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    Title: 國家元首刑事豁免問題之研究
    A Study on Head of State Criminal Immunity
    Authors: 方昱棋
    Fang, Yu-Chi
    Contributors: 陳純一
    Chen, Chun-I
    方昱棋
    Fang, Yu-Chi
    Keywords: 國家元首豁免
    刑事管轄
    屬人豁免
    屬事豁免
    國際法委員會
    Head of State immunity
    Criminal jurisdiction
    immunity ratione personae
    immunity ratione materiae
    International Law Commission (ILC)
    Date: 2021
    Issue Date: 2021-04-01 11:23:09 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 國家元首豁免一直是國際法中的重要議題,與國家豁免和外交豁免交互影響且密切相關。隨著全球化的發展,國家間的交流合作相較於以往亦日益頻繁,國家元首於是經常需在國際間往來移動。由於牽涉出入他國國境,因而相對衍生了許多管轄上的問題,國家元首的豁免問題遂逐漸獲得許多關注與討論。
    儘管缺乏成文法規範,國家元首享有的絕對豁免似業已形成普遍公認的國際習慣法。然而近代以來,受到人權興盛的影響,從而帶動國際刑法與個人刑事責任概念的發展,傳統國際法以國家為核心的立場也有所改變,國家元首豁免問題因此受到了重大的衝擊。尤其是國家元首的刑事豁免,在涉及重大國際罪行時,經常與有罪不罰概念一同被提及,此二概念背後所代表的兩大價值─國家主權平等和國際人權與正義之間的衝突與角力,亦成為國家元首刑事豁免問題相關辯論的核心。隨著國際刑事法院和特赦國際刑事法庭的成立,以及數名卸任國家元首在國內法院遭到起訴的案例,皆反映了國際法已然形成新的趨勢與觀點,認為當國家元首對國際人道與人權法有重大侵害時應予究責。
    有鑑於豁免相關問題的高度爭議性,國際法委員會基於其促進國際法的逐步發展與編纂之宗旨,在2006年決定將國家官員的外國刑事管轄豁免列入研究專題,並展開一系列的研究工作,其中並對國家元首外國刑事管轄豁免問題進行了詳實的討論與分析。截至目前為止,國際法委員會已著手擬定相關的條款草案,並且部分條款草案已進行到一讀階段,其研究成果對於國家元首刑事豁免問題而言意義重大。本文希望對國家元首刑事豁免問題的發展與現狀進行研究與分析,或可找出人權與國家元首豁免相關規範之間不相牴觸的可能,以期對現存的問題找出可能的解答。
    Head of State immunity has long been an important subject in international law. Due to the influence of Globalization, it’s now more common for Heads of State to travel abroad. As it involves entering other State’s territory, many matters of jurisdiction arise and therefore receive considerable attention.
    Despite the lack of written law, Head of State immunity seems to become a generally recognized norm of customary international law. However, with the prospering of Humanism in recent years, international criminal law and individual accountability had developed as well. The traditional State-centered perspective of classic international law had also changed, and hence made quite an impact on Head of State immunity. It’s particularly in cases regarding grave crimes under international law that Head of State immunity from criminal jurisdiction is often related to impunity, and thus the rivalry between the values inherent in both concepts, that is, sovereign equality of States and protection of human rights and justice, has become the core issue of concerning debate.
    In the light of the highly controversy of such issue, the International Law Commission included the topic “Immunity of State officials from foreign criminal jurisdiction” in its long-term programme of work in 2006. It has conducted a series of research since and has made certain progress which is of great significance to Head of State Immunity. This article studies and analyzes the development and status quo of Head of State immunity from criminal jurisdiction, hoping to find the possibility to resolve the existing dilemma between immunity and human rights.
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    二、英文文獻
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    (七)其他文件
    Letter from Jack B. Tate, Acting Legal Advisor of the Department of State, to Philip B. Perlman, Acting Attorney General (May 19, 1952), Department State Bulletin, Vol. 26 (1952).
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    Difference Relating to Immunity from Legal Process of a Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 1999, available from https://www.icj-cij.org/public/files/case-related/100/100-19990429-ADV-01-00-EN.pdf (2021/3/20 last visited).
    (八)網路資料
    UN Documentation: General Assembly - About the General Assembly Agenda, Dag Hammarskjöld Library (UN Research Guides), available from https://research.un.org/en/docs/ga/agenda (2021/3/20 last visited).
    UN Documentation: General Assembly - Main Committees, Dag Hammarskjöld Library (UN Research Guides), available from https://research.un.org/en/docs/ga/committees (2021/3/20 last visited).
    About the Commission: Organization, programme and methods of work - Methods of work, International Law Commission, available from https://legal.un.org/ilc/methods.shtml (2021/3/20 last visited).
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    法律科際整合研究所
    102652020
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0102652020
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202100417
    Appears in Collections:[法律科際整合研究所] 學位論文

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