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    Title: 托克維爾論民主的倫理基礎
    Tocqueville on the Ethical Foundation of Democracy
    Authors: 陳立
    Chen, Li
    Contributors: 曾國祥
    陳建綱

    Tseng, Roy
    Chen, Chien-Kang

    陳立
    Chen, Li
    Keywords: 托克維爾
    民主
    倫理
    德性
    正確理解的利益
    自我犧牲
    Alexis de Tocqueville
    Democracy
    Ethic
    Virtue
    Interest rightly understood
    Self-sacrifice
    Date: 2023
    Issue Date: 2023-09-01 15:35:26 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文的研究目的在於闡釋亞歷西斯·德·托克維爾的新政治科學主要是為民主奠定倫理基礎,並以此將其民主理論體系化。民主的倫理基礎包含共同體基礎和道德基礎。本文嘗試採用類似亞里斯多德《政治學》第一書分析政治的框架將托克維爾主要是使用描述性語言書寫的《民主在美國》進行系統化的理論分析與詮釋,即圍繞家庭、鄉鎮、國家三個共同體或者稱三種倫理生活。本文認為托克維爾對政治目的的理解與亞里斯多德相似即追求德性政治。不過,托克維爾在《民主在美國》緒言就宣告,「嶄新的世界需要新的政治科學」,所以,他必須採取不同的思考路徑實現德性政治。托克維爾認為「利益」無可避免地成為人在民主中思考道德的核心,故而提出「正確理解的利益」的道德原則。筆者進一步揭示,這一原則實際上是要促使每個人面對利益衝突時學會「自我犧牲」。本文圍繞「自我犧牲」這一概念論述家庭、鄉鎮、國家這三個共同體的道德基礎。最後,本文也是通過「自我犧牲」這一概念論證托克維爾的民主理論與其國際政治思想也是連貫的,共同築成托克維爾的新政治科學。
    This thesis aims to demonstrate that the main purpose of Alexis de Tocqueville’s new political science is to lay an ethical foundation for democracy, and to systematize his theory of democracy in this way. The ethical foundation of democracy includes communal foundation and moral foundation. In order to systematically theorize and interpret Tocqueville’s Democracy in America, which was mainly written in descriptive language, I propose to use a framework which is similar to that of Aristotle’s in the first book of Politics. That is, my framework regards family, township, and nation-state as three communities or three ethical lives. This thesis also argues that Tocqueville’s understanding of political purpose is similar to that of Aristotle’s, namely, the pursuit of virtuous politics. However, Tocqueville declared that “A new political science is needed for a world entirely new” in the Introduction to Democracy in America. Therefore, he had to develop a different path to realize the politics of virtue. Tocqueville observed that “interest” had inevitably become the core of people’s thinking about morality in democracy, therefore he put forward the moral doctrine of “interest rightly understood” (l`intérêt bien entendu). I further reveal that this doctrine is to encourage everyone to learn “self-sacrifice” (self-abnegation) in the face of conflicts of interest. On that account, this thesis focuses on the conception of “self-sacrifice” to discuss the moral foundation of family, township and nation-state. Finally, by following the conception of “self-sacrifice”, this thesis also argues that Tocqueville’s democratic theory is coherent with his international political thought, both of which shape Tocqueville’s new political science.
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    Description: 博士
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