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    Title: 共善與私利之競合──論弗格森的政治思想
    The Conflict and Reconciliation of Public Good and Private Interest: A Study of Adam Ferguson’s Political Thought
    Authors: 高郁軒
    Kao, Yu-Hsuan
    Contributors: 陳建綱
    Chen, Chien-Kang
    高郁軒
    Kao, Yu-Hsuan
    Keywords: 亞當弗格森
    蘇格蘭啟蒙運動
    自由
    美德
    商業
    文明
    安全
    Adam Ferguson
    Scottish Enlightenment
    liberty
    security
    virtue
    commerce
    civilization
    Date: 2023
    Issue Date: 2024-01-02 15:33:13 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文之研究目的在於釐清公共善與私人利益在亞當.弗格森思想中的關係,並提出弗格森立基於此所作出的政治制度安排。本文透過對於弗格森理論之探討,提出「對人類之愛」在弗格森思想中的重要性,也闡述在其思想中,對人類之愛、美德、幸福與善具有同一性。不過,與此同時,弗格森並未否定私人利益追求所帶來的好處。他明確指出,商業的發展將使得人類社會邁向進步。而在政治制度安排上,弗格森認為自由首先來自於人身安全與財產安全的保障,此一保障是透過法律制度的限制而生,因此,弗格森透過以臣屬關係為立基的制度安排,認為有限制的政治參與能夠最大程度地符合此一目的,並藉此劃出了商業邏輯運作之空間。只要私人利益的追求不危害到公共善,弗格森便不加以拒絕。此一臣屬關係,是透過美德作為區分的基礎,他認為,可透過「教育/軍事」方案,來使個人獲得美德。而在對弗格森社會階段論的考察中,除了可以看見透過制度所作出的區分,弗格森也透露出對於文雅、禮貌等重視。他認為,人類社會有著高低兩個層次的進步方向,低層次是技藝、制度;而高層次是道德、美德。筆者也進一步揭示,對弗格森來說,人類可以透過積極地行動,來邁向高層次的進步,而這也將是弗格森政治思想的重要基礎。
    The thesis aims to demonstrate the relationship between the common good and private interests in the political thought of Adam Ferguson and to propose the political institutional arrangements founded upon this relationship. This thesis indicates the significance of "love of mankind" in Ferguson's thought, and also explains that in his thought, love for mankind, virtue, happiness and goodness are identical. At the same time, Ferguson does not dismiss the benefits resulting from the pursuit of private interests. He explicitly points out that the development of commerce will propel human society toward progress. Regarding the arrangement of political institutions, Ferguson contends that liberty primarily arises from the protection of personal and property security. This protection is generated by the restrictions of the legal system. Thus, Ferguson establishes a system based on subordination, arguing that limited political participation can meet this purpose and thereby delineates the space for commercial logic. As long as the pursuit of private interests does not jeopardize the common good, Ferguson does not reject it. This subordination, founded on virtue as a differentiator, posits that individuals can attain virtue through an "education/military" program. In the examination of Ferguson's theory on social stages, distinctions made through institutions are evident. Ferguson also reveals an emphasis on civility and politeness. He posits that human society has two levels of progressive directions: the lower level involving arts and institutions, and the higher level involving morality and virtue. The author further elucidates that, for Ferguson, humanity can advance toward higher levels through active actions, which constitute a fundamental basis for Ferguson's political thought.
    Reference: (一)弗格森著作
    Ferguson, Adam
    1996 An Essay on the History of Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    1973 Principles of Moral and Political Science. New York: AMS Press.
    1994 Institutes of Moral Philosophy. London: Routledge/ Thoemmes Press.
    1995 The Correspondence of Adam Ferguson. ed. Vincenzo Merolle. London: William Pickering.

    (二)英文文獻
    Amoh, Yasuo
    2008 “Ferguson’s views on the American and French revolutions,” in Eugene Heath and Vincenzo Merolle ed., Adam Ferguson: History, Progress and Human Nature. London: Pickering & Chatto, pp. 73-86.

    Berry, Christopher
    1997 Social Theory of the Scottish Enlightenment. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    2009 “But Art Itself is Natural to Man: Ferguson and the Principle of Simultaneity,” in Eugene Heath and Vincenzo Merolle ed., Adam Ferguson: Philosophy, Politics and Society. London: Pickering & Chatto, pp. 143-154.
    2013 The idea of Commercial Society in The Scottish Enlightenment. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

    Bijlsma, Rudmer
    2019 “Alienation in Commercial Society: The Republican Critique of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Ferguson,” The Southern Journal of Philosophy 57(3): 347-77.
    2022 “Of Savages and Stoics: Converging Moral and Political Ideals in the Conjectural Histories of Rousseau and Ferguson,” Philosophy & Social Criticism 48(2): 209-44.
    2023 “Adam Ferguson on True Religion, Science, and Moral Progress,” History of European Ideas 49(6): 1014-36.

    Brewer, John
    2007 “Putting Adam Ferguson in His Place,” The British Journal of Sociology 58(1): 105-22.

    Broadie, Alexander
    2003 The Cambridge Companion to the Scottish Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    2010 A History of Scottish Philosophy. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    2012 “Adam Ferguson, Classical Republicanism and the Imperative of Modernity.” in Neil Walker ed., MacCormick’s Scotland. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 107-27.

    Elazar, Yiftah
    2014 “Adam Ferguson on modern liberty and the absurdity of democracy,” History of Political Thought 35(4): 768-87.

    Emerson, Roger
    2003 “The contexts of the Scottish Enlightenment,” in Alexander Broadie ed., The Cambridge Companion to the Scottish Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 9-30.

    Fagg, Jane B.
    1995 “Introduction,” in Vincenzo Merolle ed., The Correspondence of Adam Ferguson. London: William Pickering.

    Forbes, Duncan
    1966 “Introduction,” in Duncan Forbes ed., Adam Ferguson An Essay on the History of Civil Society: 1767. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

    Fry, Michael
    2009 “Ferguson the Highlander,” in Eugene Heath and Vincenzo Merolle ed., Adam Ferguson: Philosophy, Politics and Society. London: Pickering & Chatto, pp. 9-24.

    Geuna, Marco
    2002 “Republicanism and Commercial Society in the Scottish Enlightenment: The Case of Adam Ferguson,” in Quentin Skinner and Martin van Gelderen ed., Republicanism: A Shared European Heritage, VOLUME II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 177-196.

    Haakonssen, Knud
    2003 “Natural jurisprudence and the theory of justice,” in Alexander Broadie ed., The Cambridge Companion to the Scottish Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 205-221.

    Hamowy, Ronald
    2007 “Scottish Thought and the American Revolution: Adam Ferguson’s Response to Richard Price,” in David Womersley ed., Liberty and American experience in the eighteenth century. Indiana: Liberty Fund, pp. 348-387.

    Hayek, F. A.
    1960 The Constitution of Liberty. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    2014 The Market and Other Orders. London: Routledge.

    Hill, Lisa
    2006 The Passionate Society: The Social, Political and Moral Thought of Adam Ferguson. Netherlands: Springer.
    2009 “A Complicated Vision: The Good Polity in Adam Ferguson’s Thought,” in Eugene Heath and Vincenzo Merolle ed., Adam Ferguson: Philosophy, Politics and Society. London: Pickering & Chatto, pp. 107-123.

    Hutcheson, Francis
    1755 A System of Moral Philosophy. Glasgow: Robert & Andrew Foulis.

    Kalyvas, Andreas and Ira Katznelson
    1998 “Adam Ferguson Returns: Liberalism through a Glass, Darkly.” Political Theory 26(2): 173-97.
    2008 Liberal Beginnings: Making a Republic for the Moderns. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Kettler, David
    2005 Adam Ferguson: His Social and Political Thought. England: Routledge.

    Lin, Zisai and Eugene Heath
    2018 “The Kingdom of Freedom in the Garden of God: Ferguson’s Postulates of Moral Action.” Journal of Scottish Philosophy 16(2): 105-23.

    McDaniel, Iain
    2013a Adam Ferguson in the Scottish Enlightenment: The Roman Past and Europe’s Future. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    2013b “Philosophical History and the Science of Man in Scotland: Adam Ferguson’s response to Rousseau,” Modern Intellectual History 10(3): 543-68.

    McDowell , Gary L.
    1983 “Commerce, Virtue, and Politics: Adam Ferguson’s Constitutionalism,” The Review of Politics 45(4): 536-52.

    Montesquieu, Charles de
    1989 Montesquieu: The Spirit of the Laws. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Nicolai, Katherine Cecilia
    2011 The ‘Scottish Cato’ ?: A Re-Examination of Adam Ferguson’s Engagement with Classical Antiquity. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.

    Oz-Salzberger, Fania
    1996 “Introduction,” in An Essay on the History of Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    2008 “Ferguson’s Politics of Action,” in Eugene Heath and Vincenzo Merolle ed., Adam Ferguson: History, Progress and Human Nature, London: Pickering & Chatto, pp. 147-156.

    Pietrzyk-Reeves, Dorota
    2008 “Adam Ferguson’s Republicanism,” Politeja 10(1): 67-84.

    Pocock, J. G. A.
    1975 THE MACHIA VELLIAN MOMENT: Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition. United Kingdom: Princeton University Press.
    2003 BARBARISM AND RELIGION, Volume 3 The First Decline and Fall. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Raynor, David
    2008 “Ferguson’s reflections previous to the establishment of a militia,” in Eugene Heath and Vincenzo Merolle ed., Adam Ferguson: History, Progress and Human Nature. London: Pickering & Chatto, pp. 65-72.
    2009 “Why did David Hume dislike Adam Ferguson’s An Essay on the History of Civil Society?” in Eugene Heath and Vincenzo Merolle ed., Adam Ferguson: Philosophy, Politics and Society. London: Pickering & Chatto, pp. 45-72.

    Robertson, John
    1985 The Scottish Enlightenment and the Militia Issue. Edinburgh: John Donald.

    Rousseau, Jean-Jacques
    1997 The discourses and other early political writings. New York : Cambridge University Press.

    Sher, Richard
    1985 Church and University in the Scottish Enlightenment. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
    1989 “Adam Ferguson, Adam Smith, and the Problem of National Defense,” The Journal of Modern History 61(2): 240-68.

    Skjönsberg, Max
    2019a “Adam Ferguson on partisanship, party conflict, and popular participation,” Modern Intellectual History 16(1): 1-28.
    2019b “Adam Ferguson on the Perils of Popular Factions and Demagogues in a Roman Mirror,” History of European Ideas 45(6): 842-65.

    Smith, Craig
    2008 “Ferguson and the active genius of mankind,” in Eugene Heath and Vincenzo Merolle ed., Adam Ferguson: History, Progress and Human Nature. London: Pickering & Chatto, pp. 157-170.
    2014 “ ’We Have Mingled Politeness with the Use of the Sword’ : Nature and Civilisation in Adam Ferguson’s Philosophy of War,” The European Legacy 19(1): 1-15.
    2019 Adam Ferguson and the Idea of Civil Society: Moral Science in the Scottish Enlightenment. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

    Varty, John
    1997 “Civic or Commercial? Adam Ferguson’s Concept of Civil Society,” Democratization 4(1): 29-48.
    2011 “Adam Ferguson and Conservatism.” in Reflections on Conservatism. Dogancan Ozsel ed., Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing pp. 124-145.

    Weinstein, Jack Russell
    2009 “The Two Adams: Ferguson and Smith on Sympathy and Sentiment,” in Eugene Heath and Vincenzo Merolle ed., Adam Ferguson: Philosophy, Politics and Society. London: Pickering & Chatto, pp. 89-106.

    (三)中文文獻
    王珍琳
    2002 《亞當.佛格森(Adam ferguson)社會觀念之剖析》,台灣大學社會學研究所碩士論文。

    郭博文
    1997 〈弗格森社會哲學述論〉,《人文及社會科學集刊》,9卷1期,頁1-38。

    陳正國
    2008 〈宗教與世俗的辯證─佛格森論歷史與自由〉,《中央研究院歷史語言研究所集刊》,79卷2期,頁187-233。
    2012 〈英國思想界對里斯本大地震(1755)的回應〉,《臺大文史哲學報》,第76卷,頁267-316。
    2021 〈蘇格蘭啟蒙思想中的盧梭問題:市民社會與政治社會的辯證〉, 《思想史》第10卷,頁312-76。
    2023 〈友誼何以重要?──蘇格蘭啟蒙作家論市民友誼與公民友誼〉,《新史學》,34卷2期,頁179-253。

    陳禹仲
    2015 〈近代早期歐洲思想史中的曼德維爾〉,思想史,4期,頁275-312。

    曾國祥
    2009 《主體危機與理性批判:自由主義的保守詮釋》,臺北:巨流。

    曾國祥、劉佳昊
    2022 〈在帝國之前〉,收錄於曾國祥、劉佳昊主編,《帝國與文明:政治思想的全球轉向》。新北:聯經,頁7-45。

    蕭高彥
    2020 《探索政治現代性—從馬基維利到嚴復》,新北:聯經。

    魏楚陽
    2011 〈黑格爾的權利概念與民主政治〉,政治與社會哲學評論,38期,頁57-93。

    顧忠華
    2001 〈自由主義的社會理論──以Smith和Ferguson為例〉,收錄於蔡英文、張福建主編,《自由主義》。台北:中央研究院中山人文社會科學研究所,頁81-104。

    (四)譯著
    林本椿、王紹祥
    2010 《文明社會史論》,弗格森著,杭州:浙江大學出版社。

    康子興
    2021 《論文明社會史》,弗格森著,北京:商務印書館。

    張雅楠、杜國宏、李媚、李水燕
    2015 《文明社會史論》,弗格森著,北京:中國政法大學出版社。

    孫飛宇、田耕(2005)
    2005 《道德哲學原理》,弗格森著,上海:上海人民出版社。

    許明龍
    2019 《論法的精神(上、下卷)》,孟德斯鳩著,臺北:五南出版社。

    江暢、舒紅躍、宋偉
    2010 《道德哲學體系(上、下卷)》,哈其森著,杭州:浙江大學出版社。

    苑舉正
    2015 《德性墮落與不平等的起源》,盧梭著,臺北:聯經出版社。
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    政治學系
    109252009
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0109252009
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[Department of Political Science] Theses

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