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    Title: 賓夕法尼亞州的黑人公民權與選舉權之發展: 以歷史制度論的視角探究1776年至1968年的改變
    The Evolution of Black civil rights and voting rights in Pennsylvania, in a historical instituionalism perspective, 1776 -1968
    Authors: 陳佑鎧
    Chen, Yu-Kai
    Contributors: 俞振華
    Yu, Eric Chen-hua
    陳佑鎧
    Chen, Yu-Kai
    Keywords: 賓夕法尼亞州
    選舉權
    公民權
    歷史制度論
    黑人
    Pennsylvania
    Voting Rights
    Civil Rights
    Historical Institutionalism
    Black
    Date: 2023
    Issue Date: 2023-08-02 14:20:39 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 賓夕法尼亞州於 1780 年時,通過「An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery」,成為美國第一個立法廢除奴隸制度的地區,但是黑人族群卻未能在政治上取得與白人一樣的權益保障,且 1838 年的賓州州憲法,將選舉權限縮於繳稅的白人公民身上,限縮黑人族群權益。南北戰爭後,黑人族群重新獲得選舉權,卻又面臨著種族隔離的問題。自美國建國之後,至 1960 年代,賓州對於黑人族群的選舉權與公民權的保護,並非是逐步發展完善,而是經歷過一段崎嶇且辛苦的歷程。
    本文藉由歷史制度論的視角,回顧賓州自 1776 年至 1968 年間黑人族群權益的相關制度發展,發現「戰爭」這個因素在不同時期,都扮演著重要的角色,直接或間接地造成制度變遷或停滯,如美國獨立戰爭的自由、平等精神催生出後續一系列廢除奴隸制度的法案;1812年戰爭使賓州議會停擺,無法全面廢除奴隸制度;Nat Turner’s Rebellion 促成賓州 1838 年修改憲法剝奪黑人選舉權;海外的奴隸起義讓美國擔心廢除奴隸制度會造成社會動盪;南北戰爭帶來了三條重建時期的憲法修正案;第一次世界大戰改善黑人的社會觀感,使美國北方開始追求種族平權;第二次世界大戰讓賓州的經濟得以復甦,卻中斷了賓州民主黨的改革,無力進一步推動種族平權。
    本文希望可以藉由賓州的這些例子,說明戰爭所帶來的影響,會在經濟及政治動盪時,促成黑人權益相關制度發生改變,試圖提供一個檢視美國制度發展時的新視角,並補足過往較少著墨的「州」層級研究。
    Pennsylvania was the first region in the United States to legislatively abolish slavery in 1780 with the passage of the "An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery." However, the blacks in Pennsylvania did not achieve the equality on political rights and get the same protections as the whites. In 1838, the Pennsylvania State Constitution restricted voting rights to white citizens who were taxpayers, further limiting the rights of blacks. After the Civil War, blacks regained the voting rights but faced racial segregations. From the founding of the United States until the 1960s, the protection of voting rights and civil rights for the blacks in Pennsylvania did not progress gradually or smoothly; it experienced a difficult and challenging journey.
    Taking a historical institutional perspective, this dissertation examines the development of relevant institutional structures about the black voting rights and civil rights in Pennsylvania from 1776 to 1968. It finds that "war" played a significant role in different periods, directly or indirectly leading to institutional changes or stagnation. For instance, the spirits of freedom and equality born out of the American Revolutionary War inspired a series of subsequent abortion laws. The War of 1812 cause adjournments of the Pennsylvania Assembly, preventing the complete abolition of slavery. Nat Turner`s Rebellion resulted in the stripping of the black voting rights in the Constitution of Pennsylvania of 1838. Slave uprisings overseas raised concerns in the United States about social unrest resulting from the abolition of slavery. The Civil War brought about three Reconstruction-era amendments to the Constitution of the United States. World War I improved the social perception on blacks, prompting the pursuit of racial equality in the Northern. World War II revitalized Pennsylvania`s economy but interrupted the reforms from the Pennsylvania Democratic Party, hindering further progress in racial equality.
    This essay aims to demonstrate, through these examples from Pennsylvania, that the impact of wars can bring about institutional changes for the black rights during periods of economic and political turmoil. This dissertation tries to provides a new perspective on examining the development of the United States and fills a research gap at the state level, which has received comparatively less attention.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    政治學系
    107252011
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0107252011
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[政治學系] 學位論文

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