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    Title: 電動巴士儲能對電網售電營運模式之成本有效性分析
    Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Operation Model of Electric Bus-to-Grid
    Authors: 黃仁俊
    Huang, Jen-Chun
    Contributors: 許志義
    Hsu, Jyh-Yih
    黃仁俊
    Huang, Jen-Chun
    Keywords: 電動公車至電網
    再生能源
    電動公車
    電力儲能系統
    成本有效性分析
    Bus-to-grid(B2G)
    Renewable Energy
    Electric Bus
    Energy Storage Systems
    Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
    Date: 2023
    Issue Date: 2023-03-09 18:23:18 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究分析公車業者導入「電動公車至電網(Bus-to-Grid, B2G)」之營運模式,將電動公車作為移動式的儲能系統,不僅可提供充足的電力輔助服務,還可藉此平衡大量電網的電力系統。公車業者可以透過參與電動公車至電網營運模式,獲得業外收益。

    本研究之研究方法採用成本有效性分析法,分別計算各模擬情境中之效益項與成本項進行評估。以同一公車業者之角度,分析兩種不同的營運模式的比較:(一)為公車業者購買電動公車,但不參與B2G商業模式 ; (二)為參與B2G商業模式,參與日前輔助服務市場,提供即時備轉容量市場輔助服務。

    本研究結果顯示,以同一公車業者角度進行分析,情境一:當公車業者購買電動公車進行營運,可得淨現值為907.29百萬元,具成本有效性。此外,情境二:模擬公車業者採取即時備轉容量市場輔助服務,相較情境一,具成本有效性。且當容量費單價越高,公車業者可獲得更高之B2G效益。

    此外,本研究針對政府補助及容量費單價進行敏感度分析,可得(ㄧ)為政府取消電動公車補助,淨現值為407.29百萬元。顯示公車業者購買電動車,但不參與B2G商業模式,仍具成本有效性 ; (二)為即時備轉容量費單價下降,當容量費單價模擬下降至150元, B2G商業模式之獲利低於充電樁維運成本,與情境一相比淨現值轉為負值,其淨現值低於情境一5.60百萬元。
    This study analyzes that "Bus-to-grid (B2G)" business model can be introduced and the Electric Buses can be used as a mobile energy storage system. They not only can provide sufficient power auxiliary services, but also can balance the voltage and frequency of the power system of the grid. By participating in the Bus-to-grid (B2G) business model of electric vehicles to the grid, the bus operators can gain additional benefits.


    This study employs cost effectiveness analysis to evaluate the benefits and costs generated in each simulation scenario, as well as the principle and application method of the B2G business model of each alternative decision. From the perspective of the same bus operator, analyze the comparison of two different operating models, and analyze the costs and benefits in the following three simulation scenarios.

    The costs and benefits are analyzed in the following three scenarios: (1) without B2G business model, The bus operator buys electric buses Electric vehicles for only carry daily passenger; (2) with B2G business model, participates in the day-ahead ancillary services market to provide Spinning Reserve capacity market ancillary services.


    The results of this study show that, from the perspective of one identical bus operator.
    In scenario 1: when the bus operator buys electric buses , the net present value is 907.29 million , with cost effectiveness. In scenario 2: simulates bus operator participates in the day-ahead ancillary services market to provide Spinning Reserve capacity market ancillary services, which is cost effective compared with scenario 1. Moreover, the higher the clearing price of capacity fee involved in the auxiliary service, the higher the revenue of B2G can be obtained by Bus operator.
    In addition, this study conducts sensitivity analysis on government subsidies and clearing price of capacity fee. It can be concluded that (1) The net present value is 407.29 million for bus operator even if the government cancel subsidies. It shows that the bus operators purchase electric vehicles, but do not participate in the B2G business model, which is still cost-effective ; (2) The clearing price of capacity fee of Spinning Reserve capacity market ancillary services decreases. When the clearing price of capacity fee is further reduced to 150 , the profit of the B2G business model is lower than compared with scenario 1, the benefit generated in scenario 2 will be lower than the cost. The net present value of c auxiliary service is 5.60 million lower than scenario 1.
    Reference: ㄧ、中文文獻
    (ㄧ) 期刊論文
    1. 呂孫銘(2022),影響電動車駕駛參與V2G之關鍵因素:科技接受模式之應用,國立政治大學經濟學系碩士論文
    2. 邵鏡芳(2020)。多路線市區電動公車充電排程之研究,國立交通大學運輸與物流管理學系碩士論文
    3. 陳國岳、吳東凌、張益城(2018)。電動大客車推動策略初探,交通部運輸研究所
    4. 郭彥廉(2000)。空氣汙染移動源管制政策之成本有效性分析。國立臺北大學資源管理研究所碩士論文
    5. 許志義、郭哲甫、蔡志祥、葉法明(2021),「電動公車至電網」營運模式成本有效性析:以台北市公車為例」。《台灣能源期刊》,第 8 卷第 2 期〔民 110.6〕,頁 117-132,台北,經濟部能源局。(TSSCI 期刊)
    6. 許志義、詹書瑋(2020)。智慧校園成本效益分析與營運模式之研究—以○○大學為例,《台電工程月刊》第 858 期,頁 70-88,台北,台灣電力公司
    7. 許志義、楊宗霖、蔡志祥、葉法明(2020),「論市場導向之綠電發展策略」。《台灣能源期刊》,第7卷第4期﹝民109.12﹞,頁365-387,台北,經濟部能源局。(TSSCI期刊)
    8. 許志義、黃國暐(2010)。臺灣能源需求面管理成本效益分析之應用,能源經濟學術研討會
    9. 張仲誼(2022)。電動公車與柴油公車成本與經濟特性之研究,國立臺灣大學土木工程學研究所碩士論文
    10. 黃子瞻(2015)。台灣電動公車之成本函數與營運特性分析,國立臺灣大學土木工程學研究所碩士論文
    11. 黃郁青、陳治均與葛復光(2018)。電動車的發展對我國電網級儲能系統之影響,核能研究所研究報告
    12. 蔡志祥(2019)。電動汽車儲能對電網售電營運模式之成本有效性分析,國立政治大學經濟系研究所碩士論文。
    13. 賴文泰(2017)。電動公車營運指標、財務效益分析與發展策略之研究,運輸計畫季刊, 第46卷第4期,頁377-398
    (二) 政府、公司報告
    1. 台灣電力股份有限公司(2011)。電動車充電對電力品質及電力供應影響之研究
    2. 台灣電力股份有限公司(2022)。日前輔助服務市場之交易商品規格
    3. 台電月刊(2022)。儲能神助攻 即戰力與商機受青睞,第715期
    4. 行政院環保署(2017)。空氣污染防制行動方案
    5. 車王電子集團(2021)。華德動能法人說明會簡報
    6. 國家發展委員會、行政院環境保護署、經濟部、科技部、交通部、內政部、行政院農業委員會、金融監督管理委員會(2022)。臺灣 2050淨零排放路徑及策略總說明
    7. 經濟部(2020)。前瞻基礎建設計畫—綠能建設—智慧電動巴士DMIT計畫
    8. 經濟部能源局(2017)。智慧電網總體規劃方案
    9. 環保署、交通部、經濟部(2018)。電動車規劃推動辦理情形

    (三) 書籍
    1. 蕭代基、鄭蕙燕、吳珮瑛、錢玉蘭、溫麗琪(2002)。《環境保護之成本效益分析:理論、方法與應用》。台北:俊傑書局股份有限公司

    二、英文文獻
    (ㄧ) 期刊論文
    1. Bleichrodt H and Quiggin J (1999), Life-cycle preferences over consumption and health: when is cost-effectiveness analysis equivalent to cost–benefit analysis? J Health Econ, 18, 681–708.
    2. Cellini, Stephanie Riegg, Kee & James Edwin (2012), Cost-Effectiveness and Cost–Benefit Analysis
    3. Caley Johnson, Erin Nobler, Leslie Eudy & Matthew Jeffers(2020), Financial Analysis of Battery Electric Transit Buses.
    4. Dominion Energy(2020), Dominion Energy Moves Forward with Electric School Bus Program. Retrieved from https://news.dominionenergy. com/2020-01-16-Dominion-Energy-Moves- Forward-with-Electric-School-Bus-Program.
    5. Jens Christian Morell Lodberg Høj , Lasse Thorbøll Juhl & Søren Bernt Lindegaard (2018), V2G—An Economic Gamechanger in E-Mobility?
    6. Jonatas Augusto Manzolli, Joao Pedro Fernandes Trovao & Carlos Henggeler Antnes, Electric bus coordinated charging strategy considering V2G and battery degradation
    7. Kempton, W. and S. E. Letendre, 1997. “Electric vehicles as a new power source for electric utilities.” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 2(3): 157-175.
    8. Khizir Mahmud, Graham E. Town, Sayidul Morsalin & M.J.Hossain (2018), Integration of electric vehicles and management in the internet of energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,82,4179-4203
    9. Kotub Uddin, Matthieu Dubarry & Mark B.Glick (2018), The viability of vehicle-to-grid operations from a battery technology and policy perspective. Energy Policy ,113,342-347
    10. Lance Noel and Regina McCormack (2014), A cost benefit analysis of a V2G - capable electric school bus compared to a traditional diesel school bus. Applied Energy,126,246-255
    11. Nic Lutsey and Michael Nicholas (2019). Update on electric vehicle costs in the United States through 2030.
    12. Orlando Barraza and Miquel Estrada(2021), Battery Electric Bus Network: Efficient Design and Cost Comparison of Different Powertrains.
    13. Rick Wolbertus, Maarten Kroesen, Robert van den Hoed & Caspar G. Chorus (2018), Policy effects on charging behaviour of electric vehicle owners and on purchase intentions of prospective owners: Natural and stated choice experiments. Transportation Research. Part D: Transport and Environment, 62, 283-297.
    14. Rodreck David, Patrick Ngulube & Adock Dube(2013), A cost-benefit analysis of document management strategies used at a financial institution in Zimbabwe: A case study. SA Journal of Information Management,15,2
    15. Surendraprabu Rangaraju, Laurent De Vroey, Maarten Messagie, JanMertens & Joeri Van Mierlo (2015), Impacts of electricity mix, charging profile, and driving behavior on the emissions performance of battery electric vehicles: A Belgian case study. Applied Energy,148,496-505
    16. Stephen Eaves and James Eaves (2004), A cost comparison of fuel-cell and battery electric vehicles. Journal of Power Sources,130,208-212
    17. Saini, Shubham, Tripta Thakur & Mukesh Kirar (2020), A Review of Electric Vehicles Charging Topologies, its Impacts and Smart Grid Operation with V2G Technology. Available at SSRN 3575388.
    18. W.Wen, S. Yang, P. Zhou & S.Z. Gao (2021), Impacts of COVID-19 on the electric vehicle industry: Evidence from China, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,144
    19. Weimer D and Vining A (2005), Policy Analysis: Concepts and Practice (Fourth ed.).

    (二)國外官方報告
    1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(2018), Global warming of 1.5°C
    2. International Energy Agency(2022),Global EV Outlook 2022
    3. United States Senate(2022), The Inflation Reduction Act Of 2022

    (三)書籍
    1. Weimer, D. (2009). Cost‐Benefit Analysis and Public Policy. In (pp. 2-6).
    三、網路資源
    1. 台灣電力企業聯合會(2020年8月31日),電動巴士/V2G/電力彈性/電網平衡-英國倫敦啟動全球最大之車輛回充電網(V2G)計畫
    http://www.tepa108.org.tw/news/more?id=3ed3903fbebc40d5899b674c805b069e
    2. 再生能源資訊網(2022年11月7日),2022年再生能源發電量統計月資料
    https://www.re.org.tw/information/statistics.aspx


    3. 李炎奇(2022年7月20日),台電推「專設電表+專用電價」 創造電動車發展利基
    https://money.udn.com/money/story/122359/6460169
    4. 余曉涵(2020年11月17日),業者添購電動大客車 交部補助每輛最高1000萬元
    https://www.cna.com.tw/news/ahel/202011170061.aspx
    5. 陳政錄(2021年10月27日),陸拚碳達峰 整治四大產業
    https://money.udn.com/money/story/122229/5845697
    6. 鄒敏惠、吳宜靜(2019年10月22日),歐盟提氣候變遷大計 Fit for 55草案:社會與經濟的全面轉型
    https://e-info.org.tw/node/231700
    7. 黃淑惠(2022年9月21日),華德動能與大南汽車簽48輛電動大巴採購合約,金額達5.5億元
    https://money.udn.com/money/story/5612/6628278?from=edn_newest_index
    8. 華德動能科技,綠能概念,2022年10月15日,檢自:https://www.racev.com/about/green
    9. 經濟部能源局(2020年12月31日),用電大戶條款將於1月1日起正式施行
    https://www.moeaboe.gov.tw/ECW/populace/news/News.aspx?kind=1&menu_id=41&news_id=18745
    10. 綠色和平(2022年10月6日),永續城市新篇章:發展電動車、低碳排放區、提升行人安全
    https://www.greenpeace.org/taiwan/update/32709/%E3%80%90%E6%94%BF%E8%A6%8B%E9%81%B8%E7%89%A9%E6%89%80%E3%80%91%E6%B0%B8%E7%BA%8C%E5%9F%8E%E5%B8%82%E6%96%B0%E7%AF%87%E7%AB%A0%EF%BC%9A%E7%99%BC%E5%B1%95%E9%9B%BB%E5%8B%95%E8%BB%8A%E3%80%81%E4%BD%8E/
    11. 劉煥彥(2022年3月22日),台北市3500輛公車電動化倒數計時,商機估350億元起跳,鴻海、歐商競相卡位。今周刊
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    12. 環境資訊中心(2018年1月17日),【2040電動車化】在「對的時間」充電有利多 台電靠這四招搞定
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    13. Dominion Energy(2020年1月16日),Dominion Energy Moves Forward with Electric School Bus Program
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    14. Jocelyn Timperley(2020年3月18日),BBC-How our daily travel harms the planet
    https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20200317-climate-change-cut-carbon-emissions-from-your-commute
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    經濟學系
    109258016
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0109258016
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[經濟學系] 學位論文

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