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    Title: 1970年代國民黨派系替代政策重探:兼論1977年黨外崛起的因素
    A Re-examination of the factional substitution policy of the KMT in the 1970s: Factors that contributed to the rise of the outside of KMT in 1977
    Authors: 陳佳德
    Tan, Ka-tik
    Contributors: 選舉研究
    Keywords: 國民黨;臺灣省議會;地方派系;派系替代政策;催票率
    KMT;Taiwan Provincial Council;local factions;factional substitution policy;vote share by eligible voters
    Date: 2023-05
    Issue Date: 2023-07-13
    Abstract: 本文以臺灣省議會為中心,藉由1972年和1977年兩次省議員選舉時,國民黨的提名策略和選舉結果,重新探討國民黨在1970年代推行的派系替代政策內涵,藉此修正。
    1972年地方選舉時,國民黨在縣市長選舉和臺灣省議員選舉全面推動派系替代政策,藉由拔擢青年才俊的名義,大規模淘汰地方派系背景的政治人物。其中,在臺灣省議員方面,主要是淘汰1968年以前當選的臺灣省議員,藉此打擊當時存在於臺灣省議會的跨縣市地方派系聯盟。在此政策下,已經擔任2屆以上的臺灣省議員大部分未能連任,臺灣省議會出現顯著的世代交替,原本以黃朝琴—許金德—陳新發、林頂立—蔡鴻文為首的兩大跨縣市地方派系聯盟就此瓦解,國民黨對臺灣省議會的控制力得到強化。雖然國民黨對地方派系的打壓,使該黨動員力顯著下降,卻因當時缺乏全國規模的反對勢力,未影響國民黨的政治基礎。
    1977年地方選舉時,國民黨仍繼續打壓地方派系,並進一步扶植無派系背景的國民黨員,此時地方派系的反彈已經不如1972年地方選舉,除了少數縣市之外,並未出現地方派系倒戈支持黨外的現象,而國民黨的動員能力已經回升。然而,當時黨外成功動員超過7%過去未投票的新選民,使國民黨遭遇前所未有的挫敗,甚至導致多名地方派系出身的臺灣省議員落選,臺灣也從此形成了具有全國動員能力的反對力量。
    The Taiwan Provincial Council is the subject of this study. Based on the KMT`s nomination strategy and election results in the two provincial councilor elections in 1972 and 1977, it revisits and revises the KMT`s factional substitution policy of the 1970s.
    During the 1972 local elections, the KMT aggressively promoted factional replacement in the election of magistrates, mayors, and Taiwan Provincial Councilors. The KMT eliminated political figures with local factional backgrounds on a large scale in the name of promoting young talents. With respect to the Taiwan Provincial Councilors, the replacement was intended to eliminate Taiwan Provincial Councilors elected prior to 1968 in order to suppress the inter-county local faction that existed in the Taiwan Provincial Council at the time. Most Taiwan Provincial Councilors who had served for more than two terms were not re-elected, thereby generating a significant generational shift in the makeup of Taiwan Provincial Council. The KMT’s control over the Taiwan Provincial Council was thus strengthened. Despite a significant reduction in mobilization power due to the KMT`s suppression of local factions, the party`s political base was unaffected by the absence of a strong national opposition at the time.
    During the 1977 local elections, the KMT continued to suppress local factions while giving support to KMT members who had no factional background. The local factions were no longer as effective as they had been during the local elections in 1972. Except for a few counties and cities, no local factions abandoned the KMT, and their capacity for mobilization improved. However, factions outside the party successfully mobilized over 7% of new voters who had not voted previously. This resulted in unprecedented setbacks for the KMT, including the defeat of several Taiwan provincial councilors from local factions. Taiwan has since formed an opposition capable of mobilizing the entire country.
    Relation: 選舉研究, 30(1), 89-143
    Data Type: article
    DOI 連結: https://doi.org/10.6612/tjes.202305_30(1).0003
    DOI: 10.6612/tjes.202305_30(1).0003
    Appears in Collections:[選舉研究 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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