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    Title: 外人直接投資國家安全審查程序法制之研究
    A Study on National Security Review in Foreign Direct Investment Regulations
    Authors: 賈棕凱
    Chia, Tsung-Kai
    Contributors: 楊培侃
    賈棕凱
    Chia, Tsung-Kai
    Keywords: 外人投資國家安全審查
    國家安全
    外國投資人
    外人直接投資
    National Security Review of Foreign Investment
    National Security
    Foreign Investors
    Foreign Direct Investment
    Date: 2020
    Issue Date: 2021-02-01 13:58:32 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在資本全球化之趨勢下,部分國家接納外資進入地主國而不設限制。然而,許多國家為保護本國利益而尋求正當的限制外資措施,以國家安全為理由針對外人投資之申請進行審查,造成外人投資國家安全審查對資本自由化的阻礙。因此,外人投資審查法制之設計,如何衡平投資自由與國家安全,則為外人投資法制之重要課題。
    經本文研究發現,跨太平洋夥伴全面進步協定及部分臺灣簽署之雙邊投資協定保障投資設立階段之外人投資,得做為此議題之法源,惟外人投資國家安全審查之具體審查模式仍須經由比較法探求之。其次,審查機關之架構得區分為單層或者雙層結構,於雙層結構下由主管機關享有審查權,而最終決策者享有決策權;於單層結構下則由單一委員會享有審查權與決定權。目前我國之審查結構屬於單層結構,惟本文建議應將審查結構改為雙層結構,以符合權責相符原則。
    總結比較法之外人投資國家安全審查制度後,大抵可區分為三種規範模式,分別為:自願申報兼具事後審查模式、強制申報兼具事後審查模式、強制申報兼具事前審查模式。鑒於臺灣採取強制申報兼具事前審查模式,而外國投資人經常詬病此種外人投資審查實務與做法,故本文以前述比較法之研究為基礎,檢視目前臺灣之外人投資審查程序,並提供數項建議供各界參考。
    Under the trend of capital globalization, some countries admit foreign capital into the host country without any restrictions, while other countries make the national security review as a tool to protect national interests and to create foreign investment barriers. It becomes an important issue over the establishment of review procedure on foreign investment to accommodate interests of investment liberalization and national security.
    It is found that Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership and some of the bilateral investment agreements signed by Taiwan are the legal basis of restriction in foreign investments. However, the thesis still need to study comparative law for specific mode of foreign investment in national security review. Secondly, the authority in the host countries can be divided into single-layer or double-layer structure. Under the double-layer structure, the authority owns the right to review, while the president makes the final decision. Under the single-layer structure, a single committee is given the full authority to review and makes the final decision. The president or the prime minister makes the final decision in the double-layer structure, while the committee makes the final decision in the single-layer structure. The authority in our country is single-layer structure, but the thesis suggests that the structure should be transformed to double-layer structure to comply with the principle of uniformity between power and responsibility.
    The thesis analyzes that there are three modes for national security review of foreign investment, voluntary declaration with post-examination mode, mandatory declaration with post-examination mode and mandatory declaration with pre-examination mode. In light of the fact that Taiwan adopts mandatory declaration and pre-examination mode, and foreign investors often criticize the practice of national security review of foreign investment, so the thesis takes into account the above-mentioned legislation of comparative law to provide several suggestions for the national security review procedure of foreign investment in Taiwan.
    Reference: 壹、中文文獻
    一、書籍
    王文杰,嬗變中之中國大陸法制,交大出版社,4 版,2014年。
    王小瓊,西方國家外資併購國家安全審查制度的最新發展及其啟示,湖北人民出版社,初版,2010年。
    田文英,外資併購與國家安全,法律出版社,初版,2011年。
    林彩瑜,WTO制度與實務:世界貿易組織法律研究(三),2版,元照出版社,2013年。
    羅昌發,國際貿易法,元照出版社,2版,2010年。

    二、期刊論文
    王東光,國家安全審查:政治法律化與法律政治化,中外法學第5 期,2016年。
    王震宇,外人投資併購與國家安全審查機制之比較研究-以中國大陸國營企業海外併購個案為例,台北大學法學論叢,第98期。
    李佳,跨國併購國家安全審查制度之中美比較,進出口經理人第5期,2014 年5月。
    李軍,外資國家安全審查制度歷史考察及我國制度選擇,雲南大學學報第6期,2014年11月。
    李鋒,俄羅斯國家安全審查制度研究,國際經濟合作第7 期,2012 年7月。
    邱奕宏,美國外來投資審查及「外來投資與國家安全法」之發展,貿易政策論叢,第21期。
    陳玉祥、孫強,中資企業在美併購國家安全審查制度風險規避探討,湖北社會科學第10 期,2010年10月。
    溫芳宜,美國及歐盟對於近期中國大陸海外併購之因應,經濟前瞻,第174期。
    劉孟俊,近年中國大陸全球大型併購之趨勢與意涵,經濟前瞻,第169期。
    屠新泉、周金凱,美國國家安全審查制度對中國國有企業在美投資的影響及對策分析,清華大學學報(哲學社會科學版)第5 期,2016 年9月。

    三、研究計畫
    顧瑩華,全球主要國家對外人投資之審查制度、流程及限制條件研究,經濟部投資審議委員會委託中華經濟研究院研究報告,2013年。

    四、博碩士學位論文
    張舉勝,美國外資併購國家安全審查制度研究,中國政法大學博士論文,北京,2011年。
    姜慧,中國對一帶一路國家直接投資與雙邊經濟增長的關係研究,對外經濟貿易大學博士論文,北京,2018年。
    彭勃,德國外資併購國家安全審查研究,中國青年政治學院碩士論文,北京,2015年。
    單開翊,中國大陸外國投資法國家安全審查制度之研究,政治大學碩士論文,台北,2017年。

    五、其他資料
    陳言博,美國跨國併購安全審查之研究,經濟部投資業務處出國報告(專題報告),2014年。

    貳、英文部分
    一、期刊論文
    Assaf, Dany H., Imran Ahmad, For Better or Worse, Greater Convergence in Cross-Border Deals: Amendments to The Competition Act and Investment Canada Act, 13(5) M & A LAW (2009).
    Bu, Qingxiu, Ralls Implications for the National Security Review, 7 GEO. MASON J. INT'L COM. L. (2016).
    Carroll, James F., Back to the Future: Redefining the Foreign Investment and National Security Act’s Conception of National Security, 23 Emory International Law Review (2009).
    Cox, Jason, Regulation of Foreign Direct Investment After the Dubai Ports Controversy: Has the U.S. Government Finally Figured Out How to Balance Foreign Threats to National Security Without Alienating Foreign Companies?, 34 J. Corp. L. (2008).
    Deeley, Hunter, The Expanding Reach of the Executive in Foreign Direct Investment: How Ralls v. Cfius Will Alter the Fdi Landscape in the United States, 4 AM. U. BUS. L. REV. (2015).
    Fugina, Kathryn, Merger Control Review in the United States and the European Union: Working towards Conflict Resolution, 26(2) NORTHWESTERN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW & BUSINESS (2016).
    Gavioli, Maira G., National Security or Xenophobia: The Impact of the Foreign Investment and National Security Act ("FINSA") in Foreign Investment in the U.S., 2(1) THE WILLIAM MITCHELL LAW RAZA JOURNAL (2011).
    Globerman, Steven, An Economic Assessment of the Investment Canada Act, FRASER INSTITUTION (2015).
    Golding, Greg, Australia’s Experience with Foreign Direct Investment by State Controlled Entities, 37 Seatle U.L. Rev. (2015).
    Hanemann, Thilo & Huotari, Chinese Investment in Europe in 2016, 3 MERICS PAPERS ON CHINA (2017).
    Heinemann, Andreas, Government Control Of Cross-Border M&A: Legitimate Regulationor Protectionism?, 15(3) JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW (2012).
    Hilt, Thomas P., Cnooc-Unocal and the two: Discriminatory rules in the China
    protocol are a latent threat to the rule of law in the dispute settlement understanding,
    2006 Pacific Rim Law and Policy Association, 15(2) Washington International Law Journal (2006).
    Jackson, J.K., The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investments, Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, Order Code RL33312 (2013)
    Jackson, James K., Foreign Investment and National Security : Economic Considerations, CRS REPORT FOR CONGRESS PREPARED FOR MEMBERS AND COMMITTEES OF CONGRESS, April 4 (2013).
    Josselyn, Amy S., National Security at All Costs: Why the Cfius Review Process May Have Overreached Its Purpose, 21 Geo. Mason L. Rev. 1347, 1349 (2014)
    Larson, Alan P., Marchick, David M., Foreign Investment and National Security- Getting the Balance Right, THE BERNARD AND IRENE SCHWARTZ SERIES ON AMERICAN COMPETITIVENESS 1-38.
    Li, Xingxing, National Security Review in Foreign Investments: A Comparative and Critical Assessment on China and U.S. Laws and Practices, 13(1) BERKELEY BUSINESS LAW JOURNAL 255-311.
    Mostaghel, Deborah M., Dubai Ports world under Exon-Florio: A threat to national security or a tempest in a seaport? ALBANY LAW REVIEW 2007, Westlaw, 70 Alb. L.Rev. 583.
    Nowak, Gerald T., Above All, Do No Harm: The Application of the Exon-Florio Amendment to Dual-Use Technologies, 13(4) Michigan Journal of International Law 1002-1031.
    Rose, Paul, The Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007: An Assessment of Its Impact on Sovereign Wealth Funds and State-Owned Enterprises, 231 Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper Series 1-38.
    Saha, Souvik, CFIUS Now Made in China: Dueling National Security Review Frameworks As A Countermeasure to Economic Espionage in the Age of Globalization, 33 NW. J. INT'L L. & BUS. (2012).
    Stagg, Jonathan C., Scrutinizing Foreign Investment: How Much Congressional Involvement Is Too Much?, 93 IOWA L. REV. (2007).
    Wang, Yang, Incorporating the Third Branch of Government into U.S. National Security Review of Foreign Investment, 38 Hous. J. Int'l L.323, 361 (2016).
    Weimer, Christopher M., Foreign Direct Investment and National Security Post-Finsa 2007, 87 Tex. L. Rev. 663, 683 (2009).
    Zedner, Lucia, The Concept of Security An Agenda for Comparative Analysis, 23 Legal Studies 1, 153-175. (2006).

    二、政府報告
    2016 Annual Report to Congress of the U.S.-CHINA Economic and Security Review Commission , USCC (2016).
    Laws and Policies Regulating Foreign Investment in 10 Countries, United States Government Accountability Office, GAO-08-320, February (2008).
    UNCTAD (2013), 2013 World Investment Report. http://unctad.org/en/publicationslibrary/wir2013_en.pdf

    三、網路資料
    2012 U.S. Model Bilateral Investment Treaty, U.S. Department of State, https://ustr.gov/sites/default/files/BIT%20text%20for%20ACIEP%20 Meeting.pdf
    2014-2015 Annual Report, https://cdn.tspace.gov.au/uploads/sites/79/2016/03/FIRB-AR-2014-15.pdf
    2014-2015 Annual Report,
    https://cdn.tspace.gov.au/uploads/sites/79/2016/03/FIRB-AR-2014-15.pdf
    2015 AmCham China White Paper , AmCham China (2015),
    http://www.amchamsouthwest.org/category/white-paper/
    About the Chamber-Background & Purpose, The European Union Chamber of Commerce in China,
    http://www.europeanchamber.com.cn/en/european-chamber-background.
    Australia’s Foreign Investment Policy(2016),
    https://firb.gov.au/files/2015/09/Australias-Foreign-Investment-Policy-2016-2017.pdf
    CFIUS Annual Report to Congress CFIUS (2016),
    https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/international/foreign-investment/Documents/Annual%20Report%20to%20Congress%20for%20CY2014.pdf
    CFIUS Annual Report (2014), https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/international/foreign-investment/Documents/Annual%20Report%20to%20Congress%20for%20CY2014.pdf
    Ellen Sheng(2016) ,China Investment In The U.S. Hit An All-Time High In 2016, But Don't Expect The Same In 2017, Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/ellensheng/2016/12/18/chinese-investments-in-the-u-s-hit-an-all-time-high-in-2016-but-dont-expect-the-same-in-2017/#2ccc972d40db
    European Business in China Position Paper (2011/2012), http://www.amcham-shanghai.org/ftpuploadfiles/Event/Auto_Conference/2011/pdf/Stefan_Sack.pdf
    Investment Canada Act Statistics 2015 - Quarter 1(2015), https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ica-lic.nsf/eng/lk-51510.html
    U.S.-CHINA Economic and Security Review Commission- Fact Sheet
    http://www.uscc.gov/about/fact_sheet
    World Investment Report 2006:FDI from Developing and Transition Economies (2006), http://unctad.org/en/docs/wir2006_en.pdf

    四、參考法條
    《Foreign Trade and Payment Act》
    《Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007》
    《The German Foreign Trade and Payments Act》
    《Investment Canada Act》
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    國際經營與貿易學系
    106351047
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0106351047
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202100076
    Appears in Collections:[國際經營與貿易學系 ] 學位論文

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