English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Post-Print筆數 : 27 |  Items with full text/Total items : 109927/140876 (78%)
Visitors : 45969488      Online Users : 649
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/147082


    Title: 民眾對強勢領導人的期待:跨國比較與原因探討
    The People’s Wish for Strong Leader: A Comparative Study
    Authors: 梁梓然
    Liang, Ziran
    Contributors: 蔡宗漢
    梁梓然
    Liang, Ziran
    Keywords: 強勢領導人
    民主衰退
    民主態度
    總統化
    比較研究
    Date: 2023
    Issue Date: 2023-09-01 15:36:39 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 近年來,全球範圍的「民主衰退」受到政治學界的關注與討論。在這場討論中,「民主去鞏固」概念引起了學界的廣泛爭論,「民主去鞏固」指老牌民主國家中的民眾不再將民主視為唯一的選項,民主制度面臨著去鞏固的風險。「民主去鞏固」的重要證據之一便是在老牌民主國家中越來多民眾認為有一個不受國會與選舉干擾的強勢領導人是一件好事。
    本文的研究問題是:為何民主國家/地區的民眾期待強勢領導人?這個問題之所以值得研究,不僅因為近年來強人政治風潮席捲全球,還因為民主衰退相關文獻尚未對這一現象進行系統性的分析,既缺少基本的相關性分析,也缺少比較研究。
    本文認為,要系統性地研究民主國家民眾期待強勢領導人的原因,應當考慮國家層次與個人層次的影響因素。在國家層次上,基於民主化、民主衰退以及威權遺緒相關理論,本文提出民主化浪潮波次、距離民主轉型的時長與轉型前的政體將影響一個國家/地區民眾期待強勢領導人的程度。其次,受憲政工程學與總統化文獻的啟發,本研究提出憲政制度、領導人尊重憲政的程度以及領導人權力大小將影響一個國家/地區民眾期待強勢領導人的程度。
    在個人層次上,本文在釐清法治與民主概念的基礎上,結合總統化與民主態度相關文獻,提出民眾的法治觀念、民主支持度、民主滿意度將影響民眾是否期待強勢領導人。在心理學文獻的啟發下,筆者引入社會學的「失範」概念,提出當民眾越感知社會正處於失範狀態,越可能期待強勢領導人。除此之外,基於民主觀念與法制觀念的「時差」,本文提出,民主支持度、民主滿意度與民眾期待強勢領導人之間的關係在老牌民主國家與新興民主國家將有所不同。
    本研究使用WVS/EVS第3—7波的調查資料,運用複層次混合效應線性迴歸模型對國家層次的理論假設進行檢驗。就民主進程而言,本文發現,首先,第一、二、三波民主化浪潮的國家/地區的民眾期待強勢領導人的程度依次遞增。其次,在第三波民主化浪潮國家/地區內部,距離民主轉型時間越長的國家/地區的民眾期待強勢領導人的程度越高,但轉型前是個人獨裁、軍隊獨裁或政黨獨裁不會對該國/地區民眾期待強勢領導人的程度造成顯著影響。就憲政體制而言,本文發現,半總統制國家的民眾期待強勢領導人的程度最高,總統制次之,議會制最低。本文還發現,當領導人越尊重憲政體制,該國民眾期待強勢領導人的程度越低;當領導人權力越大,該國民眾期待強勢領導人的程度越高,這意味著民眾期待強勢領導人遵循的是「強化機制」而非「補償機制」,即領導人權力越大,民眾越容易形成關於強勢領導人的迷思。
    本研究使用WVS/EVS第7波資料,運用複層次混合效應勝算對數迴歸模型驗證個人層次與複層次的理論假設。本文發現,首先,民眾的民主支持度越低,越可能期待有一個強勢領導人。其次,民眾的民主滿意度與其是否期待強勢領導人之間不存在顯著的相關關係。再次,民眾越感知到社會處於失範的狀態,越可能期待強勢領導人。最後,相較於新興民主國家/地區,民主支持度對於民眾期待強勢領導人的負向影響在老牌民主國家/地區中更強烈,並且民主滿意度與期待強勢領導人的相關關係在老牌民主國家不顯著,但在新興民主國家中呈現微弱的正相關關係。
    本研究對民眾期待強勢領導人之現象進行了跨時與跨國的考察,為我們了解這一現象的全貌提供了有益的資訊。本研究從國家層次與個體層次對民眾期待強勢領導人的原因進行了較為系統的討論,不僅將「民主去鞏固」的正反雙方證據拉到一個合理的框架中進行解釋,也探討了「民主去鞏固」之外的民眾期待強勢領導人的可能性,為後續的研究奠定了基礎。
    Reference: 陳弘毅,2014,<憲政主義>,載於《公民社會基本觀念》,林毓生主編,台北:中央研究院。
    陳陸輝,2003,<政治信任,施政表現與民眾對台灣民主的展望>,《台灣政治學刊》,7 (2):149-188。
    陳陸輝,2019,<台灣的民主治理與政治支持>,《東亞研究》,50 (1):119-152。
    黃信豪,2011,<民主態度的類型:台灣民眾二次政黨輪替後的分析>,《選舉研究》,18 (1):1-34。
    黃紀、王德育,2016,《質變數與受限依變數的迴歸分析》,台北:五南圖書。
    閻亢宗,2007,《論外來政權現象-從政治權威的角度分析》,政治大學政治學系博士學位論文。
    薛健吾,2017,<書評:Foreign Pressure and the Politics of Autocratic Survival 〔國際壓力與威權生存的政治學〕 by Abel Escribà-Folch and Joseph Wright 〔艾波.厄斯克利巴佛屈、喬瑟夫.萊特〕(Oxford University Press, 2015, Paperback, 296 pp., ISBN 9780198746997)>,《臺灣民主季刊》,14 (1):133-143。
    蘇子喬、王業立,2018,<選舉制度與憲政體制的制度組合: 半總統制民主國家的跨國分析>,《選舉研究》,25 (1):1-36。
    Aberbach, Joel D., Mark A. Peterson, and Paul J. Quirk. 2007. &quot;The Contemporary Presidency: Who Wants Presidential Supremacy? Findings from the Institutions of American Democracy Project.&quot; Presidential Studies Quarterly 37 (3): 515-530.
    Alexander, Amy C., and Christian Welzel. 2017. &quot;The Myth of Deconsolidation: Rising Liberalism and the Populist Reaction.&quot; https://www.journalofdemocracy.org/online-exchange-democratic-deconsolidation (accessed on July 12, 2023).
    Aruguete, Mara S., and Lynn E. McCutcheon. 2021. &quot;Who Wishes for a Strong Leader?&quot; North American Journal of Psychology 23 (1): 173-182.
    Bagehot, Walter. 2001. The English Constitution. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Bartels, Larry M. 2020. &quot;Ethnic Antagonism Erodes Republicans` Commitment to Democracy.&quot; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117 (37): 22752-22759.
    Bell, Andrew, and Kelvyn Jones. 2015. &quot;Explaining Fixed Effects: Random Effects Modeling of Time-Series Cross-Sectional and Panel Data.&quot; Political Science Research and Methods 3 (1): 133-153.
    Bormann, Nils-Christian, and Matt Golder. 2022. &quot;Democratic Electoral Systems around the World, 1946-2020.&quot; Electoral Studies 78(4): 102487.
    Bremmer, Ian. 2018. &quot;The `Strongmen Era` Is Here. Here’s What It Means for You. &quot; https://time.com/5264170/the-strongmen-era-is-here-heres-what-it-means-for-you (accessed on July 12, 2023).
    Brown, Archie. 2014. The Myth of the Strong Leader: Political Leadership in the Modern Age. London: Basic Books.
    Browning, Gary K. 2016. A History of Modern Political Thought: The Question of Interpretation. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Caenegem, R. C. Van. 1995. An Historical Introduction to Western Constitutional Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Cameron, Adrian Colin, and Pravin K. Trivedi. 2022. Microeconometrics Using Stata, Second Edition, Volume II: Nonlinear Models and Casual Inference Methods. Vol. 2. College Station, Texas: Stata Press.
    Canovan, Margaret. 1982. &quot;Two Strategies for the Study of Populism.&quot; Political Studies 30 (4): 544-552.
    Canovan, Margaret. 1999. &quot;Trust the People! Populism and the Two Faces of Democracy.&quot; Political Studies 47 (1): 2-16.
    Chang, Yu-tzung, Yun-han Chu, and Chong-Min Park. 2007. &quot;The Democracy Barometers (Part I): Authoritarian Nostalgia in Asia.&quot; Journal of Democracy 18 (3): 66-80.
    Cheibub, José Antonio, Jennifer Gandhi, and James Raymond Vreeland. 2010. &quot;Democracy and Dictatorship Revisited.&quot; Public Choice 143 (1): 67-101.
    Chin, Rita, Heide Fehrenbach, Geoff Eley, and Atina Grossmann. 2010. After the Nazi Racial State: Difference and Democracy in Germany and Europe. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Christenson, Dino P., and Douglas L. Kriner. 2017. &quot;Constitutional Qualms or Politics as Usual? The Factors Shaping Public Support for Unilateral Action.&quot; American Journal of Political Science 61 (2): 335-349.
    Coppedge, Michael, John Gerring, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Staffan I. Lindberg, Jan Teorell, David Altman, Michael Bernhard, Agnes Cornell, M. Steven Fish, Lisa Gastaldi, Haakon Gjerløw, Adam Glynn, Ana Good God, Sandra Grahn, Allen Hicken, Katrin Kinzelbach, Joshua Krusell, Kyle L. Marquardt, Kelly McMann, Valeriya Mechkova, Juraj Medzihorsky, Natalia Natsika, Anja Neundorf, Pamela Paxton, Daniel Pemstein, Josefine Pernes, Oskar Rydén, Johannes von Römer, Brigitte Seim, Rachel Sigman, Svend-Erik Skaaning, Jeffrey Staton, Aksel Sundström, Eitan Tzelgov, Yi-ting Wang, Tore Wig, Steven Wilson, and Daniel Ziblatt. 2023a. &quot;V-Dem [Country-Year/Country-Date] Dataset v13.&quot; Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project. https://doi.org/10.23696/vdemds23. (accessed on July 12, 2023).
    Coppedge, Michael, John Gerring, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Staffan I. Lindberg, Jan Teorell, David Altman, Michael Bernhard, Agnes Cornell, M. Steven Fish, Lisa Gastaldi, Haakon Gjerløw, Adam Glynn, Sandra Grahn, Allen Hicken, Katrin Kinzelbach, Kyle L. Marquardt, Kelly McMann, Valeriya Mechkova, Anja Neundorf, Pamela Paxton, Daniel Pemstein, Oskar Rydén, Johannes von Römer, Brigitte Seim, Rachel Sigman, Svend-Erik Skaaning, Jeffrey Staton, Aksel Sundström, Eitan Tzelgov, Luca Uberti, Yi-ting Wang, Tore Wig, and Daniel Ziblatt. 2023b. &quot;V-Dem Codebook v13.&quot; Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project. (accessed on July 12, 2023).
    Crimston, Charlie R., Hema Preya Selvanathan, and Jolanda Jetten. 2022. &quot;Moral Polarization Predicts Support for Authoritarian and Progressive Strong Leaders via the Perceived Breakdown of Society.&quot; Political Psychology 43 (4): 671-691.
    Dahl, Robert Alan. 1971. Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.
    Diamond, Larry. 2015. &quot;Facing Up to the Democratic Recession.&quot; Journal of Democracy 26 (1): 141-155.
    Diamond, Larry. 2020. Ill Winds: Saving Democracy from Russian Rage, Chinese Ambition, and American Complacency. Westminster, London, England: Penguin.
    Diamond, Larry. 2022. &quot;Democracy`s Arc: From Resurgent to Imperiled.&quot; Journal of Democracy 33 (1): 163-179.
    Dinas, Elias, and Ksenia Northmore-Ball. 2020. &quot;The Ideological Shadow of Authoritarianism.&quot; Comparative Political Studies 53 (12): 1957-1991.
    Durkheim, Emile, and Steven Lukes. 2014. The Division of Labor in Society. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Durkheim, Emile. 2005. Suicide: A Study in Sociology. London: Routledge.
    Easton, David. 1975. &quot;A Re-assessment of the Concept of Political Support.&quot; British Journal of Political Science 5 (4): 435-457.
    Economist Intelligence Unit. 2020. Democracy Index 2019: A Year of Democratic Setbacks and Popular Protest. London: Economist Intelligence Unit
    Elgie, Robert, Gianluca Passarelli, B. Andeweg, and L. Helms. 2020. &quot;The presidentialization of political executives. &quot;In The Oxford Handbook of Political Executives, eds. P. R. B. Andeweg, R. Elgie, L. Helms, J. Kaarbo and F. Moller-Rommel. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Fairbrother, Malcolm. 2014. &quot;Two Multilevel Modeling Techniques for Analyzing Comparative Longitudinal Survey Datasets.&quot; Political Science Research and Methods 2 (1): 119-140.
    Fariss, Christopher J., Therese Anders, Jonathan N. Markowitz, and Miriam Barnum. 2022. &quot;New Estimates of Over 500 Years of Historic GDP and Population Data.&quot; Journal of Conflict Resolution 66 (3): 553-591.
    Foa, Roberto Stefan, and Yascha Mounk. 2016. &quot;The Danger of Deconsolidation: The Democratic Disconnect.&quot; Journal of Democracy 27 (3): 5-17.
    Foa, Roberto Stefan, and Yascha Mounk. 2017. &quot;The Signs of Deconsolidation.&quot; Journal of Democracy 28 (1): 5-15.
    Foa, Roberto Stefan. 2021. &quot;Why Strongmen Win in Weak States.&quot; Journal of Democracy 32 (1): 52-65.
    Fromm, Erich. 1941. Escape from Freedom. New York: Open Road Media.
    Fukuyama, Francis. 2015. &quot;Why Is Democracy Performing So Poorly?&quot; Journal of Democracy 26 (1): 11-20.
    Fukuyama, Francis. 2018. Identity: The Demand for Dignity and the Politics of Resentment. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
    Fukuyama, Francis. 2021. &quot;Rotten to the Core, How America’s Political Decay Accelerated During the Trump Era.&quot; https://www.foreignaffairs.com/united-states/donald-trump-political-decay-rotten-core(accessed on July 12, 2023).
    Geddes, Barbara, Joseph Wright, and Erica Frantz. 2014. &quot;Autocratic Breakdown and Regime Transitions: A New Data Set.&quot; Perspectives on Politics 12 (2): 313-331.
    Geddes, Barbara. 1999. &quot;What Do We Know about Democratization after Twenty Years?&quot; Annual Review of Political Science 2 (1): 115-144.
    Gelfand, Michele J., and Rebecca Lorente. 2021. &quot; Threat, Tightness, and the Evolutionary Appeal of Populist Leaders.&quot; In The Psychology of Populism, eds. J. P. Forgas, W. D. Crano, and K. Fiedler, London: Routledge.
    Gelman, Andrew, and Jennifer Hill. 2006. Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Gelman, Andrew. 2006. &quot;Multilevel (Hierarchical) Modeling: What It Can and Cannot Do.&quot; Technometrics 48 (3): 432-435.
    Gibson, James L. 2006. &quot;Changes in American Veneration for the Rule of Law.&quot; DePaul Law Review 56 (2): 593-614.
    Heywood, Andrew. 2021. Political Ideologies: An Introduction. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
    Hox, Joop J., Mirjam Moerbeek, and Rens Van de Schoot. 2017. Multilevel Analysis: Techniques and Applications. New York: Routledge.
    Hsiao, Yi-ching, and Eric Chen-hua Yu. 2020. &quot;Polarization Perception and Support for Democracy: The Case of Taiwan.&quot; Journal of Asian and African Studies 55 (8): 1143-1162.
    Huntington, Samuel P. 1991. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press.
    Inglehart, R., C. Haerpfer, A. Moreno, C. Welzel, K. Kizilova, J. Diez-Medrano, M. Lagos, P. Norris, E. Ponarin & B. Puranen (eds.). 2022. World Values Survey: All Rounds - Country-Pooled Datafile. Madrid, Spain & Vienna, Austria: JD Systems Institute & WVSA Secretariat. Dataset Version 3.0.0. doi:10.14281/18241.17
    Inglehart, Ronald F. 2016. &quot;The Danger of Deconsolidation: How Much Should We Worry?&quot; Journal of Democracy 27 (3): 18-23.
    Inglehart, Ronald F. 2003. &quot;How Solid Is Mass Support for Democracy: And How Can We Measure It?&quot; PS: Political Science and Politics 36 (1): 51-57.
    Inglehart, Ronald F. 2016. &quot;Inequality and Modernization: Why Equality Is Likely to Make a Comeback.&quot; Foreign Affairs 95 (2): 2-10.
    Jackson, Joshua Conrad, Marieke Van Egmond, Virginia K. Choi, Carol R. Ember, Jamin Halberstadt, Jovana Balanovic, Inger N. Basker, Klaus Boehnke, Noemi Buki, and Ronald Fischer. 2019. &quot;Ecological and Cultural Factors Underlying the Global Distribution of Prejudice.&quot; PLOS ONE 14 (9): e0221953.
    Kaltwasser, Cristóbal Rovira, Paul A. Taggart, Paulina Ochoa Espejo, and Pierre Ostiguy. 2017. The Oxford Handbook of Populism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Kang, WooJin. 2016. &quot;Democratic Performance and Park Chung-hee Nostalgia in Korean Democracy.&quot; Asian Perspective 40 (1): 51-78.
    Levitsky, Steven, and Lucan Way. 2015. &quot;The Myth of Democratic Recession.&quot; Journal of Democracy 26 (1): 45-58.
    Lijphart, Arend. 1984. Democracies: Patterns of Majoritarian and Consensus Government in Twenty-One Countries. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.
    Linde, Jonas. 2012. &quot;Why Feed the Hand that Bites You? Perceptions of Procedural Fairness and System Support in Post-Communist Democracies.&quot; European Journal of Political Research 51 (3): 410-434.
    Linz, Juan J. 1990. &quot;The Perils of Presidentialism.&quot; Journal of Democracy 1 (1): 51-69.
    Linz, Juan J., and Alfred Stepan. 1996a. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore: JHU Press.
    Linz, Juan J., and Alfred C. Stepan. 1996b. &quot;Toward consolidated democracies&quot; Journal of Democracy 7 (2):14-33.
    Long, J. Scott, and Jeremy Freese. 2014. Regression Models for Categorical Dependent Variables Using Stata. College Station, Texas: Stata Press.
    Marshall, Monty G., and Ted Robert Gurr. 2020. &quot;Polity5: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800-2018 (Dataset Users’ Manual).&quot; https://www.systemicpeace.org/polityproject.html (accessed on July 12, 2023).
    McCormick, John P. 1998. &quot; The Dilemmas of Dictatorship: Carl Schmitt and Constitutional Emergency Powers.&quot; In Law as Politics: Carl Schmitt’s Critique of Liberalism, eds. D. Dyzenhaus: Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.
    Merton, Robert K. 1938. &quot;Social Structure and Anomie.&quot; American Sociological Review 3 (5): 672-682.
    Mitchell, Michael N., and Xiao Chen. 2005. &quot;Visualizing Main Effects and Interactions for Binary Logit Models.&quot; The Stata Journal 5 (1): 64-82.
    Moises, Naim. 2022. The Revenge of Power: The Global Assault on Democracy and How to Defeat It. New York, NY: St. Martin`s Press.
    Moulton, Brent R. 1986. &quot;Random Group Effects and the Precision of Regression Estimates.&quot; Journal of Econometrics 32 (3): 385-397.
    Mudde, Cas, and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser. 2018. &quot;Studying Populism in Comparative Perspective: Reflections on the Contemporary and Future Research Agenda.&quot; Comparative Political Studies 51 (13): 1667-1693.
    Mudde, Cas. 2004. &quot;The Populist Zeitgeist.&quot; Government and Opposition 39 (4): 541-563.
    Müller, Jan-Werner. 2003. A Dangerous Mind: Carl Schmitt in Post-War European Thought. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.
    Müller, Jan-Werner. 2017. What is Populism? Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Munck, Gerardo L., and Jay Verkuilen. 2002. &quot;Conceptualizing and Measuring Democracy: Evaluating Alternative Indices.&quot; Comparative Political Studies 35 (1): 5-34.
    Neundorf, Anja, and Grigore Pop-Eleches. 2020. &quot;Dictators and Their Subjects: Authoritarian Attitudinal Effects and Legacies.&quot; Comparative Political Studies 53 (12): 1839-1860.
    Neundorf, Anja, Johannes Gerschewski, and Roman-Gabriel Olar. 2020. &quot;How Do Inclusionary and Exclusionary Autocracies Affect Ordinary People?&quot; Comparative Political Studies 53 (12): 1890-1925.
    Norris, Pippa, and Ronald Inglehart. 2019. Cultural Backlash: Trump, Brexit, and Authoritarian Populism. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    Norris, Pippa. 1999. &quot;Institutional Explanations for Political Support.&quot; In Critical Citizens: Global Support for Democratic Government, eds. P. Norris, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Norris, Pippa. 2011. Democratic Deficit: Critical Citizens Revisited. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    Norris, Pippa. 2017. &quot;Is Western democracy backsliding? Diagnosing the risks.&quot; https://www.journalofdemocracy.org/online-exchange-democratic-deconsolidation (accessed on July 12, 2023).
    North, Douglass C., and Barry R. Weingast. 1989. &quot;Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutional Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England.&quot; Journal of Economic History 49 (4): 803-832.
    O`Donnell, Guillermo A. 1996. &quot;Illusions about Consolidation.&quot; Journal of Democracy 7 (2): 34-51.
    Passarelli, Gianluca. 2015. &quot; The Presidentialization of Parties: Why, When, Where.&quot; In The Presidentialization of Political Parties, eds. G. Passarelli, London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Pemstein, Daniel, Kyle L. Marquardt, Eitan Tzelgov, Yi-ting Wang, Juraj Medzihorsky, Joshua Krusell, Farhad Miri, and Johannes von Römer. 2023. &quot;The V-Dem Measurement Model: Latent Variable Analysis for Cross-National and Cross-Temporal Expert-Coded Data.&quot; V-Dem Working Paper No. 21. 8th edition. University of Gothenburg: Varieties of Democracy Institute.
    Pernia, Ronald A. 2023. &quot;Populists in Power: Trust in Public Institutions and Support for Strong Leadership in the Post-Authoritarian Democracies of Indonesia and the Philippines.&quot; Asian Journal of Political Science 31 (1): 1-23.
    Pinheiro, José, and Douglas Bates. 2006. Mixed-Effects Models in S and S-PLUS. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
    Plattner, Marc F. 2015. &quot;Is Democracy in Decline?&quot; Journal of Democracy 26 (1): 5-10.
    Poguntke, Thomas, and Paul Webb. 2007. The Presidentialization of Politics: A Comparative Study of Modern Democracies. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Pop-Eleches, Grigore, and Joshua A. Tucker. 2020. &quot;Communist Legacies and Left-Authoritarianism.&quot; Comparative Political Studies 53 (12): 1861-1889.
    Rachman, Gideon. 2022. The Age of the Strongman: How the Cult of the Leader Threatens Democracy Around the World. New York: Other Press, LLC.
    Reeves, Andrew, and Jon C. Rogowski. 2015. &quot;Public Opinion toward Presidential Power.&quot; Presidential Studies Quarterly 45 (4): 742-759.
    Reeves, Andrew, and Jon C. Rogowski. 2016. &quot;Unilateral Powers, Public Opinion, and the Presidency.&quot; The Journal of Politics 78 (1): 137-151.
    Riker, William H. 1982. Liberalism Against Populism: A Confrontation Between the Theory of Democracy and the Theory of Social Choice. Long Grove: Waveland Press.
    Samuels, David J., and Matthew S. Shugart. 2010. Presidents, Parties, and Prime Ministers: How the Separation of Powers Affects Party Organization and Behavior. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    Sartori, Giovanni. 1994. Comparative Constitutional Engineering: An Inquiry into Structures, Incentives, and Outcomes. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire and London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
    Schenker, Nathaniel, and Jane F. Gentleman. 2001. &quot;On Judging the Significance of Differences by Examining the Overlap between Confidence Intervals.&quot; The American Statistician 55 (3): 182-186.
    Schmitt, Carl. 2005. Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Selvanathan, Hema Preya, Charlie R. Crimston, and Jolanda Jetten. 2022. &quot;How Being Rooted in the Past Can Shape the Future: The Role of Social Identity Continuity in the Wish for a Strong Leader.&quot; The Leadership Quarterly 33(4): 101608.
    Shugart, Matthew Soberg, and John M. Carey. 1992. Presidents and Assemblies: Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Shugart, Matthew Soberg. 1999. &quot;Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, and the Provision of Collective Goods in Less-Developed Countries.&quot; Constitutional Political Economy 10 (1): 53-88.
    Sommet, Nicolas, and Davide Morselli. 2017. &quot;Keep Calm and Learn Multilevel Logistic Modeling: A Simplified Three-Step Procedure Using Stata, R, Mplus, and SPSS.&quot; International Review of Social Psychology 30: 203-218.
    Sprong, Stefanie, Jolanda Jetten, Zhechen Wang, Kim Peters, Frank Mols, Maykel Verkuyten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, and Nadia Ayub. 2019. &quot;Our Country Needs a Strong Leader Right Now&quot;: Economic Inequality Enhances the Wish for a Strong Leader.&quot; Psychological Science 30 (11): 1625-1637.
    Svolik, Milan. 2008. &quot;Authoritarian Reversals and Democratic Consolidation.&quot; American Political Science Review 102 (2): 153-168.
    Svolik, Milan W. 2013. &quot;Learning to Love Democracy: Electoral Accountability and the Success of Democracy.&quot; American Journal of Political Science 57 (3): 685-702.
    Taggart, Paul A., and Frank Parkin. 2000. Populism. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    Ten, C. L. 2017. &quot;Constitutionalism and the Rule of Law.&quot; In A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosoph eds. R. E. Goodin, P. Pettit, and T. Pogge, Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.
    Teymoori, Ali, Brock Bastian, and Jolanda Jetten. 2017. &quot;Towards a Psychological Analysis of Anomie.&quot; Political Psychology 38 (6): 1009-1023.
    Tsai, Tsung-han, and Ching-hsin Yu. 2020. &quot;Antipartyism and Public Opinion toward Presidential Unilateral Actions: The Case of Taiwan in 2017.&quot; International Journal of Public Opinion Research 32 (3): 467-487.
    Voeten, Erik. 2017. &quot;Are People Really Turning Away from Democracy?&quot; https://www.journalofdemocracy.org/online-exchange-democratic-deconsolidation (accessed on July 12, 2023).
    Webb, Adele. 2017. &quot;Why Are the Middle-Class Misbehaving? Exploring Democratic Ambivalence and Authoritarian Nostalgia.&quot; Philippine Sociological Review 65(1): 77-102.
    Weber, Max. 1946. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, edited by H. H. Gerth and C. W. Mills. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Welzel, Christian, Stefan Kruse, and Lennart Brunkert. 2022. &quot;Why the Future Is (Still) Democratic.&quot; Journal of Democracy 33 (1): 156-162.
    Welzel, Christian. 2021. &quot;Why the Future Is Democratic.&quot; Journal of Democracy 32 (2): 132-144.
    Wike, Richard, Katie Simmons, Bruce Stokes, and Janell Fetterolf. 2017. &quot;Globally, Broad Support for Representative and Direct Democracy.&quot; https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2017/10/16/globally-broad-support-for-representative-and-direct-democracy(accessed on July 12, 2023).
    World Bank. 2021. &quot;World Governance Indicators.&quot; http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi. (accessed on July 12, 2023).
    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    政治學系
    107252501
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0107252501
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[政治學系] 學位論文

    Files in This Item:

    File Description SizeFormat
    250101.pdf4734KbAdobe PDF20View/Open


    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告 Copyright Announcement
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    The digital content of this website is part of National Chengchi University Institutional Repository. It provides free access to academic research and public education for non-commercial use. Please utilize it in a proper and reasonable manner and respect the rights of copyright owners. For commercial use, please obtain authorization from the copyright owner in advance.

    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    NCCU Institutional Repository is made to protect the interests of copyright owners. If you believe that any material on the website infringes copyright, please contact our staff(nccur@nccu.edu.tw). We will remove the work from the repository and investigate your claim.
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback