Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
An Examination on the Effectiveness of Facebook Fact-checker Solutions: The 2020 U.S. Presidential Primaries
|Issue Date: ||2020-09-02 13:12:58 (UTC+8)|
The aim of this thesis is to examine the effectiveness of Facebook fact-checking program in terms of combating the spread of false news. First, this thesis would review and analyze the literature in relation to the topic of fake news in pursuits of laying out a comprehensive context with academic depths to discuss Facebook’s fact-checking program and its weaknesses in later chapters. Next, it would present the general findings from the designed case study of 2020 Florida primaries and argue that Facebook’s fact-checking program exists fundamental flaws and can only serve as a contingency plan at best.
|Reference: ||English Bibliography|
Buzan, B., and Ole Wæver. 2003. Regions and Powers : The Structure of International Security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Graham, James, Richard Howard and Ryan Olson. 2010. Cyber security Essentials. Florida: Auerbach Publications.
Harari, Yuval Noah. 2018. 21 Lessons for the 21st Century. Random House.
Ireton, Cherilyn, and Julie Posetti. 2018. Journalism, Fake News & Disinformation: A Handbook for Journalism Education and Training. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
Allcott, Hunt, and Matthew Gentzkow. 2017. “Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 211–236. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.31.2.211.
Bakir, Vian, and Andrew McStay. 2018. “Fake News and The Economy of Emotions: Problems, Causes, Solutions.” Digital Journalism, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 154–175. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2017.1345645.
Balmas, Meital. 2012 “When fake news becomes real: Combined exposure to multiple news sources and political attitudes of inefficacy, alienation, and cynicism.” Communication Research, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 430–454.
Berkowitz, Dan, and David Asa Schwartz. 2016. “Miley, CNN and The Onion: When Fake News Becomes Realer than Real.” Journalism Practice, vol.10, no. 1, pp. 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2015.1006933.
Brewer, Paul R., Dannagal Goldthwaite Young, and Michelle Morreale. 2013. “The Impact of Real News about ‘Fake News’: Intertextual Processes and Political Satire.” International Journal of Public Opinion Research, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 323–343. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijpor/edt015
Chen, Yimin, Niall J. Conroy, and Victoria L. Rubin. 2015. “Misleading Online Content: Recognizing Clickbait as False News?” WMDD '15: Proceedings of the 2015 ACM on Workshop on Multimodal Deception Detection, pp. 15–19. https://doi.org/10.1145/2823465.2823467.
Dutton, William H. 2009. “The Fifth Estate Emerging through the Network of Networks.” Prometheus, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1–15.
Gottfried, Jeffery and Elisa Shearer. 2016. “News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2016.” Pew Research Center, May 26.
Kalla, Joshua L., and David E. Broockman. 2018. “The Minimal Persuasive Effects of Campaign Contact in General Elections: Evidence from 49 Field Experiments.” American Political Science Review, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 148–166. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055417000363.
Lancelot, Jonathan F. 2018. “Russia Today, Cyberterrorists Tomorrow: U.S. Failure to Prepare Democracy for Cyberspace.” Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 23-31.
Lazer, David, Matthew Baum, Nir Grinberg, Lisa Friedland, Kenneth Joseph, Will Hobbs, and Carolina Mattsson. 2017. “Combating Fake News: An Agenda for Research and Action.” Harvard Kennedy School – Shorenstein Center, pp. 1–19.
Lazer, David M. J., Matthew A. Baum, Yochai Benkler, Adam J. Berinsky, Kelly M. Greenhill, Filippo Menczer, Miriam J. Metzger, et al. 2018. “The Science of Fake News.” Science, vol. 359, no. 6380, pp. 1094–1096.
Lu, Donna. 2019. “The Facts About Facebook’s Fact-Checking.” New Scientist, vol. 243, no. 3241, pp: 5-56.
Marchi, Regina. 2012. “With Facebook, Blogs, and Fake News, Teens Reject Journalistic ‘Objectivity.’” Journal of Communication Inquiry, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 246–262.
Morgan, Susan. 2018. “Fake news, disinformation, manipulation and online tactics to undermine democracy.” Journal of Cyber Policy, pp. 1-5.
Parpiani, Kashish. 2020. “George Floyd protests and the 2020 US presidential election,” Observer Research Foundation, June 4.
Persily, Nathaniel. 2017. “Can Democracy Survive the Internet?.” Journal of Democracy, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 63-76.
Shao, Chengcheng, Giovanni Luca Ciampaglia, Onur Varol, Kaicheng Yang, Alessandro Flammini, and Filippo Menczer. 2018. “The Spread of Low-Credibility Content by Social Bots.” Nature Communications, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 4787. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06930-7.
Shu, Kai, Amy Sliva, Suhang Wang, Jiliang Tang, and Huan Liu. 2017. “Fake News Detection on Social Media: A Data Mining Perspective.” ArXiv:1708.01967 [Cs], September.
Shu, Kai, H. Russell Bernard, and Huan Liu. 2018. “Studying Fake News via Network Analysis: Detection and Mitigation.” ArXiv:1804.10233 [Cs], April. http://arxiv.org/abs/1804.10233.
Shu, Kai, Deepak Mahudeswaran, Suhang Wang, Dongwon Lee, and Huan Liu. 2018. “FakeNewsNet: A Data Repository with News Content, Social Context and Dynamic Information for Studying Fake News on Social Media.”
Swire-Thompson, Briony, Ullrich Ecker, and Stephan Lewandowsky. 2017. “The Role of Familiarity in Correcting Inaccurate Information.” Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition 43 (June). https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000422.
Tisne, Martin. 2018. “It’s time for a Bill of Data Rights.” MIT Technology Review, December 14.
Tworek, Heidi and Leersen, Paddy. 2019. “An Analysis of Germany’s NetzDG Law.” Transatlantic Working Group, pp. 1-11.
Vargo, Chris J, Lei Guo, and Michelle A Amazeen. 2018. “The Agenda-Setting Power of Fake News: A Big Data Analysis of the Online Media Landscape from 2014 to 2016.” New Media & Society, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 2028–2049. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444817712086.
Vosoughi, Soroush, Deb Roy, and Sinan Aral. 2018. “The Spread of True and False News Online.” Science, vol. 359, no. 6380, pp. 1146–1151. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aap9559.
Wang, William Yang. 2017. “‘Liar, Liar Pants on Fire’: A New Benchmark Dataset for Fake News Detection.” ArXiv:1705.00648 [Cs], May.
Wardle, Claire. 2017. “Fake news. It's complicated.” First Draft
Newspaper Reports and Others
ABC News. 2020. “Transcript: Into Joe Biden and the Women's Vote.” May 23. https://www.nbcnews.com/podcast/into-america/transcript-joe-biden-women-s-vote-n1213171.
Almukhtar, Sarah, Martin, Jonathan and Stevens, Matt. 2019. “2020 Presidential Election Calendar.” The New York Times December 23.
Amer, K., and Noujaim, J. 2019. “The great hack.” Netflix.
Bridge, Mark. 2018. “Facebook’s Fact-Checking Journalists Say They Are Propaganda tools.” The Times, December 14.
Cadwalladr, Carole, and Emma Graham-Harrison. 2018. “Revealed: 50 Million Facebook Profiles Harvested for Cambridge Analytica in Major Data Breach.” The Guardian, March 17.
Cook, Nancy and Matthew Choi. 2020. “’Trump rallies his base to treat coronavirus as a ‘hoax.’” Politico, February 28. https://www.politico.com/news/2020/02/28/trump-south-carolina-rally-coronavirus-118269?fbclid=IwAR3ALO14Ghue2T7nqKAKBsXNSmxrjVqKFJGDd95fcoNRfAUkJdAuNWxb4bQ.
Edsall, Thomas B. 2020. “The George Floyd Election,” The News York Times, June 3. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/03/opinion/george-floyd-trump-biden.html.
Elizabeth Dwoskin. 2020. “Zuckerberg defends decisions on Trump as Facebook employee unrest grows,” The Washington Post, June 2. https://www.boston.com/news/technology/2020/06/02/zuckerberg-defends-decisions-on-trump-as-facebook-employee-unrest-grows
Facebook. 2010. “Facebook Tips: What’s the Difference between a Facebook Page and Group?.” February 25. Retrieved on November 20, 2020.
Funke, Daniel. 2018. “Four Major Tech Companies Take New Steps to Combat Fake News.” Poynter, July 12.
Gore, D’Angelo. 2017. “Eight Years of Trolling Obama, Some of the many false viral claims about Barack Obama's faith and citizenship.” FactCheck.org, Janaruay 19.
Graham-Harrison, Emma and Shaun, Walker. 2019. “Hungary: the crucible for faulty efforts by Facebook to banish fake news.” The Guardian, May 18.
Hardin, Luke. 2016. “What we know about Russia's interference in the US election.” The Guardian, December 16.
Honderich, Holly. 2020. “Joe Biden assault claim: What does 'believe women' mean now?.” BBC News, May 12.
Larsen, Emily. 2019. “Fact Check: Did North Korea Test Missiles Every 24 Days Under Obama?.” Check Your Fact, March 8.
Lim, Gabriel and al. 2019. “Burned After Reading, Endless Mayfly’s Ephemeral Disinformation Campaign.” The CitizenLab, May 14.
Luber, Klaus. 2019. “Fight against fake news, Information or disinformation? German journalists share their experience with journalists from all over the world.” Deutschland.de, October 4.
Lyons, Tessa. 2018. “Hard Questions: How Is Facebook’s Fact-Checking Program Working?.” Facebook, June 14.
Murse, Tom. 2019. “Which Swing States Are in Play in the 2016 Election?.” ThoughtCo, August, 21.
Rieder, Rem Rieder. 2020 “Trump Campaign’s Misleading Ad Attacking Biden on China.” FactCheck.org, April 10.
Robertson, Lori, Jessica McDonald and Robert Farley. 2020. “Democrats’ Misleading Coronavirus Claims.” FactCheck.org, March 3. https://www.factcheck.org/2020/03/democrats-misleading-coronavirus-claims/.
The Economist. 2017. “Regulating the internet giants - The world’s most valuable resource is no longer oil, but data.” May 6.
Tess Townsend, “The Bizarre Truth Behind the Biggest Pro-Trump Facebook Hoaxes,” INC.COM, Nov 21, 2016.
Wikipedia contributors, "2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2020_Democratic_Party_presidential_primaries&oldid=963846446 (accessed June 23, 2020).
Yeh, Joseph. 2019. “Fighting fake news requires comprehensive approach: French scholar.” Focus Taiwan, May 14, 2019.
“Zuckerberg tried to contact Pelosi after Facebook refused to take down manipulated video,” National Post, June 11, 2019. https://nationalpost.com/news/world/zuckerberg-contacts-pelosi-after-facebook-refused-to-take-down-manipulated-video-that-made-her-seem-drunk
Wang, Hou-Pin (王皓平), 2012. “Wanjiwanlushiminhzhi” (網際網路實名制), National Policy Foundation (國家政策研究基金會), December 17, 2012.
“Wanlushimingzhi NCC weiyuan: Buzhanchengtuidon” (網路實名制NCC委員：不贊成推動), INSIDE, April 4, 2019.
Weedon, Jen, Nuland, William, and Stamos, Alex. 2017, “Information operations and Facebook.” Facebook, April 27, 2017.
「【2019亞洲事實查核專業論壇／東北亞】日、韓事實查核發展面臨中立、選題、定義困境」. 台灣事實查核中心. 2019 年11月5日。
假新聞泛濫成災各國政府急因應. Rti 中央廣播電臺. 2018 年9月18日。
|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0107862003|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[國際研究英語碩士學位學程] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.