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    Title: 由全球治理思維析論臺灣推動氣候外交之策略
    The Strategies for promoting Climate Diplomacy in Taiwan from the Perspective of Global Governance
    Authors: 蘇緯政
    Su, Wei-Cheng
    Contributors: 連弘宜
    Lien, Hong-Yi
    蘇緯政
    Su, Wei-Cheng
    Keywords: 氣候變遷
    全球治理
    全球氣候治理
    氣候外交
    climate change
    global governance
    global climate governance
    climate diplomacy
    Date: 2023
    Issue Date: 2023-09-01 16:30:29 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 氣候變遷所帶來的衝擊與挑戰相當嚴峻,不僅威脅生計、損害發展,更觸及國際政治核心的地緣政治、國家主權、領土完整性、水資源、能源、糧食等問題,此外,對各國的社會、經濟與發展也會造成重大且高度不確定的影響,甚至,可能會破壞人類的安全,增加國際間衝突及區域不穩定的風險。

    傳統的外交協調與合作模式已難以妥善維持當今複雜的國際秩序,且國際社會的外交議題不再侷限於政府對政府而已,更擴及人類安全、環境保護、人權等多樣的外交議題。因此,要解決這些議題必須透過全球治理的前瞻思維及策略來進行協調與合作,這也是國際社會必須發展「氣候外交(Climate Diplomacy)」的意義。

    中國長期對我們在國際社會參與的惡意阻撓、威嚇與打壓不斷,本文認為,「氣候外交」將是臺灣有機會突破外交困境的重要途徑。藉由環境永續及氣候變遷議題與國際社會接軌,不僅可降低政治衝突性,亦可展現出臺灣絕對有意願、有能力為國際社會積極貢獻,善盡國際公民責任,有助於臺灣與世界連結並爭取更多認同,建立國際各領域的友善夥伴關係,提升臺灣優質形象與國際能見度。

    本文擬就氣候變遷對全球造成的影響、全球氣候治理的發展、氣候外交的涵義、歐盟與碳排大國(以美國、日本、中國為例)推動氣候外交的重點、臺灣面臨的挑戰與機會、臺灣參與《聯合國氣候變遷綱要公約(UNFCCC)》的情形、臺灣有關氣候的立法與政策推動過程等,予以整理、歸納與分析,並融入筆者的立法及政策實務經驗,提出臺灣未來推動「氣候外交」的策略淺見。
    The impacts and challenges brought about by climate change are severe, not only threatening livelihoods and development, but also touching on the core issues of international politics, such as geopolitics, national sovereignty, territorial integrity, water resources, energy, and food, etc. In addition, it will also cause significant and highly uncertain impacts on the social, economic, and developmental aspects of countries. It may even jeopardize the security of human beings and increase the risk of international conflicts and regional instability.

    The traditional mode of diplomatic coordination and cooperation can no longer properly maintain today’s complex international order, and the diplomatic issues of the international community are no longer limited to Government-to-Government, but also extend to various diplomatic issues such as human security, environmental protection, and human rights. Therefore, in order to solve these issues, it is necessary to coordinate and cooperate through the forward-looking thinking and strategies of global governance, which is also the significance of the international community must develop “Climate Diplomacy”.

    In light of China’s long history of vicious obstruction, intimidation and suppression of our participation in the international community, this article believes that “Climate Diplomacy” will be an important avenue for Taiwan to have a chance to break through the diplomatic dilemma. Connecting with the international community through environmental sustainability and climate change not only reduces political conflict, but also demonstrates Taiwan’s willingness and ability to contribute to the international community and fulfill its international civic responsibilities, which will help Taiwan connect with the world and strive for more recognition, establish friendly partnerships in various international fields, and enhance Taiwan’s positive image and international visibility.

    This article intends to organize, summarize and analyze the impacts of climate change on the world, the development of global climate governance, the meaning of climate diplomacy, the focuses of the European Union and the major carbon-emitting countries (taking the United States, Japan and China as examples) in promoting climate diplomacy, the challenges and opportunities faced by Taiwan, Taiwan’s participation in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and the process of promoting Taiwan’s climate-related legislation and policies. In addition, the author’s practical experience in legislation and policy has been incorporated into the analysis, so as to put forward Taiwan’s strategy for the promotion of “Climate Diplomacy” in the future.
    Reference: 一、中文部分
    (一)專書
    1. 包宗和(編)(2023),《國際關係理論》,6版,臺北:五南。
    2. 包宗和(編)(2021),《國際關係辭典》,3版,臺北:五南。
    3. 包宗和、張登及(編)(2018),《國際關係理論入門》,臺北:五南。
    4. 李明、邱稔壤(編)(2020),《地緣政治經濟之爭奪戰:中國大陸在非西方世界攻城掠地?》,臺北:五南。
    5. 吳重禮、吳文欽、張廖年仲(編)(2023),《政治學的現況與展望》,臺北:五南。
    6. 林碧炤(2015),《面向新世界:國際關係的復古與創新》,臺北:東美。
    7. 林碧炤(2013),《國際政治與外交政策》,3版,臺北:五南。
    8. 林明鏘(2009),《歐盟行政法:德國行政法總論之變革》,臺北:新學林。
    9. 林俊全、周桂田(編)(2017),《氣候變遷下的國家發展藍圖》,臺北:臺灣大學。
    10. 周桂田(編)(2017),《氣候變遷下的國家發展藍圖》,臺北:臺大全球變遷中心、臺大風險政策中心。
    11. 邵廣昭(2000),《藍色運動:尋回臺灣的海洋生物》,臺北:聯經。
    12. 范建得、方肇頤、廖沿臻(2021),《聯合國氣候變化綱要公約與巴黎協定》,臺北:元華文創。
    13. 施文真(2013),《WTO、氣候變遷與能源》,臺北:元照。
    14. 張亞中、張登及(編)(2020),《國際關係總論》,5版,臺北:揚智。
    15. 盛盈仙(2013),《國際關係與環境政治》,臺北:秀威資訊。
    16. 陳牧民(2009),《國際安全理論:權力、主權與威脅》,臺北:五南。
    17. 陳慈陽(2011),《環境法總論》,3版,臺北:元照。
    18. 陳隆志、陳文賢(編)(2009),《聯合國專門機構:體制、功能與發展》,臺北:新學林。
    19. 陳隆志、陳文賢(編)(2008),《聯合國:體制、功能與發展》,臺北:新學林。
    20. 楊惟任(2018),《氣候變遷與全球治理》,臺北:五南。
    21. 葉俊榮(2015),《氣候變遷治理與法律》,臺北:臺灣大學。
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    25. 葉俊榮、張文貞、林春元(編)(2020),《建構氣候轉型立法:比較立法與議題論述》,臺北:新學林。
    26. 葉俊榮、姜皇池、張文貞(編)(2010),《國際環境法:條約選輯與解說》,臺北:新學林。
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    29. 蔡育岱(等合著)(2018),《臺灣與非傳統安全》,2版,臺北:五南。
    30. 蔡東杰(2020),《當代中國外交政策》,4版,臺北:五南。
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    (二)譯著
    1. Carney, Mark J.(著),陳儀(譯)(2022),《價值的選擇:以人性面對全球危機,G7央行總裁寫給21世紀公民的價值行動準則》,臺北:八旗文化。
    2. Fasulo, Linda(著),龐元媛(譯)(2018),《認識聯合國》,臺北:五南。
    3. Giddens, Anthony(著),黃煜文、高忠義(譯)(2011),《氣候變遷政治學》,臺北:商周文化。
    4. Maslin, Mark(著),趙睿音(譯)(2023),《氣候變遷:亟待解決的人類共同問題》,臺北:日出。
    5. Nordhaus, William D.(著),劉道捷(譯)(2019),《氣候賭局:延緩氣候變遷vs.風險與不確定性,經濟學能拿全球暖化怎麼辦?》,臺北:寶鼎。
    6. Nye, J. S., Jr.(著),吳家恆、方祖芳(譯)(2006),《柔性權力》,臺北:遠流。
    7. Nye, J. S., Jr. & Welch, D. A.(著),張小明(譯)(2006),《哈佛最熱門的國際關係課》,臺北:商業周刊。
    8. Sachs, Jeffrey D.(著),周曉琪、羅耀宗(譯)(2015),《永續發展新紀元》,臺北:天下文化。
    9. Wilson, E. O.(著),楊玉齡(譯)(2002),《The Future of Life-生物圈的未來》,臺北:天下文化。
    10. 陳隆志(著),廖福特、黃昭元、姜皇池、張文貞、徐揮彥、宋承恩(譯)(2022),《當代國際法引論:政策導向的闡述》,臺北:臺灣新世紀文教基金會。

    (三)書之篇章
    1. 連弘宜(2021),〈普京時期地緣戰略演變與地緣政治理論〉,收於:蔡東杰、楊三億(編),《國際關係理論與全球實踐》,頁51-68,臺北:五南。
    2. 連弘宜(2020),〈一帶一路下的中俄關係新局:從平等互利到扈從?〉,收於:李明、邱稔壤(編),《地緣政治經濟之爭奪戰:中國大陸在非西方世界攻城掠地?》,頁29-56,臺北:五南。
    3. 周桂田(2017),〈氣候治理的新挑戰—氣候公民典範轉移〉,收於:林俊全、周桂田(編),《氣候變遷下的國家發展藍圖》,頁53-78,臺北:臺大全球變遷中心、臺大風險政策中心。
    4. 蔡育岱(2020),〈理解全球化〉,收於:張亞中、張登及(編),《國際關係總論》,頁383-412,臺北:揚智。
    5. 蔡育岱(2002),〈環境理論〉,收於:包宗和、張登及(編),《國際關係理論入門》,頁177-196,臺北:五南。
    6. 譚偉恩(2020),〈全球環境政治〉,收於:張亞中、張登及(編),《國際關係總論》,頁489-520,臺北:揚智。

    (四)期刊論文
    1. 李河清(2001),〈環境外交與氣候議題談判—以京都議定書為例〉,《國家政策論壇》,1卷9期,頁14-27。
    2. 林子倫(2021),〈淨零排放的氣候政策意涵、趨勢及論述爭辯〉,《國際開發援助現場季刊》,6期,頁6-20。
    3. 林子倫(2008),〈臺灣氣候變遷政策之論述分析〉,《公共行政學報》,28期,頁153-175。
    4. 林春元(2022),〈從姿態立法到轉型立法-臺灣2050淨零排放立法進程與未竟之業〉,《全國律師》,26卷5期,頁6-17。
    5. 施文真(2005),〈臺灣參與國際環保類之組織與公約的意義與可行性〉,《臺灣國際法季刊》,2卷1期,頁125-173。
    6. 洪德欽(2013),〈「氣候變遷與歐美政策回應」專題緒論〉,《歐美研究》,43卷1期,頁1-25。
    7. 洪德欽(2012),〈歐盟氣候變遷政策的規範、策略與實踐〉,《科技法學評論》,9卷2期,頁99-189。
    8. 高朗(2004),〈後冷戰時期中共外交政策之變與不變〉,《政治科學論叢》,21期,頁19-48。
    9. 陳麗娟(2023),〈歐盟綠色外交政策新趨勢〉,《國會季刊》,51卷1期,頁1-35。
    10. 盛盈仙(2015),〈氣候變遷議題與「環境權入憲」之探討〉,《法治與公共治理學報》,3期,頁123-150。
    11. 楊文琪、陳韻如(2022),〈由氣候正義評估框架探討德國雙邊氣候財務機制〉,《全球政治評論》,79期,頁27-67。
    12. 蔡育岱、譚偉恩(2007),〈再思人類安全研究〉,《淡江人文社會學刊》,32期,頁53-74。
    13. 楊惟任(2021),〈如何實踐有效的全球治理?〉,《全球政治評論》,75期,頁45-70。
    14. 楊惟任(2020),〈美國退出《巴黎協定》後全球氣候治理將何去何從?〉,《國會季刊》,48卷3期,頁30-45。
    15. 楊惟任(2017),〈從國際氣候政治看川普退出巴黎氣候協定〉,《國會季刊》,45卷4期,頁58-76。
    16. 楊惟任(2015),〈主權國家於全球氣候治理的角色分析〉,《全球政治評論》,49期,頁83-106。
    17. 葉俊榮(2005),〈轉型與發展:臺灣21世紀議程—國家永續發展願景與策略綱領〉,《研考雙月刊》,29卷5期,頁6-18。
    18. 葉俊榮(1992),〈大量環境立法:我國環境立法的模式、難題及因應方向〉,《臺大法學論叢》,22卷1期,頁105-147。

    (五)學位論文
    1. 盛盈仙(2012),《全球氣候變遷與暖化下的國際合作–「美國」角色與環境雙層博弈》,東海大學政治學研究所博士論文。

    (六)研究報告
    1. 行政院(2022),〈2022年中華民國氣候變遷調適通訊〉。
    2. 行政院研究發展考核委員會(2011),〈全球氣候變遷因應政策之研究〉。
    3. 科技部、中央研究院環境變遷研究中心、交通部中央氣象局、臺灣師範大學地球科學系、國家災害防救科技中心(2021),〈IPCC氣候變遷第六次評估報告之科學重點摘錄與臺灣氣候變遷評析更新報告〉。
    4. 楊文琪(2020),〈氣候變遷資金機制之研究–兼論對臺灣之適用性〉,科技部補助專題研究計畫成果報告。
    5. 臺灣大學風險社會與政策研究中心(2021),〈臺灣氣候風險與機會〉。

    (七)網頁
    1. 內政部消防署(2023),《中華民國111年消防統計年報》,載於內政部消防署網站:https://www.nfa.gov.tw/cht/index.php?act=download&ids=17964(最後瀏覽日:06/29/2023)。
    2. 參與國際組織,載於外交部網站:https://subsite.mofa.gov.tw/igo/News.aspx?n=6054&sms=1673(最後瀏覽日:05/27/2023)。
    3. 蘇緯政(2007),《在全球化趨勢中,臺灣如何扮演好其角色?》,載於外交部網站:https://multilingual.mofa.gov.tw/web/web_UTF-8/out/2701/business01.html(最後瀏覽日:06/20/2023)。
    4. 月旦法學知識庫:http://www.lawdata.com.tw
    5. 立法院國會圖書館:https://npl.ly.gov.tw
    6. 立法院議事暨公報管理系統:https://lci.ly.gov.tw
    7. 全國法規資料庫:https://law.moj.gov.tw
    8. 法源法律網:https://www.lawbank.com.tw
    9. 華藝線上圖書館:https://www.airitilibrary.com
    10. 臺灣碳權交易所:https://www.tcx.com.tw
    11. 臺灣博碩士論文知識加值系統:https://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw


    二、外文部分
    (一)專書
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    3. Commission on Global Governance (1995). Our Global Neighborhood: The Report of the Commission on Global Governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    4. Cooper, A. F., Heine, J., & Thakur, R. (2013). The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    5. Hardin, R. (1982). Collective Action. Baltimore: Resources for the Future/Johns Hopkins University Press.
    6. Hocking, B. (1999). Catalytic Diplomacy: Beyond ‘Newness’ and ‘Decline’. New York: Palgrave.
    7. Johnston A. I. (1998). International Structures and Chinese Foreign Policy. Boulder: Westview Press.
    8. Keohane, R. O. (1989). International Institutions and State Power: Essays in International Relations Theory. Boulder: Westview Press.
    9. Krasner, S. D. (1983). International Regimes. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
    10. Miller, P. (2011). The Smart Swarm: How to Work Efficiently, Communicate Effectively, and Make Better Decisions Usin g the Secrets of Flocks, Schools, and Colonies. New York : Avery.
    11. Minas, S. & Ntousas V. (2018). EU Climate Diplomacy: Politics, Law and Negotiations. London : Routledge.
    12. Morgera, E. (1999). The External Environmental Policy of the European Union: EU and International Law Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    13. Nye, J. S., Jr. (2004). Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affairs.
    14. Olson, M., Jr. (1971). The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    15. 大久保規子、高村ゆかり、赤渕芳宏、久保田泉(編)(2019),《環境規制の現代的展開》,日本:法律文化社。
    16. 西尾哲茂(2019),《わか~る環境法》,増補改訂版,日本:信山社。
    17. 柳憲一郎(2015),《コンパクト環境法政策》,日本:清文社。

    (二)書之篇章
    1. Little, R. (1997). International Regimes, in Baylis, J., Smith, S., & Owens, P., The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    2. 久保田泉(2019),〈気候変動対策(緩和策)における規制的手法の役割〉,收於:大久保規子、高村ゆかり、赤渕芳宏、久保田泉(編),《環境規制の現代的展開》,頁234-246,日本:法律文化社。

    (三)期刊論文
    1. Beck, U. (2015). Emancipatory catastrophism: What does it mean to climate change and risk society? Current Sociolog, 63, 75-88.
    2. Bonabeau, E. & Meyer, C. (2001). Swarm Intelligence: A Whole New Way to Think About Business. Harvard Business Review, 79, 106-114.
    3. Drezner, D. W. (2009). The Power and Peril of International Regime Complexity. Perspectives on Politics, 7(1), 65-70.
    4. Dupont, A. (2008). The Strategic implications of Climate Change. Survival, 50(3), 29-54.
    5. Hristova, A. & Chankova D. (2020). Climate Diplomacy – A Growing Foreign Policy Challenge. Juridical Tribune, 10, 194-206.
    6. Lemos, M. C. & Agrawal A. (2006). Environmental Governance. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 31, 297-325.
    7. Mace, M.J. & Anderson, J. (1999). Legal and design issues arising in linking the EU ETS with existing and emerging emissions trading schemes. Journal for European Environmental & Planning Law, 6(2), 197-232.
    8. Maggi, G. (1999). The Role of Multilateral Institutions in International Trade Cooperation. The American Economic Review, 89(1), 190-214.
    9. Mauboussin, M.J. (2009). When Individuals Don`t Matter. Harvard Business Review, 87, 24-25.
    10. Miller, P. (2007). Swarm Behavior. National Geographic Magazine, July.
    11. Nye, J. S., Jr. (1990). Soft Power. Foreign Policy, 80, 153-171.
    12. Rosenau, J. N. (1995). Governance in the Twenty-first Century. Global Governance, 1(1), 13-43.
    13. Wirth, D. A. (1989). Climate Chaos. Foreign Policy, 74, 3-22.
    14. Yeh, J. R. & Lin, C. Y. (2018). The Paris Agreement and the Transformation of Global Climate Law: Taiwan’s Perspective. National Taiwan University Law Review, 146, 149-182.

    (四)研究報告
    1. Center for Strategic and International Studies (2019). Strengthening the U.S.-Pacific Islands Partnership. https://csis-website-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/publication/190515_SoutheastAsia_U.S.PacificIslands_WEB.pdf
    2. Foley, C. & Holland, A. (2012). Climate Security Report. American Security Project.
    3. G7. (2017). A New Climate for Peace – Taking Action on Climate and Fragility Risks. https://climate-diplomacy.org/sites/default/files/2020-11/NewClimateForPeace_FullReport_small_0.pdf
    4. Neumann, J. E., Yohe, G., Nicholls, R., & Manion, M. (2000). Sea-Level Rise & Global Climate Change: A Review of Impacts to U.S. Coasts. Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
    5. World Bank (2015). Natural Disaster Hotspots: A Global Risk Analysis. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/621711468175150317/pdf/344230PAPER0Na101official0use0only1.pdf
    6. World Bank (2023). State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2023. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstreams/bdd449bb-c298-4eb7-a794-c80bfe209f4a/download
    7. World Economic Forum (2023). Global Risks Report 2023. https://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Global_Risks_Report_2023.pdf

    (五)網頁
    1. Luiss University網站:Master in EU Trade & Climate Diplomacy. https://sog.luiss.it/node/3024 (Last Visited: 06/25/2023).
    2. Nature網站:Climate change increases cross-species viral transmission risk. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-022-04788-w (Last Visited: 05/20/2023).
    Science網站:Exceeding 1.5°C global warming could trigger multiple climate tipping points. https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abn7950 (Last Visited: 05/20/2023).
    3. The Economist網站:Clear thinking needed. https://www.economist.com/leaders/2015/11/28/clear-thinking-needed (Last Visited: 05/22/2023).
    4. 日本外務省(がいむしょう)網站:White Paper on Development Cooperation 2019: Japan`s International Cooperation. https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/oda/files/100161423.pdf (Last Visited: 06/29/2023).
    5. 日本外務省(がいむしょう)網站:気候変動外交タスクフォースの設置 https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/press/release/press4_005988.html (Last Visited: 06/29/2023).
    6. 日本外務省(がいむしょう)網站:岸田総理大臣のエネルギーと気候に関する主要経済国フォーラム(MEF)への参加について(結果概要) https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/ic/ch/page1_001618.html (Last Visited: 06/29/2023).
    7. 巴黎協定(Paris Agreement)網站:https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement (Last Visited: 06/21/2023).
    8. 生物多樣性公約(Convention on Biological Diversity, CBD)」網站:https://www.cbd.int/ (Last Visited: 06/25/2023).
    9. 美國白宮(The White House)網站:FACT SHEET: President Biden Sets 2030 Greenhouse Gas Pollution Reduction Target Aimed at Creating Good-Paying Union Jobs and Securing U.S. Leadership on Clean Energy Technologies, 22 April 2021. https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2021/04/22/fact-sheet-president-biden-sets-2030-greenhouse-gas-pollution-reduction-target-aimed-at-creating-good-paying-union-jobs-and-securing-u-s-leadership-on-clean-energy-technologies/ (Last Visited: 06/25/2023).
    10. 美國白宮(The White House)網站:Indo-Pacific Strategy of the Unite State, Feb 2022. https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/U.S.-Indo-Pacific-Strategy.pdf (Last Visited: 07/01/2023).
    11. 美國能源部(U.S. Department of Energy)網站:https://www.energy.gov/clean-energy (Last Visited: 06/22/2023).
    12. 美國國務院(U.S. Department of State)網站:Tackling the Crisis and Seizing the Opportunity: America’s Global Climate Leadership, 19 April 2021. https://www.state.gov/secretary-antony-j-blinken-remarks-to-the-chesapeake-bay-foundation-tackling-the-crisis-and-seizing-the-opportunity-americas-global-climate-leadership/ (Last Visited: 06/25/2023).
    13. 美國國家航空暨太空總署(NASA)網站:Climate impacts on global agriculture emerge earlier in new generation of climate and crop models. https://pubs.giss.nasa.gov/abs/ja00400o.html (Last Visited: 08/03/2023).
    14. 控制危險廢棄物越境轉移及其處置巴塞爾公約(Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, Basel Convention)網站:https://www.basel.int/ (Last Visited: 06/25/2023).
    15. 德國adelphi智庫網站:Climate Diplomacy: Foreign Policy Responses to Climate Change. https://adelphi.de/en/publications/climate-diplomacy-foreign-policy-responses-to-climate-change (Last Visited: 06/27/2023).
    16. 德國外交部(Auswärtiges Amt)網站:Federal Foreign Office Climate Diplomacy Report. https://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/blob/2296210/3371d7d8f8b282036ff0db19af1db021/200124-klimabericht-dl-data.pdf (Last Visited: 06/26/2023).
    17. 德國國防部(Bundesministerium der Verteidigung)網站:Integrierte Sicherheit für Deutschland – Nationale Sicherheitsstrategie. https://www.bmvg.de/resource/blob/5636374/38287252c5442b786ac5d0036ebb237b/nationale-sicherheitsstrategie-data.pdf (Last Visited: 06/25/2023).
    18. 歐盟理事會(Council of the European Union)網站:Climate Change and International Security, 14 March 2008. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/EN/reports/99387.pdf (Last Visited: 05/21/2023).
    19. 歐盟理事會(Council of the European Union)網站:Council Conclusions on Climate Diplomacy, Brussels 26 February 2018. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/32953/st06125-en18.pdf (Last Visited: 05/21/2023).
    20. 歐盟執委會(European Commission)網站:Proposal for a Regulauion of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing the Just Transition Fund, Brussels 14.1.2020. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/resource.html?uri=cellar:b828d165-1c22-11ea-8c1f-01aa75ed71a1.0002.02/DOC_1&format=PDF (Last Visited: 05/21/2023).
    21. 歐盟執委會(European Commission)網站:The European Green Deal, Brussels 11.12.2019. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/resource.html?uri=cellar:b828d165-1c22-11ea-8c1f-01aa75ed71a1.0002.02/DOC_1&format=PDF (Last Visited: 05/21/2023).
    22. 聯合國(United Nations)網站:The Millennium Development Goals Report, https://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20rev%20(July%201).pdf (Last Visited: 05/21/2023).
    23. 聯合國(United Nations)網站:Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development : Our common future. https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/139811/files/A_42_427-EN.pdf (Last Visited: 05/21/2023).
    24. 聯合國(United Nations)網站:Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. https://sdgs.un.org/2030agenda (Last Visited: 06/28/2023).
    25. 聯合國(United Nations)網站:Conference of the Parties(COP). https://unfccc.int/process/bodies/supreme-bodies/conference-of-the-parties-cop (Last Visited: 06/23/2023).
    26. 聯合國(United Nations)網站:What is renewable energy? https://www.un.org/en/climatechange/what-is-renewable-energy (Last Visited: 06/20/2023).
    27. 聯合國全球盟約(United Nations Global Compact, UNGC)網站:https://unglobalcompact.org/ (Last Visited: 06/25/2023).
    28. 聯合國亞洲及太平洋經濟社會委員會(U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, UNESCAP)網站:What is good governance? https://www.unescap.org/resources/what-good-governance (Last Visited: 05/21/2023).
    29. 聯合國政府間氣候變遷專門委員會(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC)網站:Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/06/ar4_syr.pdf (Last Visited: 05/20/2023).
    30. 聯合國政府間氣候變遷專門委員會(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC)網站:IPCC FACTSHEET: What is the IPCC?. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2021/07/AR6_FS_What_is_IPCC.pdf (Last Visited: 05/20/2023).
    31. 聯合國政府間氣候變遷專門委員會(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC)網站:AR6 Synthesis Report: Climate Change 2023. https://www.ipcc.ch/report/sixth-assessment-report-cycle/ (Last Visited: 05/20/2023).
    32. 聯合國氣候變遷綱要公約(United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC)網站:http://unfccc.int (Last Visited: 06/25/2023).
    33. 聯合國氣候變遷綱要公約(United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC)網站:Conference of the Parties(COP). https://unfccc.int/process/bodies/supreme-bodies/conference-of-the-parties-cop (Last Visited: 05/27/2023).
    34. 聯合國氣候變遷綱要公約(United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC)網站:Observer organizations. https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/parties-non-party-stakeholders/non-party-stakeholders/overview/observer-organizations (Last Visited: 05/26/2023).
    35. 聯合國氣候變遷綱要公約(United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC)網站:Admitted NGOs. https://unfccc.int/process/parties-non-party-stakeholders/non-party-stakeholders/admitted-ngos/list-of-admitted-ngos (Last Visited: 05/26/2023).
    36. 聯合國環境規劃署(United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP)網站:https://ozone.unep.org/treaties/montreal-protocol (Last Visited: 06/25/2023).
    37. 瀕臨絕種野生動植物國際貿易公約(Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES)網站:https://cites.org/eng (Last Visited: 06/25/2023).
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    外交學系戰略與國際事務碩士在職專班
    104922013
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0104922013
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[戰略與國際事務碩士在職專班] 學位論文

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