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    政大機構典藏 > 法學院 > 法律學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/138943
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/138943


    Title: 我國非銀行支付監理法制之重塑
    Reconstruction of the Non-Bank Payment Regulation
    Authors: 劉柏逸
    Liu, Po-Yi
    Contributors: 王文杰
    Wang, Wen-Chieh
    劉柏逸
    Liu, Po-Yi
    Keywords: 非銀行支付
    電子支付
    第三方支付
    電子貨幣
    虛擬通貨
    加密資產
    金融科技
    電子支付機構管理條例
    支付服務指令
    支付服務法
    資金結算法
    Non-bank payment
    Electronic payment
    Third-party payment
    Electronic money
    Virtual currency
    Crypto asset
    Fintech
    PSD2
    Payment Service Act
    Date: 2022
    Issue Date: 2022-02-10 13:07:20 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在後疫情時代的當今,隨著非現金支付工具之使用率日漸提升,我國非銀行支付產業發展確實迎來全新之契機;並隨著2021年7月《電子支付機構管理條例》的修正施行,我國非銀行支付法制的發展,更是迎來全新的篇章。

    然而,若詳觀本次《電子支付機構管理條例》之修法內容,或審視我國整體支付法制體系,卻可發現,我國支付法制似乎仍保守在傳統「以銀行為中心」之監理思維與監管架構中,進而造成我國非銀行支付法制在「監理框架」設計上,仍存在著諸多缺陷與困境,亦同時造成非銀行支付業者,仍須面臨諸多不必要的法規或准入障礙。對此,本研究歸咎其原因無非在於,我國立法者或監管者仍無法正確體認到「非銀行支付服務」與「傳統銀行金融業務」(存款與放款業務)之本質與風險差異,從而導致我國在非銀行支付法制之形塑上,往往是根基於顯不相容的「監理本質」或「監理原則」,甚而無法形成一套具有完整性與系統性的「監理框架」。

    因此,本研究在支付體系與支付工具的概覽下,先行釐清與劃定「非銀行支付」應有的「本質內涵」與「發展態樣」;進而,透過非銀行支付的各式「金融風險」探討,統整出非銀行支付服務相異於傳統銀行業務的「監理本質」、「監理目標」、「監理原則」,以及具體的「監理面向」;而後,本研究透過歐盟、新家坡、日本非銀行支付法制的剖析與比較,歸納出形塑現代非銀行支付監理法制應有的基本「分析框架」。從而,藉由前述對於非銀行支付「監理本質」與法制「分析框架」的歸納,本研究對於我國現行的非銀行支付法制進行通盤的審視與檢討,並總結出我國法制存在著「監理本質」失調、「監理範圍」破碎化、「監理密度」失衡化、「監理措施」僵化等困境與缺陷。

    最後,基於以上法制困境與缺陷,本研究在正確的「監理本質」理解下,借鑒歐盟、新家坡、日本法制,嘗試為我國提出《銀行法》與非銀行支付法制「監理框架」之重塑芻議,希冀藉帶動我國非銀行支付產業的健全與普惠發展。
    In the post-epidemic era, there has been a surge in the use of non-cash payment tools along with a great development opportunity for Taiwan's non-bank payment industry. And with the amendment of the "Act Governing Electronic Payment Institutions" (Act) in July 2021, Taiwan's non-bank payment regulation has also ushered in a new chapter.

    In this regard, the importance of establishing a complete and systematic supervision framework cannot be over emphasized. However, Taiwan's regulators still hold a conservative view in the traditional "bank-centered" regulatory thinking, this further causes Taiwan's non-bank payment regulation having defects and difficulties in the design of the regulatory framework. Meanwhile, non-bank payment institutions still have to face unnecessary regulatory obstacles or entry barriers.

    The study is in the opinion that Taiwan's regulators should have a correctly recognition of the difference in between "non-bank payment services" and "traditional banking financial services" (deposit & loan). First, the study clarifies the "essential connotation" and "developing type" of the non-bank payment. Second, Summarizing the regulatory nature, regulatory principles, and specific regulatory aspects of non-bank payment services through the discussion of various financial risks of non-bank payment. Third, taking a glimpse of the regulation in European Union, Singapore and Japan in order to Summarizing the basic "analytical framework" shaping the modern non-bank payment regulation. Fourth, conducting a comprehensive review of Taiwan's current non-bank payment regulations, and pointing out the defects such as the dissonance of regulatory nature, the fragmentation of regulatory scope, the imbalance of regulatory intensity, and the rigidity of regulatory measures.

    Last but not least, this study put forward some suggestions for reconstructing Taiwan’s Banking Law and the non-bank payment "regulatory framework".
    Reference: 中文部分(依筆畫順序)

    一、專書論著
    1.王文宇、林育廷,票據法與支付工具規範,元照出版社,2008 年。
    2.李莉莎,第三方電子支付法律問題研究,法律出版,2014年1月初版。
    3.李顯儀,數位金融與金融科技,全華圖書, 2018年6月,第二版。
    4.林建智,金融消費評議實務問題研究,元照出版社,2017年9月
    5.金桐林,銀行法,三民書局股份有限公司出版,2010年4月,7版。
    6.金融研訓編輯委員會,金融科技力,財團法人金融研訓院出版,2019年8月。
    7.陳冲,商事法暨財經法論文集─王仁宏教授六秩華誕之祝壽論文集,元照出版社,1999 年。
    8.黃昱程,貨幣銀行學,華泰文化事業出版社,2017年9月,6版。
    9.臧正運,金融科技發展與法律,五南出版社,2018年4月,2版。
    10.臧正運,變革中的金融科技法制,五南圖書出版,2019年6月。
    11.劉嵐,現代支付概論,立信會計出版,2019年2月。

    二、期刊論文
    1.李榮謙、方耀,電子支付系統與電子貨幣: 發展、影響及適當的管理架構,中央銀行季刊,第23卷第3期,頁17,2001年4月。
    2.沈中華、王儷容、蘇哲緯,臺灣行動支付發展與歸類探討,存款保險資訊季刊,第33卷第1期,頁77~78,2020年3月。
    3.林育廷,臺灣第三方支付中介之管理與規範,全國律師第19卷第2期,頁53,2015年2月。
    4.林咏儒,論金融監理之趨勢:「跨業整合」及「以風險為本」-以我國支付產業的法制為探討,萬國法律,第217期,頁14~16,2015年9月。
    5.林國彬,2015年臺灣金融五法評析簡介,月旦財經法雜誌,第36期,頁13,2015年5月。
    6.林盟翔,數位通貨與普惠金融之監理變革—兼論洗錢防制之因應策略,月旦法學雜誌,第267期,頁30,2017年8月。
    7.徐憶玫,支付系統營運管理新思維--管理走在第一線,財金資訊季刊,第79期,頁22~23,2014年7月。
    8.張天一,地下匯兌行為之可罰性與處罰範圍──對桃園地方法院105年度金簡字第1號刑事判決暨臺中 地方法院106年度金重訴字第1923號刑事判決之檢視,月旦裁判時報,第92期,頁72,2020年2月。
    9.張天一,對銀行法上「準違法收受存款罪」之再檢視──兼評最高法院108年度台上字第2403號判決及其歷審判決,月旦裁判時報,第110期,頁53,2021年8月。
    10.張伊麗、皮六一、薛中文,日本加密資產制度監管研究,證券法律與監管2020年8月號,頁73,2020年8月。
    11.莊永丞,從實質構成要件之明確性檢視銀行法第29條之1之合憲性,台灣法學雜誌,第391期,頁3,2020年5月14日。
    12.郭大維,論2021年1月新修正公布之 電子支付機構管理條例──從比較法的角度觀察,月旦法學雜誌,第317期,頁114,2021年10月。
    13.郭冠甫,電子付款機制的興起與相關法律問題(上),資訊法務透析,第12卷第1期,頁43~46,2001年1月。
    14.陳志民,支付系統競爭議題及規範架構之建立,公平交易季刊,第27卷第3期,頁1~40。
    15.馮國昌、江欣玲,台灣第三方支付制度初探,全國律師雜誌,第19卷第2期,頁39~40,2015年2月。
    16.黃興進、張宜群、呂卓勳、游騰保,台灣銀行導入行動銀行關鍵影響因素之多重個案研究,資訊管理研究,第13期,頁5,2013年7月。
    17.楊岳平,金融科技時代下的金融監管挑戰:論虛擬通貨交易平台的監管架構,國立台灣大學法學論叢,第49卷特刊期,頁1354~1370,2020年11月。
    18.楊岳平,區塊鏈時代下的證券監管思維挑戰:評金管會最新證券型虛擬通貨監管方案,臺大法學論叢,第48卷特刊,頁1295,2019年11月。
    19.楊岳平,論我國影子銀行的金融系統性風險審慎監管—以強化中央銀行最後貸款人機制為中心,中研院法學期刊,第27期,頁154~156,2020年9月。
    20.楊岳平,論虛擬通貨之法律定性─以民事法與金融法為中心,月旦法學雜誌,第301期,頁46~48,2020年6月。
    21.楊岳平,論違法收受存款罪的目的性限縮-評最高法院106 年度台上字第3713 號判決,月旦裁判時報,第90期,頁51,2019年12月
    22.楊東,金融科技的監管挑戰與維度建構,中國社會科學,2018年第5期,頁74~75,2018年。
    23.楊東,陳哲立,虛擬貨幣立法:日本經驗與對中國的啟示,證券法律與監管2018年2月號,頁70,2018年2月。
    24.廖崇宏,論電子支付的基礎法律關係—以PChome線上支付與PayPal支付服務為例,興大法學,第27期,頁246,2020年5月。
    25.臧正運,金融科技法制與監理變革的形塑力量與關鍵趨勢,萬國法律,第236期,頁7,2021年4月。
    26.臧正運,論密碼資產的興起與金融監理機關之職能變革,月旦法學雜誌,第301期,頁82~85,2020年6月。
    27.臧正運,區塊鏈運用對金融監理之啟示與挑戰,月旦法學雜誌,第267期,頁136~137,2017年7月15日。
    28.劉蕙綺,淺談日本針對加密資產/虛擬通貨相關法規之修訂,金融聯合徵信第36期,頁107~108,2020年6月。
    29.蔡宗霖,從美國PayPal經驗與歐盟支付服務指令論我國第三方支付服務之現狀與未來,科技法律透析第21卷第10期,頁47,2009年10月。
    30.蔡英欣,試論虛擬貨幣之監理與法律定位—以日本法為中心,管理評論第36卷第4期,頁55~56,2018 年10月。
    31.蔡英欣,電子支付法制之建構—以日本支付服務法為例,全國律師第14卷第8期,頁44~45,2010年8月。
    32.黎家興,歐盟支付服務原則修正案與非歐盟電子商務公司的挑戰,月旦會計實務研究,第10期,頁214~215,2018年10月。
    33.謝孟珊,第三方支付營運基本法制議題探討—以銀行法及電子票證發行管理條例為討論中心,萬國法律,第191期,頁16,2013年10月。
    34.謝孟珊,網路代理收付服務於FATF及美國之洗錢防制監管規範分析,科技法律透析,第28卷第3期,頁30,2016年3月。
    35.藍欣,日本非銀行支付服務市場監管研究,金融監管2021年第2期,頁26~29,2021年。
    36.龔玲雅,金融市場基礎設施準則暨中央銀行監管職權之探討,國際金融參考資料,第66輯,頁59~60。

    三、學位論文
    1.朱瑞翔,重省我國匯兌機構之監理架構—以系統性風險控管為中心,國立臺灣大學法律系研究所碩士輪文,2020年6月。
    2.李志文,地下銀行行為之刑罰界限,國立中原大學財經法律學系碩士論文,頁76、80,2019年7月。
    3.黃亞森,新興科技發展對支付系統法制之影響及未來發展—以我國電子支付機構管理條例為例,國立臺北大學法律系研究所碩士輪文,2018年7月;

    四、政府資料
    1.中央銀行,中華民國支付及結算系統,2009年9月。
    2.中央銀行,央行發行數位通貨之國際趨勢,3月21日央行理監事會後記者會參考資料,2019年3月21日。https://www.cbc.gov.tw/tw/public/Attachment/9321176871.pdf(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    3.中央銀行,我國電子支付機制之發展--兼論央行對數位通貨之看法,3月 24日央行理監事會後記者會參考資料,2016年3月。https://www.cbc.gov.tw/public/Attachment/632510582671.pdf(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    4.中央銀行,國際間CBDC發展趨勢及其政策意涵,6月17日央行理監事會後記者會參考資料, 2021年6月17日。https://www.cbc.gov.tw/tw/cp-357-134956-eca5f-1.html(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    5.中央銀行,虛擬通貨、區塊鏈等相關議題之最新發展,3月22日央行理監事會後記者會參考資料,2018年3月。https://reurl.cc/r88ddb(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    6.中央銀行,數位金流與虛擬通貨-央行在數位時代的角色,9月27日央行理監事會後記者會參考資料,2018年9月27日。https://www.cbc.gov.tw/Public/Attachment/892717202471.pdf(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    7.中華經濟研究院,網際網路及電子商務發展趨勢及其對金融業之影響與因應研究,台灣金融服務業聯合總會委託中華經濟研究院研究,2014年6月。
    8.立法院,立法公報第104卷第7期,頁16~17,https://lci.ly.gov.tw/LyLCEW/communique1/final/pdf/104/07/LCIDC01_1040701.pdf(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    9.立法院,立法院公報,第109卷第86期,委員會紀錄,頁143,https://reurl.cc/2o964v(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    10.立法院,立法院第8屆第6會期第2次會議議案關係文書,電子支付機構管理條例草案總說明,頁8,https://lci.ly.gov.tw/LyLCEW/agenda1/02/pdf/08/06/02/LCEWA01_080602_00109.pdf (最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    11.立法院,電子支付機構管理條例第三條第二項授權規定事項辦法總說明,https://law.fsc.gov.tw/LawContentHistory.aspx?hid=747(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    12.周天、戴豪君,新興電子支付系統之法律關係與風險管理之研究,行政院經濟建設委員會委託資訊工業策進會科技法律中心研究,2002年12月。
    13.林育廷,第三方支付之監理與法制規範研究,科技部補助專題研究計畫成果報告期末報告,2015 年 11 月。
    14.金管會,行政院通過「電子支付機構管理條例」修正草案,電子支付機構管理條例修正草案總說明及條文對照表,頁5~7,https://reurl.cc/OkK3rX(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    15.金融監督管理委員會,行動支付發展簡介及金管會立場,2016年10月。
    16.黃麗蓉,因應全球化電子商務之我國非銀行業者涉入傳統金流服務之發展,台北外匯市場發展基金會委託計畫,2020年12月。
    17.資策會電子商務組,剖析日本支付法制-資金結算法,產業評析,頁1~2,2015年1月。
    18.賴怡伶,非銀行支付機構零售支付服務發展之探討,中央銀行公務出國報告, 2015年1月15日。

    五、網路資料
    1.Ennio Y. Lu,動區動趨Blocktempo,「七種穩定幣」的定義、穩定幣監管與稅務(上),https://reurl.cc/V6p3pY(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    2.Ian Yeh,動區動趨BlockTempo,曾經稱霸比特幣市場的最惡交易所 Mt. Gox ,這些年究竟發生了什麼?https://reurl.cc/5l4ADv(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    3.INSIDE,詹宏志暴怒:有政府如此,何需敵人?https://www.inside.com.tw/article/2541-pchome-founder-is-very-angry-about-the-taiwan-authority(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    4.Meet創業新聞,傳統銀行不是敵人是神隊友!易安聯打造外籍移工超愛用跨境匯款服務,2019年8月2日,https://meet.bnext.com.tw/articles/view/45066(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    5.Newtalk新聞,第三方支付專法上路 詹宏志憂淪有錢人遊戲,2015年4月14日,https://reurl.cc/yZg1mq(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    6.Ruby,Medium,如何購買虛擬貨幣?- 4種方式買入第一筆虛擬貨幣,2019年7月30日,https://reurl.cc/Mb1ZMX(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    7.Yuren Ju,Medium,運行在區塊鏈上的交易所(上),https://reurl.cc/6EVyb6(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    8.中央銀行與金管會,「比特幣並非貨幣,接受者務請注意風險承擔問題」新聞稿,2013年12月30日,https://reurl.cc/52nZR6(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    9.中時新聞網,正名加密貨幣業 經部將增營業項目,2021年11月30日,https://reurl.cc/43994R (最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    10.中時電子報,一Pay走遍全台! 台版新支付生態圈 明年問世,2019年9月4日,https://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20190904000291-260205?chdtv(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    11.中華民國銀行商業同業公會聯合會,電子支付業務委員會介紹,https://www.ba.org.tw/AboutUnion/CommitteeIntroduction?roleid=c4f49930-a04d-44d2-b37d-69b5cfafab75(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    12.自由時報,數字科技涉違法吸金186億董座等3人遭起訴,2014年8年27日,https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/society/breakingnews/1091839(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)
    13.自由財經,櫻桃支付想進「監理沙盒」?顧立雄:它要下蠻大工夫,2019年5月30日,https://ec.ltn.com.tw/article/breakingnews/2806703(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    14.行政院新聞稿,江院長拍板「第三方支付服務」之管理短期以「電子票證發行管理條例」做為非銀行第三方支付儲值服務管理法源、中長期應制定專法,2013年8月7日,https://reurl.cc/Lpj1Oe(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    15.周樹林,Think Fintech,行動支付發展趨勢與策略,2018年3月,http://www.thinkfintech.tw/Article?q=ART180301001(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    16.林紘宇(果殼),桑幣筆記,代幣經濟的真諦—果殼團隊投資指南(一),2019年6月4日,https://zombit.info/token-economy-ultima-goal-group/(最瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    17.金管會,「金管會提醒虛擬通貨平台及交易業務事業應辦理洗錢防制法令遵循的聲明」新聞稿,2021年9月30日,https://reurl.cc/q1EyK0(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    18.金管會,「金融機構ATM不得提供比特幣相關服務」新聞稿,2014年1月6日,https://reurl.cc/gz5177(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    19.金管會,【澄清稿】金管會對於報載Apple Pay先立專法之澄清說明,2016年6月6日,https://reurl.cc/xZdzZe(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    20.金管會,預告修正「電子支付機構管理條例」,2019年7月30日,https://reurl.cc/Gm9vXW(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    21.金管會新聞稿,金管會協助發展電子商務金流服務,2013年6月4日,https://reurl.cc/vDD0ze(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    22.金管會新聞稿,金管會核准第2批金融科技創新實驗—外籍移工跨境匯款,2019年1月31日,https://reurl.cc/WkaEZy(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    23.金管會新聞稿,金管會對「證券型代幣發行(Security Token Offering, STO)相關規範」之說明,https://reurl.cc/KryLdp(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    24.科技報橘TechOrange,柯P抱怨悠遊卡想做第三方支付被拖兩年,金管會表示:你自己不申請怪我囉?2017年9年12日,https://buzzorange.com/techorange/2017/09/12/easycard-no-apply/ (最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    25.案例說|網際網路金融:風險特質知多少?每日頭條,2016年12月1日https://kknews.cc/zh-tw/finance/qenzbby.html(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    26.桑幣筆記,台灣知名加密貨幣交易所懶人包,2020年2月26日,https://zombit.info/taiwan-well-known-cryptocurrency-exchange/(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    27.區塊客,林紘宇,果殼專欄 | 台灣實施虛擬通貨防制洗錢辦法,「同業公會」問題待解,2021年7月7日,https://reurl.cc/oxWopV(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    28.華視新聞網,「海洋台灣夢」被法海吞噬的扁舟,2019年7月19日,https://reurl.cc/R1R78D(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    29.辜騰玉,Ithome,區塊鏈運作原理大剖析:5大關鍵技術,2016年4月23日,https://reurl.cc/O1AV3y(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    30.黃亞森,第三方支付、電子支付、行動支付、電子貨幣、虛擬通貨、加密貨幣和其衍生之代幣(token)概念解析─七個願望一次滿足,2018年9月30日,https://reurl.cc/Qjnnpq(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    31.新新聞,數字科技敗給過時的法令,2014年9年9日,https://reurl.cc/V66lDN(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    32.楊金龍,中央銀行貨幣與零售支付系統―兼論財金公司扮演之角色,108年11月17日,https://reurl.cc/AqEmaE(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    33.經濟日報,非現金支付比率未達標 金管會再訂3年6兆新目標,2021年3年24日,https://money.udn.com/money/story/5613/5295216(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    34.經濟部,防堵第三方支付遭利用於犯罪,經濟部預告訂定反洗錢辦法,2021年9月28日,https://reurl.cc/oxEY25(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    35.臧正運,風傳媒,全球金融科技監理的邏輯與綱領,2016年9月29日,https://www.storm.mg/article/171344(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    36.數位時代,LINE Pay擴大燒錢、街口踩住煞車,台灣行動支付大戰下一步怎麼走?,2021年5月6日,https://www.bnext.com.tw/article/62673/line-pay-jkos(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    37.數位時代,黃亞森,從電支電票的合併修法──談支付法制之發展及本次修法特色(下),2020年1月10日,https://reurl.cc/l51E5l(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    38.數位時代,黃亞森,電子支付修了法就沒事了嗎?借鏡日本支付法規談可能的問題,2020年10月7日,https://reurl.cc/Lpjed9(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    39.數位時代,薩爾瓦多正式將比特幣定為法幣、先購入400枚!但未來有哪些難題要解決?,https://www.bnext.com.tw/article/64925/bitcoin-el-salvador-(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    40.蕭長瑞,新世代金融基金會,交流園地,櫻桃支付 另類匯款的工具,2018年12月7日,http://www.appacus.org.tw/xmdoc/cont?sid=0I347369618860458073&xsmsid=0H257354211300229964 (最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    41.懶人經濟學,閒置資產收益介紹:MAX交易所獨家新功能、設定與領取教學,2021年7月22日,https://earning.tw/max-earning/(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    42.羅沛君、余海春,金卡生活,日本第三方支付監政策管研究,2019年6月,https://m.mpaypass.com.cn/news/201906/10141633.html(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。

    日文部分(依筆畫順序)

    一、期刊論文
    1.平岡克行,銀行法2条2項における「為替取引」概念に関する考察(1),早稲田法学会誌第66巻2号(2016),頁457~458。
    2.平岡克行,銀行法2条2項における「為替取引」概念に関する考察,銀行法2条2項における「為替取引」概念に関する考察(2),頁391~393。

    二、政府資料
    1.金融庁,金融審議会「決済法制及び金融サービス仲介法制に関するワーキング・グループ」(第2回)参考資料,頁8,2019年10月24日,https://reurl.cc/DZOVGm(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)
    2.金融審議会金融分科会第二部会,資金決済に関する制度整備について,頁11~14,2009年 1月14日,https://www.fsa.go.jp/singi/singi_kinyu/tosin/20090114-1.html(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。
    3.経済産業省,決済横断法制論について,頁10~11,2019年4月,https://reurl.cc/V5zKQy(最後瀏覽日:2021年12月25日)。

    英文部分(依字母順序)

    一、專書論著
    1.Jakub Górka, TRANSFORMING PAYMENT SYSTEMS IN EUROPE(2016)
    2.John Armour, Dan Awrey, Paul Davies et al., PRINCIPLES OF FINANCIAL REGULATION, Oxford University Press(2016).
    3.Terri Bradford et al., MANAGING INFORMATION RISK AND THE ECONOMICS OF SECURITY(M. Eric Johnson eds.)(2009).
    4.Toshiyuki Kono, REGULATING FINTECH IN ASIA(2020).

    二、期刊論文
    1.Adebola Adeyemi, A New Phase of Payments in Europe: the Impact of PSD2 on the Payments Industry(2019), available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3375530(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    2.Agnieszka Janczuk, Evolution of EU Retail Payments Law, 21/2015 Tilburg Law School Research(2015), available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=2694426(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    3.Andrejus Solovjovas, Payment Services Directive: a better consumer protection in mobile payments, University of Oslo Faculty of Law(2015), available at: https://www.duo.uio.no/handle/10852/44887(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    4.Benjamin Geva, Payment Transactions under the E.U. Second Payment Services Directive – An Outsider’s View, 54 Texas International Law Journal(2019), available at: https://reurl.cc/7olyg9(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    5.Benjamin Lo, Fatal Fragments: The Effect of Money Transmission Regulation on Payments Innovation, 18 Yale J.L. & Tech(2017), available at https://reurl.cc/Ld5nQ3(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    6.Carol R. Goforth, The Case for Preempting State Money Transmission Laws for Crypto-Based Businesses, 73(2)Arkansas Law Review(2020), available at https://reurl.cc/vgzOZl(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    7.Cheng-Yun Tsang, Louise Malady & Ross P. Buckley, Promoting Financial Inclusion by Encouraging the Payment of the Interest on E-Money, UNSW Law Research Paper, No. 17- 48(July. 2017), available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=3002925(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    8.Dan Awrey & Kristin van Zwieten, Mapping the Shadow Payment System, 2019-001 SWIFT Working Paper(2019), available at https://reurl.cc/Wdq0Kx(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    9.Dan Awrey & Kristin van Zwieten, The Shadow Payment System, 43 Journal of Corporation Law(April. 2017), available at https://reurl.cc/6l2zyr(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    10.Dan Awrey, Bad Money, 106 Cornell Law Review(February. 2020), available at http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3532681(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    11.Dilja Helgadottir, The Interaction between Directive 2015/2366 (EU) on Payment Services and Regulation (EU) 2016/679 on General Data Protection concerning Third Party Players, 23 Trinity College Law Review(2020), available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=3455428(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    12.Dirk Andreas Zetzsche, Ross P. Buckley & Douglas W. Arner, Regulating LIBRA: The Transformative Potential of Facebook’s Cryptocurrency and Possible Regulatory Responses, University of Hong Kong Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2019/042(July. 2019), available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=3414401(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    13.Dirk Andreas Zetzsche, Ross P. Buckley, Douglas W. Arner & Linus Föhr, The ICO Gold Rush: It's a Scam, It's a Bubble, It's a Super Challenge for Regulators, European Banking Institute Working Paper Series18/2018(July. 2018), available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=3072298(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    14.Douglas W. Arner , Dirk A. Zetzsche, Ross P. Buckley & Rolf H. Weber, The Future of Data-Driven Finance and RegTech: Lessons from EU Big Bang II, 25(2) Stanford Journal of Law, Business & Finance(2020)available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=3359399(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    15.Douglas W. Arner et al., After Libra, Digital Yuan and COVID-19: Central Bank Digital Currencies and the New World of Money and Payment Systems, 65 European Banking Institute Working Paper Series(June. 2020), available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=3622311(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    16.Ignacio Mas, Shifting Branchless Banking Regulation from Enabling to Fostering Competition, 30(2) Banking & Finance Law Review (June. 2014), available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=1692164(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    17.Jane K. Winn, Reengineering European Payment Law, University of Washington School of Law(2019), available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=3412457(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    18.Jean J. Luyat, A Tale of Regulation on the European Union and Japan: Characterizing the Business of Stored-Value Cards as a Financial Activity Impact Its Development, 18(3) Pacific Rim Law & Policy Journal(2009), available at https://reurl.cc/5qNnd6(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    19.John Casanova & Max Savoie, Navigating the EU regulatory landscape for payments, 13(3) Journal of Payments Strategy & Systems(2019), available at https://reurl.cc/l5gvQv(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    20.Kazutoshi Sugimura, Masaru Itatani & Masaki Bessho, Banking Business and Fund Transfer Transactions: Scope of Bank Regulation(March. 2017), available at https://reurl.cc/Okr7L9(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    21.Kevin V. Tu, Regulating the New Cashless World, 2013-06 UNM School of Law Research Paper(2013), available at http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2235937(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    22.Koichi Miyamoto & Hajime Taura, Amendments to Legislation on Electronic Payment Intermediate Service Providers(June. 2017), available at https://reurl.cc/52dqXy(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    23.Louise Malady, Ross P. Buckley & Cheng-Yun Tsang, Regulatory Handbook:The Enabling Regulation of Digital Financial Services, Law Research Paper No. 2016-05(December. 2015), available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=2715350(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    24.Maria Chiara Malaguti, The Payment Services Directive Pitfalls between the Acquis Communautaire and National Implementation, 9 ECRI Research Report(2009), available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2001388(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    25.MD Tuba, The Regulation of Electronic Money Institutions in The SADC Region: Some Lessons from the EU, 17(6) Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal,(2017), available at https://reurl.cc/2gOdEn(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    26.Michał Polasik et al., The impact of Payment Services Directive 2 on the PayTech sector development in Europe, 178 Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization(2020), available at https://reurl.cc/Mk4R4n(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    27.Peggy Valcke et al., The Evolution of Third Party Payment Providers and Cryptocurrencies Under the EU's Upcoming PSD2 and AMLD4, 2015-001 SWIFT Institute Working Paper(2015), available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2665973(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    28.Reinhard Steennot, Reduced Payer’s Liability for Unauthorized Payment Transactions under The Second Payment Services Directive (PSD2), 34(4) Computer Law & Security Review(2018), available at https://reurl.cc/Mdo1qW(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    29.Rhys Bollen, Best practice in the regulation of payment services, School of Accounting College of Business RMIT University(2010), available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=1747222(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    30.Rhys Bollen, What a Payment is (and How It Continues Confuse Lawyers), 12 Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law(2005), available at https://reurl.cc/q8KQap(last visited: 2021.12.25.).
    31.Ross P. Buckley & Ignacio Mas, The Coming of Age of Digital Payments as a Field of Expertise, Journal of Law, 1 Technology & Policy, available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=1552754(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    32.Ruth Halpin & Roksana Moore, Developments in Electronic Money Regulation – the Electronic Money Directive: A Better Deal for E-Money Issuers?, 25(6) Computer Law & Security Review(2009), available at https://reurl.cc/OqoO39(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    33.Supriya Singh, Designing for Money Across Borders, RMIT University/Smart Internet Technology Cooperative Research Centre(2005), available at https://reurl.cc/r80ml4(last visited: 2021.12. 25).
    34.Susumu Tanizawa, Chika Igarashi & Akihiro Shiba, Regulatory Reforms for Payment Services and One-Stop Financial Services Brokerage., at 1(March. 2020)
    35.Takaharu Totsuka et al., Revisions to Cabinet Order, Cabinet Office Ordinance, and Administrative Guidelines Concerning Three Classifications of Fund Transfer Services, etc(April. 2021), available at https://www.amt-law.com/asset/pdf/bulletins2_pdf/210422.pdf last visited: 2021.12.25).
    36.Takaharu Totsuka, Ayako Kuyama & Toshihiro Nakamura, New Regulatory Framework for Payment Services Business-the Payment Services Act, at 1(October. 2009), available at https://reurl.cc/6Ddgdd(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    37.Takane Hori et al., Fintech Newsletter: Publication of Cabinet Order and Cabinet Office Ordinance on the Revision of the Payment Services Act 2020(March. 2021), available at https://reurl.cc/r1YDL4(last visited: 2021.12.25).

    三、國際金融機構與非政府組織報告
    1.Apolline Blandin et al., 3rd Global Cryptoasset Benchmarking Study, University of Cambridge Judge Business School(September. 2020), available at https://reurl.cc/83dy5g(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    2.Bank for International Settlements(BIS), Big tech in finance: opportunities and risks(June. 2019), available at https://www.bis.org/publ/arpdf/ar2019e.pdf(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    3.Bank for International Settlements(BIS), BigTech and the Changing Structure of Financial Intermediation, BIS Working Papers(April. 2019), available at https://www.bis.org/publ/work779.pdf(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    4.Bank for International Settlements(BIS), Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems (CPSS), Principles for Financial Market Infrastructures, at 18~20(April. 2012), available at https://www.bis.org/cpmi/publ/d101a.pdf(last visited: 2021.12. 25)
    5.Bank for International Settlements(BIS), Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems (CPSS), Innovations In Retail Payments(May. 2012)available at https://www.bis.org/cpmi/publ/d102.pdf(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    6.Bank for International Settlements(BIS), Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems(CPSS), A glossary of terms used in payments and settlement systems(March. 2003), available at https://www.bis.org/cpmi/glossary_030301.pdf(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    7.Bank for International Settlements(BIS), Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems(CPSS), Implications For Central Banks of the Development of Electronic Money(1996), available at https://www.bis.org/publ/bisp01.pdf(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    8.Bank for International Settlements(BIS), Committee on Payments and Market Infrastructures(CPMI), Payment Aspects of Financial Inclusion in the Fintech Era(April. 2020), available at https://www.bis.org/cpmi/publ/d191.pdf(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    9.Bank for International Settlements(BIS), Committee on Payments and Market Infrastructures(CPMI), Distributed Ledger Technology in Payment, Clearing and Settlement - An Analytical Framework(February. 2017)available at https://www.bis.org/cpmi/publ/d157.pdf(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    10.Bank for International Settlements(BIS), Committee on Payments and Market Infrastructure(CPMI), Payment aspects of financial inclusion(April. 2016), available at https://www.bis.org/cpmi/publ/d144.pdf(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    11.Bank for International Settlements(BIS), Committee on Payments and Market Infrastructures(CPMI), Digital currencies(November. 2015)available at https://www.bis.org/cpmi/publ/d137.pdf(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    12.Bank for International Settlements(BIS), Committee on Payments and Market Infrastructures(CPMI), Non-Banks In Retail Payments(September. 2014)available at https://www.bis.org/cpmi/publ/d118.pdf(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    13.Bank for International Settlements(BIS), Financial Stability Institute, Fintech and payments: regulating digital paymentservices and e-money(July. 2021), available at https://www.bis.org/fsi/publ/insights33.pdf(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    14.Bech, Morten L. and Rodney Garratt, Central Bank Cryptocurrencies, BIS Quarterly Review.55(2017), available at https://www.bis.org/publ/qtrpdf/r_qt1709f.pdf(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    15.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Inclusive Digital Financial Services: A Reference Guide For Regulators(July. 2019), available at https://reurl.cc/Y1x3g0(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    16.Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems(CPSS), World Bank, General principles for international remittance services(January. 2007)available at https://www.bis.org/cpmi/publ/d76.pdf(last visited: 2021.12. 25).
    17.Cristina Cuervo, Anastasiia Morozova & Nobuyasu Sugimoto, Regulation of Crypto Assets, IMF FinTech Notes19/03(2019), available at https://reurl.cc/g7njzp(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    18.Denise Dias & Stefan Staschen, A Guide to Supervising E-Money Issuers, CGAP Technical Guide(December. 2018), available at https://reurl.cc/Wd8pXe(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    19.Denise Dias & Stefan Staschen, Nonbank E-Money Issuers Vs. Payments Banks How Do They Compare?, CGAP Technical Note(December 2019), available at https://reurl.cc/1x564X(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    20.Financial Action Task Force(FATF), 12-Month Review of the Revised FATF Standards on Virtual Assets and Virtual Asset Service Providers(June. 2020), available at https://reurl.cc/4RAlpY(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    21.Financial Action Task Force(FATF), FATF Guidance Anti-Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing Measures and Financial Inclusion(February. 2013), available at https://reurl.cc/GV6Vzp(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    22.Financial Action Task Force(FATF), Guidance for a Risk-Based Approach to virtual assets and virtual asset service providers(June. 2019), available at https://reurl.cc/b57jDv(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    23.Financial Action Task Force(FATF), Guidance for a Risk-Based Approach to Money or Value Transfer Services(Feb. 2016), available at https://reurl.cc/e6vDe7(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    24.Financial Action Task Force(FATF), Guidance for a Risk-Based Approach to Virtual Currencies(June. 2015), available at https://reurl.cc/4RQO6j(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    25.Financial Action Task Force(FATF), International Standards on Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism & Proliferation : The FATF Recommendations(June. 2021), available at https://reurl.cc/gWgMXN(last visited: 2021.12. 25).
    26.Financial Action Task Force(FATF), Virtual Assets Red Flag Indicators of Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing(September. 2020), available at https://reurl.cc/EzXWqk(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    27.Financial Stability Board(FSB), BigTech in finance Market developments and potential financial stability implications(December. 2019), available at https://reurl.cc/R4yDLn(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    28.Financial Stability Board(FSB), Crypto-asset markets Potential channels for future financial stability implications(October. 2018), available athttps://www.fsb.org/wp-content/uploads/P101018.pdf(last visited: 2021.12. 25)
    29.Financial Stability Board(FSB), FinTech and market structure in financial services:Market developments and potential financial stability implication(February. 2019), available at https://www.fsb.org/wp-content/uploads/P140219.pdf(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    30.Financial Stability Board(FSB), Regulation, Supervision and Oversight of “Global Stablecoin” Arrangements Final Report and High-Level Recommendations(October. 2020), available at https://www.fsb.org/wp-content/uploads/P131020-3.pdf(last visited: 2021.12. 25).
    31.Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion(GPFI), G20 High-Level Principles for Digital Financial Inclusion(2016), available at https://reurl.cc/D90xGe(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    32.Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion(GPFI), Global Standard-Setting Bodies and Financial Inclusion: The Evolving Landscape, at 6(March. 2016), available at https://reurl.cc/O1OG3y(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    33.Groupe Speciale Mobile Association(GSMA), Data Protection in Mobile Money, at 4~5(March. 2019), available at https://reurl.cc/oLo6V3(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    34.Groupe Speciale Mobile Association(GSMA), Safeguarding Mobile Money:How providers and regulators can ensure that customer funds are protected, (January. 2016), available at https://reurl.cc/j76jjM(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    35.Groupe Speciale Mobile Association(GSMA), The Many Paths to Mobile Money Interoperability: Selecting the Right Technical Model for Your Market(June. 2020), available at https://reurl.cc/8GxGRo(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    36.International Monetary Fund(IMF), The Bali Fintech Agenda: A Blueprint for Successfully Harnessing Fintech’s Opportunities(October. 2018), available at https://reurl.cc/E7x721(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    37.International Monetary Fund(IMF), Virtual Currencies and Beyond:Initial Considerations(January. 2016), available at https://reurl.cc/1xM24p(last visited: 22021.12.25).
    38. International Organization of Securities Commissions(IOSCO), Issues, Risks and Regulatory Considerations Relating to Crypto-Asset Trading Platforms Final Report(February. 2020), available at https://www.iosco.org/library/pubdocs/pdf/IOSCOPD649.pdf(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    39.International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector(ITU-T), Focus Group Digital Financial Services(FG-DFS), Payment System Oversight and Interoperability, Focus Group Technical Report(November. 2016), available at https://reurl.cc/X6KVN3(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    40.John Kiff et al., A Survey of Research on Retail Central Bank Digital Currency, IMF Working Paper, WP/20/104(2020), available at https://reurl.cc/em30bb(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    41.Juan Carlos Izaguirre, Denise Dias & Mehmet Kerse, Deposit Insurance Treatment of E-Money : An Analysis of Policy Choices, CGAP Technical Note,(October. 2019), available at https://reurl.cc/kd80Yb(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    42.Killian Clifford, Groupe Speciale Mobile Association(GSMA), Cybersecurity: A Governance Framework for Mobile Money Providers(September. 2019), available at https://reurl.cc/9EQqEx(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    43.London Economics, Study On The Impact Of Directive 2007/64/Ec On Payment Services In The Internal Market And On The Application Of Regulation (Ec) No 924/2009 On Cross-Border Payments In The Community, at 134~136(February 2013), available at https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/default/files/study-impact-psd-24072013_en.pdf(last visited: 2021.12.25)。
    44.Maria Chiara Malaguti, Payment System Regulation for Improving Financial Inclusion, Center for Global Development Policy Paper 070,(December. 2015), available at https://reurl.cc/Oq6l1X(last visited: 2021.12. 25).
    45.Matthew Soursourian & Ariadne Plaitakis, Fair Play: Ensuring Competition in Digital Financial Services, CGAP Working Paper(November. 2019), available at https://reurl.cc/nzGAvd(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    46.Paul Joseph Breloff & Ala Michael Tarazi, Nonbank E-Money Issuers : Regulatory Approaches to Protecting Customer Funds, CGAP Focus Note No. 63, at 1~2(July. 2010), available at https://reurl.cc/D9x6V5(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    47.Tanai Khiaonarong & Terry Goh, Fintech and Payments Regulation: Analytical Framework, 20/75 IMF Working Paper(2020), available at https://reurl.cc/aNA4KG(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    48.Tobias Adrian & Tommaso Mancini Griffoli, International Monetary Fund(IMF), The Rise of Digital Money, FinTech Notes No.19/001(July. 2019), available at https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/fintech-notes/Issues/2019/07/12/The-Rise-of-Digital-Money-47097(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    49.World Bank&CGAP, Data Protection and Privacy for Alternative Data, GPFI- FCPL Sub-Group Discussion Paper(May. 2018), available at https://reurl.cc/GVq23D(last visited: 2021.12.25).

    四、政府資料
    1.Akihito Miyake, Shunsuke Aoki, Ken Kawai, New beginning - Japan’s One-Stop Financial Service Intermediary and New Regulatory Framework for Payment Services, (June. 2020)https://www.iflr.com/article/b1m63436xksyq4/japan-new-beginning(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    2.Australian Securities & Investments Commission(ASIC), Report 600:Review of buy now pay later arrangements, available at https://reurl.cc/EZ2zLA(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    3.Christina Segal Knowles, Responding to Leaps in Payments: From Unbundling to Stablecoins, Bank of England speech(January. 2020), available at https://www.bis.org/review/r200123c.pdf(last visited: 2021.12. 25)
    4.European Banking Authority(EBA), Draft Guidelines on the limited network exclusion under PSD2(July. 2021), https://reurl.cc/oxLvVM(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    5.European Central Bank, Virtual Currency Schemes(October. 2012), available at https://reurl.cc/n5Qjmv(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    6.European Commission, Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on Markets in Crypto-assets, and amending Directive (EU) 2019/1937(September 2020), available at https://reurl.cc/MdmWNX(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    7.European Commission, Retail Payments Strategy for the EU(2020), available at https://reurl.cc/2gOkdr(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    8.Financial Conduct Authority(FCA), FCA Handbook, PERG 15, Q19, https://www.handbook.fca.org.uk/handbook/PERG/15/?view=chapter(last visited: 2021.12.25) .
    9.Hong Kong Monetary Authority(HKMA), Discussion Paper on Crypto-assets and Stablecoins, at 25~26(January. 2022), available at https://www.hkma.gov.hk/media/chi/doc/key-information/press-release/2022/20220112c3a1.pdf (last visited: 2021.12.25).
    10.Monetary Authority of Singapore(MAS), A Guide to Digital Token Offerings(November. 2018), available at https://reurl.cc/0O7nY9(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    11.Monetary Authority of Singapore(MAS), Consultation on the Payment Services Act 2019: Scope of Emoney and Digital Payment Tokens(December 2019), available at https://reurl.cc/v191lA(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    12.Monetary Authority of Singapore(MAS), Consultation Paper : Proposed Payment Services Regulations(April. 2019), available at https://reurl.cc/NX2XWm(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    13.Monetary Authority of Singapore(MAS), Consultation Paper: Proposed Payment Services Bill(November. 2017), available at https://reurl.cc/Z768EA(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    14.Monetary Authority of Singapore(MAS), Consultation Paper: Proposed Payment Services Notices and Guidelines(July. 2019), available at https://reurl.cc/mvlb0G(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    15.Monetary Authority of Singapore(MAS), Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) On The Payment Services Act(March. 2021), available at https://reurl.cc/n5kKad(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    16.Monetary Authority of Singapore(MAS), Guidelines for E-Payments User Protection(September. 2020), available at https://reurl.cc/95VA7X(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    17.Monetary Authority of Singapore(MAS), Infographic on the Payment Services Act 2019, at 1~2(2019), https://reurl.cc/d5N9zq(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    18.Monetary Authority of Singapore(MAS), Response to Feedback Received: Proposed Activity- based Payments Framework(2017), available at https://reurl.cc/ldmE8j(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    19.Monetary Authority of Singapore(MAS), Response to Feedback Received Consultation on the Payment Services Act 2019: Proposed Amendments to the Act(November. 2020), available at https://reurl.cc/k0G0OK(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    20.Monetary Authority of Singapore(MAS), Response to Feedback Received: Proposed Payment Services Bill(November. 2018), available at https://reurl.cc/E2K5v0(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    21.Monetary Authority of Singapore(MAS), Strengthening AML/CFT Controls of Digital Payment Token Service Providers(March 2021), available at https://reurl.cc/Enqy1g(last visited: 2021.12.25)
    22.Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority(FINMA), Guidelines – for Enquiries Regarding the Regulatory Framework for Initial Coin Offerings,(February. 2018), available at https://www.finma.ch/en/news/2018/02/20180216-mm-ico-wegleitung(last visited: 2021.12.25).

    五、網路資料
    1.Bloomberg, Finance, Wirecard Is a Humiliation for Germany(June. 2020), https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2020-06-26/wirecard-scandal-is-a-humiliation-for-germany(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    2.Bloomberg, Tether Says Stablecoin Is Only Backed 74% by Cash, Securities(May. 2020), https://reurl.cc/O168Ky(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    3.Compact, Roderik Jongbloed, Who is Entering the European Payments Landscape?, available at: https://reurl.cc/j5OL7m(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    4.Deliveroo, Deliveroo Terms Of Service, https://deliveroo.co.uk/legal ; WhyQ, WhyQ Terms and Conditions Of Service, https://www.whyq.sg/terms-and-conditions(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    5.Diem, White Paper v2.0, https://www.diem.com/en-us/white-paper/(last visited: 2021.12. 25).
    6.Gayatri Murthy & David Medine, CGAP Blog, 6 Data Protection Rights for Empowering People in the Digital World(January. 2019), https://reurl.cc/j72jzq(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    7.Gayatri Murthy&David Medine, CGAP Blog, Data Protection and Financial Inclusion: Why Consent Is Not Enough(December. 2018), https://reurl.cc/yZjeql(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    8.Global Banking & Finance, Brook Kennedy, PSD2: the real regulatory impact on marketplaces offering payment services, available at: https://reurl.cc/zz4yge(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    9.Libra, An Introduction to Libra, available at https://reurl.cc/Mv1ZMK(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    10.Marketing91, Micropayment: Meaning, Importance, and popular Micropayment Systems, https://reurl.cc/E7XN7K(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    11.Monetary Authority of Singapore, "Payment Services Bill" - Second Reading Speech by Mr Ong Ye Kung, Minister For Education(January. 2019), https://www.mas.gov.sg/news/speeches/2019/payment-services-bill (last visited: 2021.12.25).
    12.Monetary Authority of Singapore, Non-Bank Financial Institutions to have Access to FAST and PayNow(November. 2020), https://reurl.cc/52Mxp7(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    13.NIST, Cybersecurity Framework, The Five Functions, https://www.nist.gov/cyberframework/online-learning/five-functions(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    14.Paul Makin, CGAP Blog, Cybersecurity for Mobile Financial Services: A Growing Problem(November. 2018), https://www.cgap.org/blog/cybersecurity-mobile-financial-services-growing-problem(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    15.Satoshi Nakamoto, Bitcoin:A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System , available at. https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    16.William Cook, CGAP Blog, Interoperability and Customer Value(November. 2017), https://www.cgap.org/blog/interoperability-and-customer-value(last visited: 2021.12.25).
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    法律學系
    105651042
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0105651042
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202200131
    Appears in Collections:[法律學系] 學位論文

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