English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Post-Print筆數 : 27 |  Items with full text/Total items : 100435/131260 (77%)
Visitors : 37360954      Online Users : 129
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/134182

    Title: 後九一一菲律賓反恐政治
    The Politics of Post-9/11 Counterterrorism in the Philippines
    Authors: 卜家仁
    Bugarin, Patrick Dave Q.
    Contributors: 吳得源
    Wu, Der-Yuan
    Bugarin, Patrick Dave Q.
    Keywords: 安全化理論
    Securitization theory
    regime of practices
    Abu Sayyaf Group
    Date: 2021
    Issue Date: 2021-03-02 14:51:28 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本論文聚焦於打擊國際恐怖主義背後的複雜社會過程,尤其是在九一一爆炸事件以及全球反恐戰爭的出現之後,人們究竟是如何針對恐怖主義的萌芽、維護與轉型提出相應對策。此研究嘗試以更具社會學觀點的安全化理論為框架,透過整合論述與非論述實踐,理解安全議題細緻的變遷、延續或演進過程。實踐建制概念的應用進一步凸顯出以安全化理論理解安全議題的重要性,它同時也得以幫助研究者瞭解非西方國家的特殊經驗,菲律賓長年以來面對國內與國際恐怖主義的經驗便能夠在這個框架之下被更好的定位。


    In this dissertation I explore the complex social process of countering international terrorism after the 9/11 bombings and the declaration of the Global War on Terror (GWOT). Specifically, I look into the creation, maintenance, and transformation of the issue of terrorism and its corresponding responses. In order to understand this, I utilize the securitization framework that leans closer to its sociological turn. The sociological perspective in securitization studies presents an integrative framework that accommodates both discursive and non-discursive practices to better understand the subtleties of change and continuity or the evolution of a security issue. The utilization of the concept of regimes of practices further highlights the importance of securitization theory in understanding security issues and as well as expands its utility to capture particular experiences in the non-West. Thus, this work highlights the particular experience of the Philippines that has long been experiencing domestic and transnational forms of terrorism.

    After the 9/11 bombings and the declaration of the GWOT, counterterrorism in the Philippines was seemingly recreated in that through this, the country was even dubbed as one of the US’ staunchest allies in the war on terror. In a way, this relationship has directly or indirectly informed Philippine responses to terrorism from the administrations of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (2001-2010), Benigno Simeon Aquino, III (2010-2016), and Rodrigo Roa Duterte (2016-present). Upon further reflection, this work reveals that it was not only the alliance that was important in the creation, maintenance, and transformation of the security issue but as well as local political dynamics that co-facilitated the acceptance of the security issue. In this research project I argued that there is so much more than what meets the eye in the Philippines’ response against terrorism. Security decision-making and the politics of the extraordinary is ultimately embedded within the regime of practices that manifests from the domestic political dynamics of the country.

    In this dissertation I further reveal that the social construction of counterterrorism has far-reaching repercussions and has created a paradox in reference with the peace initiatives being pursued by the government. As I elaborated on the machinations of power, I made explicit its complex social process and more specifically, the prevailing dominant narrative understood as the traditional way of dealing with conflict and violence by employing heavy-handed approaches. This, then, is most useful to arrive at more informed responses. In a way, I conceived of this research project with the purpose of also encouraging further research works to focus on exposing the exercise of power to understand dominance and willing compliance hidden in various forms of political maneuvering.
    Reference: Abrahamsen, R. (2005). Blair's Africa: The Politics of Securitization and Fear. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 30(1), 55-80. doi:10.1177/030437540503000103
    ABS-CBN. (2017, July 29). US donates more counterterror weapons for Marawi troops.
    Retrieved from http://news.abs-cbn.com/news/07/29/17/us-donates-more-counterterror-weapons-for-marawi-troops
    Abuza, Z. (2003). Militant Islam in Southeast Asia: Crucible of terror. Lynne Rienner
    Abuza, Z. (2018, June 14). Where did the U.S. go wrong in the Philippines? A hard look at a
    'Success' story. War on the Rocks. Retrieved from https://warontherocks.com/2018/06/
    Acharya, A. (2015). Wither Southeast Asia terrorism? Imperial College Press.
    Acharya, A. (2009). Whose ideas matter?: Agency and power in Asian regionalism. Cornell University Press.
    Acharya, A. (2016). Securitization in Asia: Functional and Normative Implications. In R.
    Emmers, M. Caballero-Anthony, & A. Acharya (Eds.), Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Dilemmas in Securitization (pp. 247–250). London, England: Routledge.
    Acharya, A., & Buzan, B. (2010). Non-western international relations theory: Perspectives on and beyond Asia. Routledge.
    Acharya, A., & Buzan, B. (2017). Why is there no non-western international relations theory?
    Ten years on. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 17(3), 341-370. https://doi.org/10.1093/irap/lcx006
    Administrative order No. 43, S. 2002. (2002, November 7). Official Gazette of the Republic
    of the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2002/
    Administrative order No. 142, S. 2006. (2006, February 6). Official Gazette of the Republic
    of the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2006/
    Administrative order No. 264, S. 2009. (2009, May 7). Official Gazette of the Republic of the
    Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2009/
    Administrative order No. 344, S. 1997. (1997, June 20). Official Gazette of the Republic of
    the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/1997/
    Agence France-Presse. (2016, July 1). Philippines president rodrigo Duterte urges people to
    kill drug addicts. the Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/01/
    Agence France-Presse. (2017, October 26). US Played Key Role in Helping AFP Retake
    Marawi: Envoy. Retrieved from https://news.abs-cbn.com/news/10/26/17/us-played-key-role-in-helping-afp-retake-marawi-envoy
    Agence France-Presse. (2019, January 27). Ferry Bomb to Marawi Siege: Philippines’ Worst
    Attacks. Retrieved from https://news.abs-cbn.com/focus/01/27/19/ferry-bomb-to
    Agpalo, R. E. (1999). The Philippine Pangulo regime. Philippine Political Science
    Journal, 20(1), 45-60. https://doi.org/10.1163/2165025x-02001002
    Aguilar, K. (2020, June 1). Duterte certifies as urgent anti-terror bill.
    INQUIRER.net. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1284472/duterte-certifies-as-urgent-anti-terror bill?fbclid=IwAR3v2jqhAWsTfhII2KZj7T3wZ5UpetN4lLPME7UJyjk 129AN35gMz0hraHo
    Aguirre, A. P. (2009). The Philippine Response to Terrorism. Journal of Policing,
    Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 4(1), 47–63. doi:10.1080/18335300.2009.9686923
    Al Jazeera English. (2016, June 28). Philippines President Benigno Aquino set to retire [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rGHD80yl57A
    Alipala, J. S. (2016, 14). Abus Mock Duterte, behead Canadian. INQUIRER.net.
    Allison, G. (2017). Destined for war: Can America and China escape Thucydides's trap?
    Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
    Amnesty International. (2017, November 17). Philippines: “Battle of Marawi” Leaves Trail of Death and Destruction. Retrieved from http://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/
    Amnesty International. (2020, June 4). UN report on the Philippines shows urgent need for
    international investigation. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2020/06/
    Aning, J. (2013, April 6). Supreme Court rules party-list not only for marginalized.
    INQUIRER.net. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/385839/supreme-court-rules-party-list-not-only-for-marginalized
    Aquino III, B. S. (2010, July 26). Benigno S. Aquino III, State of the Nation Address, July 26,
    2010 (English) | GOVPH. Retrieved from http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/
    Aquino III, B. S. (2015, July 27). [English] Benigno S. Aquino III, Sixth State of the Nation
    Address, July 27, 2015 | GOVPH. Retrieved from http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/
    Aquino III, B. S. (2016, April 27). President Aquino on the terror activities of the Abu Sayyaf
    |GOVPH. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
    Araneta, S. (2009, January 24). Life terms for MILF Rizal Day bombers. Philstar.com.
    Arroyo, G. M. (2002, July 22). Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Second State of the Nation
    Address, July 22, 2002 | GOVPH. Retrieved from http:// www.officialgazette.gov.ph/
    Arroyo, G. M. (2003, July 28). Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Third State of the Nation Address, July 28, 2003 | GOVPH. Retrieved from http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2003/07/28/gloria
    Arroyo, G. M. (2004, July 26). Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Fourth State of the Nation Address, July 26, 2004 | GOVPH. Retrieved from http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/
    Arroyo, G. M. (2005a, July 25). Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Fifth State of the Nation Address, July 25, 2005 | GOVPH. Retrieved from http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2005/07/25/gloria
    Arroyo, G. M. (2005b, September 14). Closing statement: President Arroyo during the United Nations Security Council summit. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2005/09/14/closing-statement-president-arroyo-during-the-united-nations-security-council-summit/
    Arroyo, G. M. (2006, July 24). Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Sixth State of the Nation Address, July 24, 2006 | GOVPH. Retrieved from http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2006/07/24/gloria
    Arroyo, G. M. (2007, July 23). Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Third State of the Nation Address, July 23, 2007. Retrieved from http://www.gov.ph/2007/07/23/gloria-macapagal-arroyo
    Arroyo, G. M. (2009, July 27). Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Ninth State of the Nation Address, July 27, 2009 | GOVPH. Retrieved from http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2009/07/27/gloria
    ASEAN Declaration on Transnational Crime. (1997). Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
    ASEAN Plan of Action to Combat Transnational Crime. (1999). Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
    ASEAN Declaration on Joint Action to Counter Terrorism. (2001). ASEAN Declaration on Joint Action to Counter Terrorism. Retrieved from http://asean.org/
    ASEAN declaration on transnational crime. (1997, December 20). ASEAN.
    ASEAN Plan of Action to Combat Transnational Crime. (1999). Centre for International
    Law. https://cil.nus.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/formidable/18/1999-ASEAN-Plan-of-Action-to-Combat-Transnational-Crime.pdf
    Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. (2001). Statement on counter-terrorism. APEC.
    https://www.apec.org/Meeting-Papers/Leaders Declarations/ 2001/2001_aelm/statement_on_counter-terrorism.aspx
    Asia Strategic Survey. (2009). Political Violence in the Philippines. Strategic Survey, 52-55.
    Associated Press. (1995, April 7). World news briefs; Filipino troops corner rebels after
    attack. The New York Times - Breaking News, US News, World News and Videos. https://www.nytimes.com/1995/04/07/world/world-news-briefs-filipino-troops-corner-rebels-after-attack.html?pagewanted=1
    Ayoob, M. (1986). Regional Security and the Third World. In M. Ayoob (Ed.), Regional
    Security in the Third World: Case Studies from Southeast Asia and the Middle East (pp. 3–23). London: Croom Helm.
    Baldwin, D. (2007). Security Studies and the End of the Cold War. In B. Buzan & L.
    Hansen (Eds.), International Security (pp. 99-120). London: Sage.
    Balzacq, T. (2011). Securitization theory: How security problems emerge and dissolve.
    Balzacq, T. (2013). Securitization Studies. Academic Foresights. Retrieved from https://www.academic-foresights.com/Securitization.html
    Balzacq, T. (2014). The ‘Essence’ of securitization: Theory, ideal type, and a sociological science of security. International Relations, 8-18. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047117814526606
    Balzacq, T., & Guzzini, S. (2014). Introduction: ‘What Kind of Theory – If Any– Is Securitization?’. International Relations, 2-7. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047117814526606
    Balzacq, T. (2015). Legitimacy and the "logic" of security. In Contesting Security (pp. 1-9). New York: Routledge.
    Balzacq, T. (2019). Securitization Theory: Past, present, and future. Polity, 51(2), 331-
    348. doi:10.1086/701884
    Balzacq, T., Leonard, S., & Ruzicka, J. (2016). Securitization revisited: Theory and cases.
    Internatoinal Relations, 30(4), 494-531. doi:10.1177/0047117815596590
    Banlaoi, R. C. (2006). The Abu Sayyaf group: From Mere banditry to genuine
    terrorism. Southeast Asian Affairs, 2006(1), 247-262. doi: 10.1355/seaa06o
    Banlaoi, R. (2008). Al-Harakatul Al Islamiyah Essays on the Abu Sayyaf Group. Quezon
    City: Philippine Institute for Political Violence and Terrorism Research.
    Banlaoi, R. (2009). Philippine security in the age of terror: National, regional, and global challenges in the post-9/11 world. CRC Press.
    Banlaoi, R. (2017, June 15). The Maute Group and Rise of Family Terrorism. Retrieved from http://www.rappler.com/thought-leaders/173037-maute-group-rise-family-terrorism
    Banlaoi, R. C. (2019). Al-harakatul al-islamiyyah: Essays on the Abu Sayyaf group (4th ed.).
    Philippine Institute for Peace; Violence and Terrorism Research.
    Barber, B. (1995). Jihad vs. McWorld: Terrorism's challenge to democracy. Times Books.
    BBC News. (2002, June 7). Hostages die in Philippine rescue bid. https://news.bbc.co.uk/
    BBC. (2001, December 5). Philippines president Gloria Arroyo on the war against
    terrorism. https://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/asiapacific/eastasiatoday/indepth/011120_arroyo.shtml
    Beeson, M., & Stubbs, R. (2012). Routledge Handbook of Asian Regionalism . New York :
    Bertrand, J. (2000). Peace and conflict in the southern Philippines: Why the 1996 peace agreement is fragile. Pacific Affairs, 73(1), 37-54. https://doi.org/10.2307/2672283
    Best, J. (1989). Images of issues: Typifying contemporary social problems. Aldine de Gruyter.
    Bigo, D. (2002). Security and immigration: Toward a critique of the Governmentality of
    unease. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 27(1), 63-92. https://doi.org/10.1177/03043754020270s105
    Bin Laden, O. (2002). Full text: Bin Laden's 'letter to America'. The Guardian. Retrieved
    from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/nov/24/theobserver
    Booth, K., & Dunne, T. (2002). Worlds in collision: Terror and the future of global order. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Bourbeau, P. (2014). Moving forward together: Logics of the securitisation process.
    Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 43(1), 187-206. https://doi.org/10.1177/0305829814541504
    Bourbeau, P. (2015). Resiliencism and security studies: initiating a dialogue. In T.
    Balzacq (Ed.), Contesting Security: Strategies and Logics (pp. 173-188). London, England: Routledge.
    Bourbeau, P., & Vuori, J. A. (2015). Security, resilience and desecuritization:
    multidirectional moves and dynamics. Critical Studies on Security, 3(3), 253-268. doi:10.1080/21624887.2015.1111095
    Boyd, D., & Dosch, J. (2010). Securitisation Practices in Indonesia and the Philippines and
    Their Impact on the Management of Security Challenges in ASEAN and the ARF. In N. Morada & J. Haacke (Eds.), Cooperative Security in the Asia-Pacific (pp. 199–218). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Buan, L. (2020b, October 30). What's stopping Supreme Court from issuing TRO vs anti-
    terror law? Rappler. https://www.rappler.com/nation/what-is-stopping-supreme-court-issue-temporary-restraining-order-anti-terrorism-law
    Buan, L. (2020a, October 23). Schedule of oral arguments on anti-terror law petitions to be
    set mid-November. Rappler. https://www.rappler.com/nation/anti-terrorism-law-supreme-court-oral-arguments-schedule-set-mid-november-2020
    Bugarin, P. Q., Gloaria, L. B., & Milla, A. B. (2014). Philippine Center on Transnational
    Crime: Preventing crime-terror nexus in the Philippines in collaboration with Philippine National Police, 2006-2011 [Unpublished thesis]. University of Santo Tomas.
    Bugarin, P. Q. (2016). The securitization of the Global War on Terror and counterterrorism cooperation against the Abu Sayyaf Group in the Philippines [Unpublished master's thesis]. Ming Chuan University.
    Bugarin, P. Q. (2020). Securitization of the Global War on Terror and counterterrorism cooperation against the Abu Sayyaf Group. In International Studies in the Philippines: Mapping new frontiers in theory and practice (pp. 210-224). Routledge.
    Bush, G. W. (2001, October 20). Text: George Bush's address to the APEC summit in
    Shanghai. the Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/oct/20/afghanistan.terrorism12
    Bush, G. W. (2005, March 8). CNN.com - Transcript of Bush speech on terrorism. CNN International - Breaking News, US News, World News and Video. https://edition.cnn.com/2005/ALLPOLITICS/03/08/bush.transcript/
    Buzan, B. (1983). People States and Fear. Sussex: Wheatsheaf Books LTD.
    Buzan, B. (2006). Will the “Global War on Terrorism” Be the New Cold War? International
    Affairs, 82(6), 1101–1118. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2346.2006.00590.x
    Buzan, B. G. (2017). The Post-Western World Order: Assumptions, Rationales,
    Predictions [Conference session]. World International Studies Committee 5th Global International Studies Conference, Taipei, Taiwan (R.O.C.).
    Buzan, B., & Hansen, L. (2009). The evolution of international security studies. Cambridge:
    Cambridge University Press.
    Buzan, B., Waever, O., & de Wilde, J. (1998). Security: A New Framework for Analysis.
    London: Lynne Reinner.
    Cabal, R. (2016, November 7). Exclusive: MILF 'traitors' and 'criminals' – Misuari. CNN
    Philippines. https://cnnphilippines.com/news/2016/11/07/exclusive-misuari-milf-traitors-criminals.html
    Caballero-Anthony, M., & Emmers, R. (2006). The Dynamics of Securitization in Asia. In A.
    Amitav, M. Caballero-Anthony, & R. Emmers (Eds.), Studying Non-Traditional Security in Asia: Trends and Issues (pp. 21-35). Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Academic.
    Caballero, M. A., & Emmers, R. (2016). Understanding the Dynamics of Securitizing Non-
    Traditional Security. In R. Emmers, M. A. Caballero, & A. Acharya (Eds.), Non-traditional security in Asia: Dilemmas in securitization (pp. 1-39). Routledge.
    Cairney, P. (2012). Understanding public policy: Theories and issues. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Campbell, D. (1998). Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of
    Identity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Canceran, D. (2016). Justice in the Mamasapano Tragedy: Beyond the Logic of Right and
    Peace Discourses. Philippine Sociological Review, 64, 157-167. http://www.jstor.org/stable/45014292
    Castaneda, J. (2020, October 5). Facebook finally blocks Duterte’s army of trolls. Asia
    Times. https://asiatimes.com/2020/09/facebook-finally-blocks-dutertes-army-of-trolls/
    Center for Strategic and International Studies. (2017). A Call to Battle in the Philippines.
    Retrieved from https://csis-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/publication/171220
    Chomsky, N. (1988). The culture of terrorism. Black Rose Books.
    Chong, A. (2010). Southeast Asia: Theory between Modernization and Tradition? In A.
    Acharya & B. Buzan (Eds.), Non-Western International Relations Theory: Perspectives on and beyond Asia (pp. 117–147). London, England: Routledge.
    Chow, J. T. (2005). ASEAN Counterterrorism Cooperation Since 9/11. Asian Survey, 45(2),
    302-321. doi:10.1525/as.2005.45.2.302
    Clarke, M. (2018). Terrorism and counter-terrorism in China: Domestic and foreign policy
    dimensions. Oxford University Press.
    CNN. (2001, September 11). Text of Bush’s Address. Retrieved from
    CNN. (2001, November 27). Malaysia to deport Philippines' Misuari. CNN International –
    Breaking News, US News, World News and Video. https://edition.cnn.com/
    Committee Report on the Mamasapano Incident. (2015). Philippine Senate.
    Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines – ARTICLE VI. (1987).
    Counter Extremism Project. (2020, August 26). The Philippines: Extremism & counter-extremism. https://www.counterextremism.com/countries/philippines
    Country Reports on Terrorism 2004. (2005, April 27). Chapter 5a -- Country reports. U.S.
    Department of State. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/45388.htm
    Country Reports on Terrorism 2005. (2006, April 28). Chapter 5 -- Country reports: East
    Asia and Pacific overview. U.S. Department of State. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2005/64336.htm
    Country Reports on Terrorism 2006. (2007, April 30). Chapter 2 -- Country reports: East
    Asia and Pacific overview. U.S. Department of State. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2006/82731.htm
    Country Reports on Terrorism 2007. (2008, April 30). Chapter 2 -- Country reports: East
    Asia and Pacific overview. U.S. Department of State. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2007/103706.htm
    Country Reports on Terrorism 2008. (2009, April 30). Chapter 2. Country reports: East Asia
    and Pacific overview. U.S. Department of State. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2008/122413.htm
    Country Reports on Terrorism 2009. (2010, August 5). Chapter 2. Country reports: East Asia
    and Pacific overview. U.S. Department of State. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2009/140884.htm
    Country Reports on Terrorism 2010. (2011, August 18). Chapter 2. Country reports: East
    Asia and Pacific overview. U.S. Department of State. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2010/170255.htm
    Country Reports on Terrorism 2011. (2012, July 31). Chapter 2. Country reports: East Asia
    and Pacific overview. U.S. Department of State. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2011/195542.htm
    Country Reports on Terrorism 2012. (2013, May 30). Chapter 2. Country reports: East Asia
    and Pacific overview. U.S. Department of State. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209980.htm
    Country Reports on Terrorism 2013. (2014, April). Chapter 2. Country reports: East Asia and
    Pacific overview. U.S. Department of State. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2013/224821.htm
    Country Reports on Terrorism 2014. (2015, April). Chapter 2. Country reports: East Asia and
    Pacific overview. U.S. Department of State. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2014/239405.htm
    Country Reports on Terrorism 2015. (2016, June). Chapter 2. Country reports: East Asia and
    Pacific overview. U.S. Department of State. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2015/257515.htm
    Country Reports on Terrorism 2016. (2017, July). United States Department of State.
    Country Reports on Terrorism 2017. (2018, September). United States Department of State.
    Country Reports on Terrorism 2018. (2019, October). United States Department of State.
    Country Reports on Terrorism 2019. (2020, June 24). United States Department of State.
    Crisis Group. (2008, May 14). The Philippines: Counter-insurgency vs. counter-terrorism in Mindanao. https://www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-east-asia/philippines/philippines-counter-insurgency-vs-counter-terrorism-mindanao
    Dalpino, C. E. (2001, December 19). The War on Terror in Southeast Asia. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/the-war-on-terror-in-southeast-asia/
    Dancel, R. (2019, July 11). Philippine officials confirm first suicide attack by local militant. The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/philippine-officials-confirm-first-suicide-attack-by-local-militant
    Dean, M. (2010). Governmentality: Power and rule in modern society. SAGE.
    De Guzman, C. (2018, July 28). Duterte offers peace talks with Abu Sayyaf after signing
    Bangsamoro law. CNN. https://cnnphilippines.com/news/2018/07/28/Rodrigo-Duterte-Bangsamoro-law-Abu-Sayyaf-Group.html
    Domingo, F. (2013, October 4). Explaining the sustainability of the Communist Party of the Philippines-new people’s army. Small Wars Journal. https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/explaining-the-sustainability-of-the-communist-party-of-the-philippines-new-people%e2%80%99s-army
    Dunigan, M., Hoffmann, D., Chalk, P., Nichiporuk, B., & DeLuca, P. (2012). The Case of
    Operation Enduring Freedom-Philippines. In Characterizing and Exploring the
    Implications of Maritime Irregular Warfare (pp. 19–34). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
    Duterte, R. R. (2016, July 25). Full Text: President Duterte’s 1st State of the Nation Address.
    Retrieved from http:// www.rappler.com/nation/140860-rodrigo-duterte-speech-sona
    Duterte, R. R. (2017, July 24). Rodrigo Roa Duterte, second state of the nation address, July
    24, 2017 | GOVPH. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2017/07/24/rodrigo-roa-duterte-second-state-of-the-nation-address-july-24-2017/
    Duterte, R. R. (2018, July 23). Rodrigo Roa Duterte, third state of the nation address, July 23,
    2018 | GOVPH. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2018/07/23/rodrigo-roa-duterte-third-state-of-the-nation-address-july-23-2018/
    Duterte, R. R. (2019, July 22). Rodrigo Roa Duterte, fourth state of the nation address, July
    22, 2019 | GOVPH. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2019/07/22/rodrigo-roa-duterte-fourth-state-of-the-nation-address-july-22-2019/
    Duterte, R. R. (2020, July 27). Rodrigo Roa Duterte, fifth state of the nation address, July 27,
    2020 | GOVPH. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2020/07/27/rodrigo-roa-duterte-fifth-state-of-the-nation-address-july-27-2020/
    Emmers, R. (2003). ASEAN and the Securitization of Transnational Crime in Southeast Asia.
    The Pacific Review, 16(3), 419–438. doi:10.1080/0951274032000085653
    Emmers, R. (2011). Securitization. In Alan Collins, ed. Contemporary security studies. New
    York: Oxford University Press.
    Eriksson, J., & Norman, L. (2011). Political utilisation of scholarly ideas: The ‘clash of civilisations’ vs. ‘soft power’ in US foreign policy. Review of International Studies, 37(1), 417-436. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0260210510000173
    Eroukhmanoff, C. (2018, January 14). Securitisation Theory: An Introduction. Retrieved
    from https://www.e-ir.info/2018/01/14/securitisation-theory-an-introduction/
    Esmaquel II, P. R. (2020, October 5). Duterte performance rating rises to 91% in 1st major
    survey during pandemic. Rappler. https://www.rappler.com/nation/duterte-performance-rating-pulse-asia-october-5-2020
    Executive order No. 30, S. 1998. (1998, September 30). Official Gazette of the Republic of
    the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/
    Executive order No. 39, S. 2011. (2011, April 28). Official Gazette of the Republic of the
    Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2011/04/28/executive
    Executive order No. 246, S. 1995. (1995, May 18). Official Gazette of the Republic of the
    Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/1995/05/18/
    Executive order No. 336, S. 2001. (2001, January 5). Official Gazette of the Republic of the
    Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2001/01/05/executive
    Fabe, A. P. (2013). The Cost of Terrorism: Bombings by the Abu Sayyaf Group in the
    Philippines. Philippine Sociological Review, 61, 229-250. http://www.jstor.org/stable/43486362
    Fealy, G. (2017, August 23). The Battle for Marawi and ISIS in Southeast Asia. Retrieved
    from http://www.aspistrategist.org.au/battle-marawi-isis-southeast-asia/
    Febrica, S. (2010). Securitizing Terrorism in Southeast Asia. Asian Survey, 50(3), 569–590.
    doi: 10.1525/as.2010.50.3.569
    Febrica, S. (2017). Refining the Role of Audience in Securitization: Southeast Asia’s Fight
    against Terrorism. In S. N. Romaniuk, F. Grice, D. Irrera, & S. Webb (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Global Counterterrorism Policy (pp. 703–730).
    Final Report re Armed Conflict in Zamboanga City and Basilan Province. (2013). National
    Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council.
    Fisher, K. (2012). From 20th Century Troubles to 21st Century International Terrorism:
    Identity, Securitization, and British Counterterrorism from 1968 to 2011 (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom.
    Floyd, R. (2010). Security and the environment: Securitisation theory and US environmental
    security policy. Cambridge University Press.
    Floyd, R. (2011). Can securitization theory be used in normative analysis? Towards a just
    securitization theory. Security Dialogue, 42(4-5), 427-439. doi:10.1177/0967010611418712
    Fonbuena, C. (2015, February 20). Senate hearings: Was there US involvement in SAF ops? Rappler. https://www.rappler.com/nation/senate-hearing-american-involvement-mamasapano
    Fonbuena, C. (2017, October 23). The war in Marawi: 153 days and more. Retrieved from
    Foucault, M. (1991). Governmentality. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon, & P. Miller (Eds.), The
    Foucault effect (pp. 87-104). The University of Chicago Press.
    Gaddis, J. L. (2004). Surprise, security, and the American experience. Harvard University Press.
    Gaña Jr., S. H. (2002). Current situation of and countermeasures against transnational organized crime in the Republic of the Philippines (59). United Nations Asia and Far East Institute. Retrieved from https://www.unafei.or.jp/publications/
    Gatowicki, S. H. (1997). Confronting terrorism: New war form or mission impossible?
    Professional Journal of the United States Army, 61-66.
    Gavilan, J. (2020, February 19). Lives in danger as red-tagging campaign intensifies. Rappler. https://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/in-depth/lives-in-danger-duterte-government-red-tagging-campaign
    General Assembly 49/60. (1994). United Nations. Retrieved from https://www.ilsa.org/Jessup/Jessup08/basicmats/ga4960.pdf
    General order No. 2, S. 2002. (2002, May 9). Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2002/05/09/general-order-no-2
    General order No. 3, S. 2003. (2003, April 3). Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2003/04/03/general
    George, A. L., & Bennett, A. (2005). Process-tracing and historical explanation. In Case
    studies and theory development in the social sciences (pp. 205-232). MIT Press.
    Global Terrorism Index. (2018). Measuring the impact of terrorism. Institute for Economics & Peace.
    GMA News. (2006, September 10). RP security measures in place for
    9/11. https://www.gmanetwork.com/news/news/nation/14974/rp-security-measures-in-place-for-9-11/story/
    GMA News. (2009, August 14). Arroyo's peacemaking legacy leaves a trail of blood and chaos. GMA News Online. https://www.gmanetwork.com/news/news/content/169839/arroyo-s-peacemaking-legacy-leaves-a-trail-of-blood-and-chaos/story/
    GMA News. (2015, March 17). FULL TEXT: Executive summary of Senate report on Mamasapano clash. GMA News Online. https://www.gmanetwork.com/news/news/nation/453873/full-text-executive-summary-of-senate-report-on-mamasapano-clash/story/
    Goh, E. (2013). The Struggle for Order: Hegeony, Hierarchy, and Transition in Post-Cold War East Asia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Goodin, R. E., & Klingemann, H. (1996). A new handbook of political science. OUP Oxford.
    Gotinga, J. (2019, December 31). After 2 and a half years, martial law ends in Mindanao.
    Rappler. https://www.rappler.com/nation/martial-law-mindanao-ends-december-31-2019
    Gotinga, J. (2020, July 13). Beware of that two-faced clause in the anti-terror law. Rappler.
    Gutoc, S. (2003). Causes of "terrorism": The Philippine case. Arellano Law and Policy Review, 4(1), 57-89.
    Guzzini, S. (2011). Securitization as a causal mechanism. Security Dialogue, 42(4-5), 329-341. https://doi.org/10.1177/0967010611419000
    Guzzini, S. (2015). A dual history of 'securitisation'. Danish Institute for International Studies. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep13347
    Handbook on the PNP Three-Tiered Defense System against terrorism. (2003). Directorate for Operations, Philippine National Police.
    Hansen, L. (2000). The Little Mermaid's Silent Security Dilemma and the Absence of Gender in the Copenhagen School. Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 29(2), 285-306. doi:10.1177/03058298000290020501
    Hansen, L. (2011). The politics of securitization and the Muhammad cartoon crisis: A post-structuralist perspective. Security Dialogue, 42(4-5), 357-369. doi:10.1177/0967010611418999
    Hartley, L. (2008). War and peace, or governmentality as the ruin of democracy. In S.
    Morton & S. Bygrave (Eds.), Foucault in an age of terror: Essays on biopolitics and the defence of society (pp. 133-151). Palgrave Macmillan.
    Hoffman, B. (2006). Inside terrorism. Columbia University Press.
    Homer-Dixon, T. F. (1994). Environmental Scarcities and Violent Conflict: Evidence from Cases. International Security, 19(1), 5-40. doi:10.2307/2539147
    Honna, J. (2015). Contextualizing global governance of gounterterrorism: ASEAN-Japan cooperation in Southeast Asia. In R. Sukma & Y. Soeya (Eds.), Navigating change: ASEAN-Japan strategic partnership in East Asia and in global governance. Tokyo: Japan Center for International Exchange.
    Huda, Y. (2013). Physical Southeast Asia [Map]. Leiden University.
    Huntington, S. P. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. Simon
    & Schuster.
    Imperial, N., Curley, M., & Thomas, N. (2005). Securitization and the challenge of ASEAN Counter-Terrorism Cooperation. Hong Kong: Center of Asian Studies.
    Internal Peace and Security Plan. (2011). Armed Forces of the Philippines.
    Jackson, R. (2007). Constructing Enemies: “Islamic Terrorism” in Political and Academic Discourse. Government and Opposition, 42(3), 394–426. doi:10.1111/j.1477
    Jatmiko, A. (2017, June 19). Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines launch joint sea patrols. Retrieved from https://www.defensenews.com/training-sim/2017/06/19/indonesia-malaysia
    Johnson, H., & Giles, C. (2019, November 12). How many have died in Philippines drugs
    war? BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-50236481
    Jones, L. (2011). Beyond securitization: Explaining the scope of security policy in Southeast
    Asia. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 11(3), 403-432. https://doi.org/10.1093/irap/lcr002
    Jongman, A., & Schmid, A. (1988). Political terrorism: A new guide to actors, authors,
    concepts, data bases, theories, and literature. Transaction Books.
    Kaplan, J. (2010). Terrorist groups and the new tribalism: Terrorism’s fifth wave. Routledge.
    Kaplan, J. (2016). Waves of political terrorism. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics, 1-
    29. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.24
    Kapur, S., & Mabon, S. (2018). The Copenhagen School Goes Global: Securitisation in the Non-West. Global Discourse, 8(1), 1–4. doi:10.1080/23269995.2018.1424686
    Keeley, J. F. (1990). Toward a Foucauldian analysis of international regimes. International Organization, 44(1), 83-105. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0020818300004653
    Kennedy-Pipe, C., & Rengger, N. (2006). Apocalypse Now? Continuities or Disjunctions in World Politics after 9/11. International Affairs, 82(3), 539–552.
    Kenny, P. D. (2020, August 18). Why is there no political polarization in the Philippines? - Political polarization in South and Southeast Asia: Old divisions, new dangers. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. https://carnegieendowment.org/2020/08/18/why-is-there-no-political-polarization-in-philippines-pub-82439
    Kingdon, J. W. (2011). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies. Pearson College Division.
    Koliba, C. J., Meek, J. W., & Zia, A. (2010). Governance networks in public administration and public policy. CRC Press.

    Koopman, C. (2017, March 15). Why Foucault’s work on power is more important than ever – Colin Koopman | Aeon essays. Aeon. https://aeon.co/essays/why-foucaults-work-on-power-is-more-important-than-ever
    Krasner, S. D. (1988). Sovereignty. Comparative Political Studies, 21(1), 66-94. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414088021001004
    Kriesberg, L. (1984). Policy continuity and change. Social Problems, 32(2), 89-102. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/800780
    Kristensen, P. M. (2018). International relations at the end: A sociological autopsy. International Studies Quarterly, 62(2), 245-259. doi: 10.1093/isq/sqy002
    Kurki, M. (2008). Causation in international relations: Reclaiming causal analysis.
    Cambridge University Press.
    Kurniawan, Y. (2018). The politics of securitization in democratic Indonesia. Springer.
    Lamchek, J. S. (2018). Human rights-compliant counterterrorism: Myth-making and reality in the Philippines and Indonesia. Cambridge University Press.
    Laqueur, W. (1987). The age of terrorism. Boston: Little & Brown.
    Laude, J. (2005, September 11). Australian-funded bomb data center set to open. Philstar.
    Laude, J. (2006, September 3). PNP enforces 3-tiered defense system. Philstar.
    Letter of Instruction (LOI) No. 55-2011. (2012). Philippine National Police.
    Liang, C. (2019). Global Terrorism Index 2019: Measuring the impact of terrorism. Institute for Economics & Peace. Retrieved from http://visionofhumanity.org/reports
    Love, M. (2003). Beyond sovereignty: Issues for a global agenda (2 ed.). Belmont, California: Thomson/Wadsworth.
    Lukes, S. (1974). Power: A radical view. The Macmillan Press LTD.
    Lukes, S. (2005). Power: A radical view (2nd ed.). Palgrave Macmillan.
    Makarenko, T. (2004). The Crime-Terror Continuum: Tracing the Interplay between Transnational Organised Crime and Terrorism. Global Crime, 6(1), 129-145. doi:10.1080/1744057042000297025
    Manalo, E. P. (2004). The Philippine response to terrorism: The Abu Sayyaf Group [Master's thesis]. Retrieved from https://fas.org/irp/world/para/manalo.pdf
    Mangubat, R. G. (2004, January 31). Ressa's 'Seeds of Terror' reads like a spy thriller. Philippine Daily Inquirer, pp. C3-C4.
    Manila Bulletin. (2018). Islamic State not defeated, just transforming: experts. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2018/12/14/islamic-state-not-defeated-just-transforming-experts/
    Manila Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Transnational Crime. (1998).
    Association of Southeast Asian Nations. https://asean.org/?static_post=manila-declaration-on-the-prevention-and-control-of-transnational-crime-1998-introduction
    Mapping Militant Organizations. (2018a, August). Abu Sayyaf Group. Stanford University.
    Mapping Militant Organizations. (2018b, August). Communist Party of the Philippines - New people's army. Stanford University. https://cisac.fsi.stanford.edu/mappingmilitants/
    Matusitz, J. (2013). Terrorism & communication. A critical introduction. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
    McCaffrey, B. R. and Basso, J. A. (2008). Narcotics, Terrorism, and International Crime: The
    Convergence Phenomenon. In J. M. Lutz, & B. J. Lutz (Eds.). Global terrorism v. 3 (pp.107-123). London: Routledge.
    McCoy, A. W. (1998). An anarchy of families: State and family in the Philippines. University
    of Wisconsin Press.
    Mendez, C. (2001, November 22). PNP creates task force to combat terrorism. Philstar. https://www.philstar.com/headlines/2001/11/22/140997/pnp-creates-task-force-combat-terrorism
    Mcdonald, M. (2008). Securitization and the construction of security. European Journal of International Relations, 14(4), 563-587. doi:10.1177/0047117815596590
    McInnes, C., & Rushton, S. (2011). HIV/AIDS and securitization theory. European Journal of International Relations, 19(1), 115-138. doi:10.1177/1354066111425258
    McCrisken, T. (2011). Ten years on: Obama's War on Terrorism in rhetoric and practice. International Affairs, 87(4), 781-801. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2346.2011.01004.x
    McMillan, A. F. (2001, October 22). APEC unites against terror. CNN International –
    Breaking News, US News, World News and Video. https://edition.cnn.com/
    Medina, M. T. (2016). Aftermath of the 2013 Zamboanga Siege: Peacebuilding strategies from Civil Society. Philippine Sociological Review, 64, 9-39. https://www.jstor.org/stable/45014287
    Medium-Term Development Plan 2004-2010 (ISSN 0119-3880). (2004). National Economic
    and Development Authority.
    Memorandum circular No. 9, S. 2001. (2001, September 12). Official Gazette of the Republic
    of the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2001/
    Memorandum circular No. 9, S. 2001. (2001, September 12). Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2001/
    Memorandum circular No. 64, S. 2014. (2014, June 20). Official Gazette of the Republic of
    the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2014/
    Memorandum order No. 37, S. 2001. (2001, October 12). Official Gazette of the Republic of
    the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2001/
    Memorandum order No. 54, S. 2013. (2013, March 19). Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2013/
    Memorandum order No. 61, S. 2002. (2002, May 9). Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2002/
    Memorandum order No. 94, S. 2003. (2003, April 3). Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2003/
    Memorandum order No. 121, S. 2000. (2000, October 31). Official Gazette of the Republic of
    the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2000/
    Meng, H. (2016, November). 85th session of the INTERPOL General Assembly. Paper presented at Interpol, Bali, Indonesia.
    Military Strategy for Combating Terrorism. (2004). Armed Forces of the Philippines.
    Miller, B. (2010). Explaining Changes in U.S. Grand Strategy: 9/11, the Rise of Offensive
    Liberalism, and the War in Iraq. Security Studies, 19, 26-65. https://doi.org/10.1080/09636410903546426
    Mogato, M. (2016, September 12). Duterte says he wants U.S. special forces out of southern Philippines. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-philippines-usa-duterte-idUSKCN11I10J
    Morada, N. M. (2003). Philippine: American Security Relations after 11 September: Exploring the Mutuality of Interests in the Fight against International Terrorism. Southeast Asian Affairs 2003, 2003(1), 228–238. doi:10.1355/seaa03n
    Mosqueda, R. P. (1997). An integrated approach to international terrorism in the
    Philippines [Unpublished master's thesis]. National Defense College of the Philippines.
    Munster, R. V. (2005). Logics of Security: the Copenhagen School, Risk Management and the War on Terror. Political Science Publications, University of Southern Denmark, 1-19.
    Mustapha, J. (2011). Threat Construction in the Bush Administration’s Post-9/11 Foreign Policy: (Critical) Security Implications for Southeast Asia. The Pacific Review, 24(4), 487–504. doi:10.1080/09512748.2011.596563
    National Security Policy 2011-2016. (2011). National Security Council.
    National Security Policy 2017-2022. (2017). National Security Council.
    National Security Strategy. (2018). National Security Council. https://apcss.org/wp-
    Navera, G. S. (2011). “War on Terror” Is a Curative: Recontextualization and Political Myth-Making in Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo’s 2002–2004 State of the Nation Addresses. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 8(4), 313–343. doi:10.1080/15427587.2011.615610r-no-121-s-2000
    New York Times. (1976, May 24). 3 hijackers and 10 hostages die as Philippine plane is set afire. The New York Times - Breaking News, US News, World News and Videos. https://www.nytimes.com/1976/05/24/archives/3-hijackers-and-10-hostages-die-as-philippine-plane-is-set-afire.html
    Nyman, J. (2018). Securitization. In P. Williams & M. McDonald (Eds.), Security Studies: An introduction (3rd ed., pp. 97-110). London: Routledge.
    Official Gazette. (2010). History of the official gazette | GOVPH. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/history
    Ong, M. S. (2006, February). How a bill becomes a law. GlobaLex.
    Palatino, M. (2014, July 6). Aquino: The first Filipino Nobel laureate? The Diplomat.
    Parker, T., & Sitter, N. (2015). The four horsemen of terrorism: It's not waves, it's strains.
    Terrorism and Political Violence, 28(2), 197-216. https://doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2015.1112277
    Patiag, L. (2002). Towards a National Legal Counter Measure to Combat Terrorism in the
    Philippines [Master's thesis]. http://www.ndcp.edu.ph/index.php/library/thesis-1625/
    Patterns of Global Terrorism 2000. (2001, April 30). Asia overview. U.S. Department of
    State. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2000/2432.htm
    Patterns of Global Terrorism 2001. (2002, May 21). East Asia overview. U.S. Department of
    State. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2001/html/10238.htm
    Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002. (2003, April 30). East Asia overview. U.S. Department of
    State. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2002/html/19983.htm
    Patterns of Global Terrorism 2003. (2004, April 29). East Asia overview. U.S. Department of
    State. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2003/31611.htm
    Pekkanen, S., Ravenhill, J., & Foot, R. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of the International
    Relations of Asia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Peleo IV, A. I. (2007). Living with a Culture of Conflict: Insurgency and the Philippines. Political Perspectives, 1, 1–27.
    Peleo IV, A. I. (2015). Secure in Insecurity: The Case of Threat Perception/Acceptance in the Philippines. Cogent Social Sciences, 1(1). doi:10.1080/23311886.2015.1060687
    Peleo IV, A. (2020). Small statism and the non-issue of IR in the Philippines. In F. A. Cruz & N. M. Adiong (Eds.), International studies in the Philippines: Mapping new frontiers in theory and practice (pp. 245-263). Routledge.
    Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016 (ISSN 0119-3880). (2011). National Economic and
    Development Authority.
    Philippine Development Plan 2017-2021 (ISSN:2243-7576). (2017). National Economic and
    Development Authority.
    Pimentel, A. (2007). The making of the Human Security Act of 2007. The Philippine Normal University Press.
    Pobre, C. P. (2000). History of the Armed Forces of the Filipino People. New Day Publishers.
    Pobre, C. P. (2018). History of the Armed Forces of the Filipino People. Vol 2. New Day
    Potenz, T. (2019). Introduction: The Rationale and Constitution of this Symposium. Polity,
    51(2), 321-330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/701883
    Proclamation 216. (2017). Declaring a State of Martial Law and Suspending the Privilege of
    the Writ of Habeas Corpus in the Whole of Mindanao. Retrieved from http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2017/05/23/proclamation-no-216-s-2017/
    Proclamation No. 100, S. 2001. (2001, September 14). Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2001/09/14/proclamation
    Proclamation No. 578, S. 2004. (2004, March 15). Official Gazette of the Republic of the
    Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/
    Quilala, D. (2018). Narratives and counter-narratives: Responding to political violence in the
    Philippines. Southeast Asian Affairs, 285-296. https://doi.org/10.1355/9789814786843-018
    RA 9372 Human Security Act of 2007. (2007). Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2007/03/06/republic-act-no-9372/
    RA 11479 Anti-Terrorism Act of 2020. (2020). Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/downloads/2020/06jun/20200703-RA-11479-RRD.pdf
    Racamora, J. L. (2020, June 3). Abrogation of VFA suspended: Locsin. Philippine News Agency. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1104738
    Ramakrishna, K. (2018). The Radicalization of Abu Hamdie: Wider Lessons for the Ongoing Struggle Against Violent Extremism in Post-Marawi Mindanao. Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs, 5(2), 1-18. doi:10.1177/2347797018783117
    Ranada, P. (2018, December 11). In 2018, Duterte turns to military for (almost) everything.
    Rappler. https://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/in-depth/duterte-turns-to-philippine-military-yearend-2018
    Rapoport, D. C. (2004). The four waves of modern terrorism. In A. K. Cronin & J. M. Ludes
    (Eds.), Attacking terrorism: Elements of a grand strategy (pp. 46-73). Georgetown University Press.
    Rappler. (2015, August 24). Terrorism research center head Rohan Gunaratna on ISIS in
    Asia [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hGzNnab4svs
    Republic Act No. 7941. (1995). Congress of the Philippines. https://lawphil.net/statutes/
    Ressa, M. (2002, January 19). Philippines arrests terror plot suspects. CNN. https://edition.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/01/19/ret.philippines.arrests/index.html
    Ressa, M. A. (2003). Seeds of Terror: An Eyewitness Account of Al-Qaeda's Newest Center
    of Operations in Southeast Asia. Free Press.
    Ressa, M. (2012a). From Bin Laden to Facebook: 10 days, 10 years. Mandaluyong,
    Philippines: Anvil.
    Ressa, M. A. (2012b, March 25). US smart bombs used in Sulu attack. Rappler. https://www.rappler.com/nation/us-smart-bombs-used-in-sulu-attack
    Ressa, M. (2014). Senior Abu Sayyaf leader swears oath to ISIS.
    Rappler. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/nation/65199-abu-sayyaf-leader-
    Reus-Smit, C. (2019, March 21). International relations theory doesn’t understand culture. Foreign Policy. https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/03/21/international-relations-theory-doesnt-understand-culture/
    Reuters. (2017, June 11). US joins battle as Philippines takes losses in besieged city. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2017/06/10/u-s-special-forces-helping-philippines-troops-in-battle-against-militants-allied-to-islamic-state.html
    Robinson, L., Johnston, P. B., & Oak, G. S. (2016). 2005–2007: The Move to Jolo and
    Operation Ultimatum. In U.S. special operations forces in the Philippines, 2001–2014 (pp. 45-62). Rand Corporation.
    Robles, A. (2019, September 16). Philippines’ communist rebellion is Asia’s longest-running
    insurgency. South China Morning Post. https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/politics/article/3027414/explained-philippines-communist-rebellion-asias-longest-running
    Rochefort, D. A., & Cobb, R. W. (1994). The politics of problem definition: Shaping the policy agenda. University Press Kansas.
    Rogers, S. (2004). Beyond the Abu Sayyaf: The Lessons of Failure in the Philippines.
    Foreign Affairs, 83(1), 15. doi:10.2307/20033825
    Rood, S. (2014, September 10). One year after siege, Zamboanga critical to success of any peace agreement. The Asia Foundation. https://asiafoundation.org/2014/09/10/one-year-after-siege-zamboanga-critical-to-success-of-any-peace-agreement/
    Rosendorff, B. P., & Sandler, T. (2005). The political economy of transnational terrorsim.
    Journal of conflict resolution, 171-182. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/
    Russell, B. (1938). Power: A new social analysis. Allan & Unwin.
    Salter, M. (2011). When securitization fails: the hard case of counter-terrorism programs. In
    T. Balzacq (Ed.), Securitization Theory: How security problems emerge and dissolve (pp. 116-131). Routledge.
    Sanidad-Leones, C. V. (2006). The current situation of crime associated with urbanization:
    Problems experienced and countermeasures initiated in the Philippines (68). United Nations Asia and Far East Institute. https://www.unafei.or.jp/publications/pdf/ RS_No68/No68_13VE_Leones1.pdf
    Security Council Resolution 1373. (2001). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.
    Security Council Resolution 1566. (2004). United Nations. Retrieved
    from https://www.un.org/ruleoflaw/files/n0454282.pdf
    Shambaugh, D., & Yahuda, M. (2008). International Relations of Asia. New York: Rowman
    & Littlefield Publishers.
    Sheikh, M. K. (2018). Securitization analysis beyond its power-critique. Global Discourse,
    8(1), 80-82. https://doi.org/10.1080/23269995.2017.1414445
    Soufan, A. (2017). Anatomy of terror: From the death of bin Laden to the rise of the Islamic State. W. W. Norton & Company.
    Spector, B. (1999). Negotiating with Villains. In P. Berton, H. Kimura, & I. William (Eds.),
    International negotiation: Actors, structure/process, values (pp. 309-334). New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Stanley, L., & Jackson, R. (2016). Introduction: Everyday narratives in world politics. Politics, 36(3), 223-235. https://doi.org/10.1177/0263395716653423
    Stone, D. (2012). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. W. W. Norton.
    Sverdlick, A. R. (2008). Terrorist and Organized Crime Entrepreneurs in the “Triple Frontier” among Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. In J. M. Lutz, & B. J. Lutz (Eds.). Global terrorism v. 3 (pp.164-173). London: Routledge.
    Talabong, R. (2018, September 9). Creation of PH Homeland Security department eyed as
    key vs terrorism. Rappler. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/nation/211574-department-of-homeland-security-eyed-solution-terrorism-philippines
    Taureck, R. (2006). Securitization theory and securitization studies. Journal of International Relations and Development, (9), 53-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jird.1800072
    The 16-point counter-terrorism program. (2003). Office of the President of the Philippines.
    The Report of the Joint National Bureau of Investigation – National Prosecution Service
    Special Investigation Team. (2015). Department of Justice. https://www.doj.gov.ph
    The Stabilisation Network. (2019). TSN report for GCERF: Violent Extremism in the
    Philippines: A Country Needs Assessment.
    The Straits Times. (2017, June 29). China gives $16m in weapons to help tackle Marawi
    siege. Retrieved from http://www.straitstimes.com/asia/china-gives-16m-in-weapons-to-help-tackle-marawi-siege
    The White House. (2001, November 21). President Declares “Freedom at War with Fear”.
    Retrieved from https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/
    Thompson, M. R. (2016, February 9). Philippine ‘People power’ thirty years on. The
    Diplomat – The Diplomat is a current-affairs magazine for the Asia-Pacific, with news and analysis on politics, security, business, technology and life across the region. https://thediplomat.com/2016/02/philippine-people-power-thirty-years-on/
    Transcript: Q and a of the 2014 FOCAP presidential forum | GOVPH. (2014, October 22).
    Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
    Ugarte, E. F. (2010). ‘In a wilderness of mirrors’: The use and abuse of the ‘Abu Sayyaf’
    label in the Philippines. South East Asia Research, 18(3), 373-413. https://doi.org/10.5367/sear.2010.0002
    UNESCO. (2017). Preventing violent extremism through education: A guide for policy-
    makers. UNESCO Publishing.
    United States Institute of Peace. (2019). Preventing Extremism in Fragile States: A New
    Approach. Final Report of the Task Force on Extremism in Fragile States. https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/2019-02/preventing-extremism-in-fragile-states-a-new-approach.pdf
    Violent radicalization and Homegrown terrorism prevention Act of 2007. (2007, October 24).
    Library of Congress. https://www.congress.gov/bill/110th-congress/house-bill/1955/text
    Wadi, J. (1998). The Philippines and the Islamic world. In Philippine external relations: A
    centennial vista (pp. 15-88). Foreign Service Institute.
    Waever, O. (1989). Security, the speech act [Working paper].
    Jerusalem. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/2237994/
    Waever, O. (2007). Securitization and desecuritization. In B. Buzan, & L. Hansen (Eds.),
    International Security (pp. 66-98). London: Sage Publications.
    Waever, O. (2014). The Theory Act: Responsibility and exactitude as seen from
    securitization. International Relations, 26-32. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047117814526606
    Wang, J., & Kong, D. (2019). Counter-terrorism cooperation between China and Central Asian states in the Shanghai cooperation organization. China Quarterly of International Strategic Studies, 05(01), 65-79. https://doi.org/10.1142/s2377740019500027
    Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2020. (2018). Physical Southeast Asia [Map].
    Wendt, A. (1999). Social theory of international politics. Cambridge University Press.
    Williams, M. C. (2003). Words, Images, Enemies: Securitization and International
    Politics. International Studies Quarterly, 47(4), 511-531.
    Description: 博士
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0105265507
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202100318
    Appears in Collections:[亞太研究英語博/碩士學位學程(IDAS/IMAS)] 學位論文

    Files in This Item:

    File Description SizeFormat
    550701.pdf8581KbAdobe PDF0View/Open

    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

    社群 sharing

    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback