiences. Development and Change, 33: 307-334. doi:10.1111/1467-7660.00256.
    Doroodian, K (1993), Macroeconomic Performance and Adjustment under Policies Commonly Supported by the International Monetary Fund, Economic Development and Cultural Change, 41, (4), 849-64.
    Dullen, A., Dwight, E., Phillip, J., Walter, S., & Harry, T. (2007). Focus of Research and Principles of Selection for Foreign Relations, 1950–1955, Development of the Intelligence Community (United States, National Security Council, Intelligence Directives). Bureau of Public Affairs.
    Escobar, A. (1999). The Invention of Development. Current History, 98:631:382-386.
    Esgueva. A (2005) Contexto histórico de las constituciones y sus reformas en Nicaragua. Institute of History of Nicaragua and Central America, Universidad Centroamericana (Journal of Law, No. 10. Universidad Centroamericana, (UCA), Faculty of Legal Sciences, 2005), 8-9.
    Espallargas, A. (2019, March 6). El sandinismo ningunea a la Iglesia en la nueva ronda de diálogo con la oposición. ABC Internacional. Retrieved from https://www.abc.es/internacional/abci-sandinismo-ningunea-iglesia-nueva-ronda-dialogo-oposicion-201903060149_noticia.html
    Estado de Nicaragua, (2018). Informe del Estado de Nicaragua Respecto a la Comunicacion Conjunta de los Procedimientos Especiales de la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de los Derechos Humano de las Naciones Unidas (Rep.). Retrieved from https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadFile?gId=34426
    Esty, Frasier,(2013) "An Analysis Of U.S.- Economic Policy Toward Chile During The Cold War" Honors Theses, Bachelor of Arts. Bucknell University 153.https://digitalcommons.bucknell.edu/honors_theses/153
    Falca, Marcelo. (2014, enero 1). Ecuador propone reforma de la CIDH y crítica «diseño anárquico». Diario La República. Recuperado de: http://www.republica.com.uy/ecuador-propone-reforma-de-la-cidh-y-critica-diseno-anarquico
    Foreign Assistance. (2015). Asistencia Internacional Gobierno de los Estados Unidos de América. Official. Retrieved from http://beta.foreignassistance.gov/learn/faqs
    Fragoso, H. C., & Artucio, A. (1980). Human Rights in Nicaragua Yesterday and Today (p. 24, Rep.). Geneva, Switzerland: The International Commission of Jurists.
    Foucault, M., Defert, D., Ewald, F., & Lagrange, J. (1994). Dits et écrits: 1954-1988. Paris: Gallimard.
    Fukuyama, F. (1992). The end of history and the last man. New York: Free Press.
    Gaist, P. (2010). Igniting the Power of Community: The Role of CBOs and NGOs in Global Public Health. 1st ed. New York: Springer.
    Gibbs, E. A. (1995). Agency Without an Adversary the CIA and Covert Actions in the Nineteen-Eighties and Beyond (Master's thesis, Political Science, University of Nevada, 1995).
    Gobierno inicia diálogo con empresarios representativos. (2019, February 16). LaGente.
    Goette-Luciak, C. D. (2018, October 16). Las víctimas del golpista movimiento 19 de abril. Nica Leaks. Retrieved from http://nicaleaks.com/2018/10/16/las-victimas-del-golpista-movimiento-19-de-abril/.
    Goffman, E. (1975). Frame analysis: an essay on the organisation of experience. Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press.
    Gomez, H. (2018, October 15). Fiscalía culmina evacuación de pruebas en caso “Viper”. TN8. Retrieved from https://www.tn8.tv/sucesos/459646-fiscalia-culmina-evacuacion-pruebas-caso-viper/.
    Gonzales, A. (2018, May 6). Infierno en Leon: Ataque a Radio Dario. La Prensa.
    Goshko, J. (1979, February 9). U.S. Retaliates Against Somoza, Cuts Back AidU.S. Cuts Back Aid to Nicaragua. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1979/02/09/us-retaliates-against-somoza-cuts-back-aidus-cuts-back-aid-to-nicaragua/0dedf7f9-6dbc-401c-9101-e5c4479d19e1/
    Gould, J. (1996). Gender, Politics, and The Triumph of Mestizaje in Early 20th Century Nicaragua. Journal of Latin American Anthropology, 2(1), 4–33. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1525/jlca.1996.2.1.4
    Granados, C. (1985). “Hacia una definición de Centroamérica: El peso de los factores geopolíticos”. Anuario De Estudios Centroamericanos, 11(1): 59-78.
    Guillory, S. (2017, March). How Washington Hacked Mongolia’s Democracy. Jacobin. Retrieved from https://www.jacobinmag.com/2017/11/mongolia-elections-mccain-international-republican-institute.
    Haddad, M. K. (2017). United States foreign aid to developing countries: The Point Four Program in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (Master's thesis, Towson University. Social Sciences Program, 2017). Towson University.
    Harrigan, J., Mosley, P., J., U., & Toye, J. (1995). Aid and Power: The World Bank and Policy-Based Lending. Routledge.
    Haslam, J. (2005). The Nixon administration and the death of Allende's Chile: A case of assisted suicide. London: Verso.
    Hayter, Teresa. (1971). Aid as Imperialism. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd.
    Hendrix, E. (2018, July 8). Monopolizing death: Or how to frame a government by inflating a list of the dead. Tortilla con Sal. Retrieved November 20, 2019, from http://www.tortillaconsal.com/tortilla/node/3546.
    Howe, F. C. (1916). Dollar Diplomacy and Financial Imperialism Under the Wilson Administration. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. vol 68, nov, 312-320
    IMF, International Monetary Fund. (2010). Nicaragua: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (Rep. No. 10/108). IMF Staff Country Reports.
    IMF, International Monetary Fund. (2011). Nicaragua: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper— Progress Report on National Human Development Plan as of 2010. Washington, D.C.
    Inouye, D. K., & Hamilton, L. H. (1987). Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair with Supplemental, Minority, and Additional Views (Rep. No. 100-216). Washington: Whole House on the State of the Union.
    Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, (2018) Gross Human Rights Violations in the Context of Social Protests in Nicaragua (p. 17, Rep. No. 86).
    International Commission of Jurists (ICJ), (1999). Crimes Against Humanity Pinochet Faces Justice (Rep.). https://www.icj.org/crimes-against-humanity-pinochet-faces-justice/
    Jarquin, C. (2018, April 26). Estudiantes de la Upoli denuncian manipulación política. Canal 2. Retrieved from http://canal2tv.com/estudiantes-la-upoli-denuncian-manipulacion-politica/
    Kaufman, C. (2019, July 24). NicaNotes: "Live from Nicaragua : Uprising or Coup?". Alliance for Global Justice. Retrieved from https://afgj.org/nicanotes-live-from-nicaragua-uprising-or-coup.
    Kennedy, L., & Lucas, S. (2005). Enduring Freedom: Public Diplomacy and U.S. Foreign Policy. American Quarterly, 57(2), 309-333. Retrieved August 5, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/40068267
    Kerevel, Y. (2006). Re-examining the politics of U.S. intervention in early 20th century Nicaragua: José Madriz and the conservative restoration. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico, Latin American Institute.
    Kinzer, Stephen (1991) Blood of Brothers: Life and War in Nicaragua. David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, Harvard University.
    Kornbluh, P. (1987). Reagan Versus the Sandinistas; Nicaragua: The Price of Intervention. Foreign Affairs.
    Kornbluh, P. (2004). The Pinochet file: A declassified dossier on atrocity and accountability. London: New Press.
    Kozak Michael (2018/7/6) Tweet text [Inspired by #HumanRights & #democracy advocates who came to the US for #OASassembly & @IACHumanRights meetings. We strongly support all human rights defenders in #Nicaragua, including Felix @maradiaga & @RadioDarioNi’s Aníbal Toruño, & urge the Ortega gov’t to ensure their safety] Retrieved from: https://twitter.com/whaasstsecty/status/1004717583935967233
    Kruijt, D. (2011). Revolución y contrarrevolución: el gobierno sandinista y la guerra de la Contra en Nicaragua, 1980-1990. Desafíos 23-II, pp. 53-81.
    Kruijt, D. (2013). Guerrillas: War and Peace in Central America. London: Zed Books.
    Langley, L., & Schoonover, T. (1995). The Banana Men: American Mercenaries and Entrepreneurs in Central America, 1880-1930. University Press of Kentucky.
    La Prensa. (2018, April 21). Así te contamos el tercer día de protestas contra las reformas del INNS. La Prenda.
    Lárcom, B. (2019). Mito y realidad: ¿qué pasó en Nicaragua en 2018? Nicaragua Levantamiento Popular o Golpe De Estado, 45–77. Retrieved from http://www.tortillaconsal.com/nicaragua_2018_levantamiento_popular_o_golpe_de_estado.pdf.
    Lawrence, P. and Nezhad, S. (2009). Accountability, transparency, and government cooption: A case study of four NGOs. International NGO Journal, 4(1)
    Líder evangélico critica a obispos y defiende que Ortega siga hasta 2021. (2018, June 8). ElPais.cr.
    Lieber, K. A., & Lieber, R. J. (2002). The Bush National Security Strategy. Commentary, 7.
    Livingstone, G. (2018). Britain and the Dictatorship of Argentina and Chile, 1973-82: Foreign policy, corporations and social movements. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.
    López, Gerson. (2010). Chávez vs. Medios. ¿Una batalla simbólica?. Chasqui: Revista Latinoamericana de Comunicación, No. 112. p. 50-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.16921/chasqui.v0i112.305
    Lorio, A. (2018, May 3). Movimiento Campesino se Sumara a la Marcha que Demandara Democracia. La Prensa.
    Losaiga, L., & Bejarano, M. (2018, April 20). COSEP Convoca a Marcha Nacional por Reformas al INSS. El Nuevo Diario.
    Losaiga, L. (2019, February 17). Gobierno acepta negociar y empresarios celebran que se abran las puertas. El Nuevo Diario.
    Loveman, B. (1979). Chile: The legacy of Hispanic capitalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Lugo, S. (2016, November 15). ¿Cuánta abstención hubo en las elecciones de Nicaragua? No hay respuesta clara. CNN Espanol. Retrieved from https://cnnespanol.cnn.com/2016/11/14/cuanta-abstencion-hubo-en-las-elecciones-de-nicaragua-no-hay-respuesta-clara/
    Luna, Y., & Olivares, I. (2018, June 9). Más de cien tranques en toda Nicaragua. Confidencial.
    Luna, Y. (2018, July 7). Acusación de Fiscalía omite señalamientos contra Félix Maradiaga. Confidencial . Retrieved from https://confidencial.com.ni/acusacion-de-fiscalia-omite-senalamientos-contra-felix-maradiaga/
    Luna, Y. (2018, May 25). “Las calles nos quedan como forma de lucha.” Confidencial. Retrieved from https://confidencial.com.ni/las-calles-nos-quedan-como-forma-de-lucha/
    Luna, Y. (2019, October 2). The Other Nicaragua, Empire and Resistance. Council of Hemisphere Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.coha.org/the-other-nicaragua-empire-and-resistance/.
    Macaulay, N. (1998). The Sandino affair. Micanopy, FL: Wacahoota Press.
    MacMichael, D. (1990). The US-Contra Flow. New Statesman-Society. London 18-19.
    Markovits, D., Strange, A., & Tingley, D. (2019). Foreign Aid and the Status Quo: Evidence from Pre-Marshall Plan Aid. The Chinese Journal of International Politics, 12(4), 585-613. doi:10.1093/cjip/poz015
    Marshall, J., Scott, P. D., and Hunter, J. (1987). The Iran-Contra Connection: Secret Teams and Covert Operations in the Reagan Era. Foreign Affairs, 66(2), 438. doi:10.2307/20043413
    Massing, M. (1987). The Rise and Fall of ‘Ollie’s Liberals’'. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/opinions/1987/06/28/the-rise-and-fall-of-ollies-liberals/85a69320-77bf-4da8-a761-8eab851f0707/
    McConnell, S. (1996). The Electoral Defeat of the Sandinista Regime: A Postmortem. Latin American Research Review, 31(1), 211-226. Retrieved August 9, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/2503858
    McCurdy, N., & Sefton, S. (2019). The Events of 2018 and Their Context - Part one to July 2018. In Live from Nicaragua: Uprising or Coup? The Alliance for Global Justice.
    McPherson, James M. (1988). Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Militantes sandinista es asesinado por delincuentes golpistas en León. (2018, June 15). La Nueva Radio Ya.
    Millett, R. (1977). Review of: Guardians of the Dynasty: A History of the U. S. Created Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua and the Somoza Family. The Americas, 34(4), 578. doi: 10.2307/981176.
    Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. (2019, April 24). Press Release from the Delegation of GRUN Before the Negotation Table [Press release]. Retrieved, from https://www.el19digital.com/app/webroot/tinymce/source/2019/00-Abril/24ABR/NOTA%20DE%20PRENSA%20DE%20LA%20DELEGACION%20GRUN%20ANTE%20LA%20MESA%20DE%20NEGOCIACION%20(ENG)%20-%2024%20ABRIL%202019.pdf
    Mitchell, S. (2012). The Third World War: American Hegemony in Latin America and the Overthrow of Salvador Allende. CMC Senior Theses. 308. Claremont University
    Mitrokhin, V and Andrew, C. M., &. (2006). The world was going our way: The KGB and the battle for the Third World. New York: Basic Books.
    Moncada, M. (1990). Nicaragua 1910-1937: Imposición del dominio yanqui en Nicaragua y Resistencia Sandinista. Rebelion.org.
    Monitoreo de Noticias Empresariales, 22 de mayo de 2016. (2018, May 22). COSEP. Retrieved from: https://cosep.org.ni/monitoreo-de-noticias-empresariales-22-de-mayo-de-2016/
    Moore, B. (2018, November 5). Una norteamericana relata la historia del golpe fallido. La Gente . Retrieved from http://www.radiolaprimerisima.com/blogs/2104/una-norteamericana-relata-la-historia-del-golpe-fallido/.
    Munro, D. G. (1964) Wilsonian Dollar Diplomacy in Nicaragua.. In, Intervention and Dollar Diplomacy in the Caribbean, 1900-1921, 388-425. doi:10.1515/9781400877850-010
    Murdie, A. (2014). Help or Harm: The Human Security Effects of International NGOs. 1st ed. California: Stanford University Press.
    NED, National Endowment for Democracy. (2018). Nicaragua 2018. Retrieved from https://www.ned.org/region/latin-america-and-caribbean/nicaragua-2018/.
    NED, National Endowment for Democracy's searchable grants database. (2017). Retrieved, from https://www.ned.org/wp-content/themes/ned/search/grant-search.php?organizationName=®ion=&projectCountry=Nicaragua&amount=&fromDate=2017&toDate=2017&projectFocus%5B%5D=&projectFocus%5B%5D=&projectFocus%5B%5D=&projectFocus%5B%5D=&projectFocus%5B%5D=&projectFocus%5B%5D=&projectFocus%5B%5D=&projectFocus%5B%5D=&projectFocus%5B%5D=&projectFocus%5B%5D=&projectFocus%5B%5D=&projectFocus%5B%5D=&projectFocus%5B%5D=&projectFocus%5B%5D=&search=&maxCount=25&orderBy=Year&start=1&sbmt=1.Ny
    Neugebauer, R.L. (1988), "Augusto César Sandino, 1895–1934", Reference Services Review, Vol. 16 No. 4, pp. 75-91. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb049040
    NICA ACT, Nicaragua Investment Conditionality Act. Public Law No: 115-335. 115th Congress (2018)
    Nicaragua: Violent Opposition Torture the Poor and Sandinista Supporters. (2018, July 3). Internationalist 360.
    Nicaragua and ALBA – working out a truly democratic health system. (2015, August 20). TeleSur.
    Nicaraguan Episcopal Conference. (2018, May 11). PDF. Managua. Retrieved from http://tortillaconsal.com/tortilla/node/2759.
    Nicaragua’s Business Leaders Demand Police Retraction. (2019, January 26). Confidencial.
    NSCAG Statement and Briefing October 2018. (2018, October 23). Alliance for Global Justice.
    Núñez, O. (1987). Transición y lucha de clases en Nicaragua, 1979 – 1986. México: Siglo XXI Editores.
    “Hasenfus: Nothing But the Facts,” (November 1986) Revista Envio 65, http://www.envio.org.ni/articulo/3243.
    Núñez, O. (1998). La guerra y el campesinado en Nicaragua. Managua: CIPRES
    Nye, J. S. (1990). The paradox of American power. Genève: Fondation Latsis internationale.
    O'Neil, R. (2019) "Evaluating the Relationship between Conditionality and Foreign Aid Reliance". Honors Theses and Capstones. 445. University of New Hampshire https://scholars.unh.edu/honors/445
    OAS, Organization of American States (2018), Inter-American Commission on Human Rights . Preliminary observations on the IACHR working visit to Nicaragua. [Press Release]. Retrieved from http://www.oas.org/en/iachr/media_center/PReleases/2018/113.asp.
    Ortega, P. (2018, May 3). Conferencia Episcopal llama a promover diálogo con espíritu de buena voluntad. 19 Digital.
    Ortega, P. (2018, October 4). Fiscalía presenta nuevas pruebas contra el Viper y acusa a Félix Maradiaga de recibir fondos del narcotráfico. El 19 Digital.
    Ortiz de Zarate, V. V. (2005). El golpe después del golpe. Leigh vs. Pinochet. Scielo. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-71942005000100023
    Otis, John. (2014, octubre 1). After More Than 50 Years, USAID Is Leaving Ecuador. NBC News. Recuperado el 9 de diciembre de 2014 de: http://www.nbcnews.com/news/latino/after-more-50-years-usaid-leaving-ecuador-n215621
    Parada, Luis. (2016, septiembre 12). Batasuna y la apología de la violencia. ABC.es. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.es/historico-opinion/index.asp?ff=20060912&idn=1423261813681
    Parry, R. (1999). Lost history: contras, cocaine, the press & Project Truth. Arlington, VA: The Media Consortium.
    Pastor, M. (1989). Latin America, the Debt Crisis, and the International Monetary Fund. Latin American Perspectives, 16(1), 79-110.
    Paul, R. (2014, March 24). US 'Democracy Promotion' Destroys Democracy Overseas [Web log post]. Retrieved from Wire Blog, by Per Bylund: https://mises.org/wire/us-democracy-promotion-destroys-democracy-overseas
    Pence, Mike. (2018/24/07) Tweet text [State-sponsored violence in Nicaragua is undeniable. Ortega’s propaganda fools no one and changes nothing. 350+ dead at the hands of the regime. The US calls on the Ortega government to end the violence NOW and hold early elections—the world is watching!] Retrieved from https://twitter.com/VP/status/1021823423968956416.
    Perry, J. (2019). Nicaragua’s crisis: The struggle for balanced media coverage. In Live from Nicaragua: Uprising or Coup? (p. 216). The Alliance for Global Justice.
    Petras J., and Veltmeyer H. (2006). Imperio con imperialismo: La Dinámica Globalizante Del Capitalismo Neoliberal / Empire with Imperialism: the Globalizing Dynamics of Neoliberal Capitalism. Siglo XXI. Mexico DF
    Políticas públicas regionales sobre la reducción de la pobreza en Centroamérica y su incidencia en el pleno disfrute de los derechos humanos (Rep.). (2008). San José: Consejo Nacional de Procuradores de Derechos Humanos.
    Powell, Walter W., y Clemens, Elisabeth S. (Eds.). (1998). Private Action and the Public Good. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Protestas en Nicaragua dejan tres muertos, heridos y un presidente cuestionado. (2018, April 21). El Faro.
    Pye, L. W. (1965). The Concept of Political Development. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 358(1), 1–13.
    Raderstorf, B. (2016, June 24). The Economy vs. Democracy in Ortega’s Nicaragua. Los Angeles times.
    Ramírez, P. (2018, October 17). Desgarrador testimonio de víctima torturada en la UPOLI. 19 Digital . Retrieved from: https://www.el19digital.com/articulos/ver/titulo:82789-el-viper-felix-maradiaga-y-luciano-garcia-entregaban-las-armas-a-pio-arellano-para-crear-caos-en-nicaragua.
    Reagan, R. (1990). Ronald Reagan President U.S. An American Life. Pocket Books.
    “Rechazo a los Tranques y a la Violencia", Declaración A. N. No. 2- 2018, Aprobado el 24 de Mayo de 2018 Publicado en La Gaceta, Diario Oficial No. 99 del 25 de Mayo de 2018. Available at: http://legislacion.asamblea.gob.ni/normaweb.nsf/($All)/C279D22427BA1168062582A9005C7683?OpenDocument
    Rice, Condoleezza. (2006, enero 18). Transformational Diplomacy. Recuperado el 12 de marzo de 2016 de: http://2001-2009.state.gov/secretary/rm/2006/59306.htm
    Richards, L. (2019, March 6). NicaNotes: Carlos Fernando Chamorro and Confidencial. Alliance for Global Justice. Retrieved from https://afgj.org/nicanotes-carlos-fernando-chamorro-and-confidencial?eType=EmailBlastContent&eId=0f2a9633-c19b-4dd4-8181-43125f76bd7e.
    Richmond, O. (2011). A Post-Liberal Peace. London: Routledge, https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203810262
    Ricker, T. (2018). Manufacturing Dissent: The N.E.D., Opposition Media and the Political Crisis in Nicaragua. Quixote Center. Retrieved from https://www.quixote.org/MANUFACTURING-DISSENT-THE-N-E-D-OPPOSITION-MEDIA-AND-THE-POLITICAL-CRISIS-IN-NICARAGUA/.
    Riding, A. (1978, November 16). U.S. Leads Efforts to Oust Somoza and Lead Nicaragua to Democracy. The New York Times.
    Riddell, R. C. (2008). Does foreign aid really work ? Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Robles, F., & Malkin , E. (2018, July 22). Nicaragua Clergy, Siding with Protesters, Becomes ‘Terrible Enemy’ of Ortega. The New York Times. Retrieved from fouchttps://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/22/world/americas/nicaragua-protests-catholic-church.html?save=nyt-gateway-stories.
    Robles, F. (2018, April 26). In Just a Week, ‘Nicaragua Changed’ as Protesters Cracked a Leader’s Grip. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/26/world/americas/nicaragua-uprising-protesters.html.
    Rodríguez, Delcy, Saldivia, Felipe, y Chacín, Mercedes (Eds.). (2013). Denuncia y salida de Venezuela de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos (CIDH). Recuperado de: http://www.minci.gob.ve/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2013/09/DISCURSO-CIDH-20-9-13-web.pdf
    Romano, S. (2011). Making Latin America "Secure" in U.S. Foreign Policy: From Operation Condor to Plan Colombia. Latin American Perspectives, 38(5), 123-128. Retrieved from www.jstor.org/stable/23060126.
    Rose, N. (1996). Chapter 2 : Governing Advanced Liberal Democracies. In, Foucault and political reason: liberalism, neoliberalism and rationalities of government. Ed, A. Barry, T. Osborne and N. S. Rose. London, UCL Press: 37-64.
    Roth, Kenneth (2018/24/07/) Tweet text [According to Nicaragua's Pres Ortega, everyone is to blame for the killing of some 300 demonstrators against his corrupt and repressive rule other than himself.] Retrieved from https://twitter.com/KenRoth/status/1021938051663187968..
    Rugama, A. (2019, March 12). ¿Que Decian los Periodicos Sobre el INSS Y Bolaños? RedVolucion.net.
    Ryfman, P. (2007). Non-governmental organizations: an indispensable player of humanitarian aid. International Review of the Red Cross, 89(865), p.21.
    Salazar, M. (2019, February 22). Ortega acepta negociar con la Alianza Cívica. Confidencial. Retrieved from https://confidencial.com.ni/ortega-acepta-negociar-con-la-alianza-civica/
    Samir, A. (2004). GeoPolitics of contemporary Imperialism. In, New Worldwide Hegemony. Alternatives for Change and Social Movements, 71–107. Latin American Council of Social Sciences
    Santillano, E. (2016). La Influencia de los Programas de Cooperacion de USAID en el Proceso de Descentralizacion del Ecuador Periodo 1990-2014. (Doctoral dissertation, Pontifica Universidad Catolica del Ecuador, 2016). Quito.
    Savas, Ö. (2008). The Role of National Security Culture in Crisis Management: The Case of Kardak Crisis (Master’s Thesis, Department of International Relations, Bilkent University Ankara) Retrieved from: http://www.thesis.bilkent.edu.tr/0003536.pdf
    Schofield, I. (2019). How the involvement of humanitarian NGO’s in US-led interventions has fatally undermined perceptions of their neutrality. Unpublished Manuscript, Portsmouth University.
    Schulz, N. (2007). Nicaragua a rude awakening for the Paris Declaration. Madrid: FRIDE (Fundación Para Las Relaciones Internacionales Y El Diálogo Exterior). https://eulacfoundation.org/en/content/nicaragua-rude-awakening-paris-declaration
    Scott, M. (1991). A New View of Economic Growth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Sefton, S. (2018, June 30). Nicaragua : varieties of bad faith. Tortilla Con Sal. Retrieved from http://tortillaconsal.com/tortilla/node/3847
    Selser, G. (1986). El Pequeño Ejército Loco. Sandino y la Operación México Nicaragua. Nueva Nicaragua. Managua.
    Selser, G. (2019, March 30). Nicaragua government vows to free prisoners, allow protests. Apnews.
    Sequeira, M. (2018, May 10). Campesinos Realizan Tranque en el Empalme de Lovago, Chontales . El Nuevo Diario. Retrieved from https://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/nacionales/463682-campesinos-tranque-chontales-nicaragua//
    Shastri RK (2008). "A strategic action plan for managing non-government with special reference of India definition of NGOs." Inter. NGO J. 3(3): 074-076.
    Sierra, Natalia. (2011). Los «gobiernos progresista» de América Latina. La avanzada del pos-neoliberalismo. Recuperado de: http://repositorio.uasb.edu.ec/handle/10644/2800
    Smith, D. (2010). U.S. Peacefare: Organizing American Peace-Building Operations. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, p.267
    Taubman, P. (1984, June 11). In from the Cold and Hot for Truth. The New York Times.
    Terroristas en Masaya asesinan y queman a oficial de Policía. (2018, July 15). 19 Digital.
    Thorbecke, E. (2006) The Evolution of the Development Doctrine, 1950-2005. Research Paper 2006/155. Helsinki: World Institute for Development Economics Research.
    Todaro, M.P. and Smith, S.C. (2006). Economic Development (9th Edition). Pearson Addison Wesley. Boston.
    Torrente, N. (2004). Humanitarian Action under Attack: Reflections on the Iraq War. Harvard Human Rights Journal, 17. No.1, p.2
    Torres-Rivas, E. (2008). Centroamérica: entre revoluciones y democracia / Edelberto Torres-Rivas; compilador Jorge Rovira Mas. – Bogotá: Siglo del Hombre Editores, CLACSO,.
    Trucchi, G. (2018, May 6). Nicaragua: Cuando las mentiras ganan y se convierten en realidad ‘aceptada’. Tercera Informacion.
    Truth, Justice and Peace Commission report (2018, May 24). Retrieved from http://legislacion.asamblea.gob.ni/normaweb.nsf/($All)/C279D22427BA1168062582A9005C7683?OpenDocument
    Tunnermann , C. (1979). Origenes de la Dictadura Dinastica de los Somoza . Anuario. Vol. 5 pp. 65-79
    Turner, B. S. (1990). Theories of modernity and postmodernity. London: Sage Publications.
    Ullán de la Rosa, Javier. (2012). La Alianza Bolivariana para las Américas-Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos (ALBA-TCP): análisis de un proyecto de integración regional latinoamericana con una fuerte dimensión altermundista. Estudios políticos (México), (25), 131-170.
    United States. (1975). Covert action in Chile, 1963-1973: Staff report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, United States Senate. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
    United States Department of State. (2002, Dic). Agenda de la Política Exterior de los Estados Unidos de América, p. 52. Washington, D.C
    USAID. (2002). Foreign Aid in the National Interest Promoting Freedom, Security, and Opportunity (pp. 1-26, Rep.). WASHINGTON, D.C.: U.S. Agency Ency. for International Development.
    USAID (2017). Investments and illustrative results. https://results.usaid.gov/results/country/nicaragua?fiscalYear=2017
    Vargas, O. (2005). Nicaragua: La incertidumbre y el futuro. In Democracia; Movimientos sociales; Educación; Condiciones económicas; Análisis demográfico; Nicaragua;. Bogota: CIELAC, Centro Interuniversitario de Estudios Latinoamericanos y Caribeños Fundación Friedrich Ebert
    Vicepresidente de Estados Unidos denuncia al gobierno de Ortega. (2018, May 2). Nicaragua Hoy.
    Vulliamy, Ed. (2002, abril 21). Venezuela coup linked to Bush team. The Guardian. Recuperado de: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/apr/21/usa.venezuela
    Waldman, P. (2003). El Estado Anomico. Derecho, Seguridad Publica y Vida Cotidiana en America Latina. Caracas: Nueva Sociedad, 2003.
    Walker, T. W. (1985). Introduction: Revolution in General, Nicaragua to 1984,” in Nicaragua: The First Five Years. New York: New York: Praeger Publishers.
    Walker, T. W. (1987). Reagan versus the Sandinistas: The Undeclared War on Nicaragua. Boulder & London & Westview Press.
    WH, The White House. (2002). The National Security Strategy of the United States of America (Rep.).
    Wilson, B. R. (2013). Breaking the Chains: Coffee, Crisis, and Farmworker Struggle in Nicaragua. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 45(11), 2592–2609.
    Witschge, L. (2018, August 14). Las turbas: Who are Nicaragua's pro-government armed groups? Feature. Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/las-turbas-nicaragua-pro-government-armed-groups-180726080427772.html.
    Woodward, B. (2005). Veil: the secret wars of the Cia, 1981-1987. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    World Bank, World Development Indicators (2019) Nicaragua Overview. Retrieved from: https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/nicaragua/overview
    Zaremba, L. M. (1992). Nicaragua: Before and After the Revolution (Master's thesis, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, 1992). Illinois.
    Zeese, K. and McCune, N., (2019). Correcting the record: What is really happening in Nicaragua? In Live from Nicaragua: Uprising or Coup? Alliance for Global Justice.
    Description: 碩士
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0106862009
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202001548
    Appears in Collections:[國際研究英語碩士學位學程] 學位論文

    Files in This Item:

    File Description SizeFormat
    200901.pdf2061KbAdobe PDF48View/Open

    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

    社群 sharing

    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback