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    Title: 專案管理之優化與落實之研究 – 以土木工程承包案為例
    Improving and Implementing Project Management - The Case of Construction Projects
    Authors: 何宜安
    Ho, Yi-An
    Contributors: 于卓民
    何宜安
    Ho, Yi-An
    Keywords: 企業流程再造
    專案管理
    人才培訓
    Business Process Reengineering
    Project Management
    Human Resource Training
    Date: 2024
    Issue Date: 2024-03-01 14:03:39 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在市場上存在著越來越多的土木工程中小企業,面對激烈的競爭、物價上漲和缺工的挑戰,這些企業需要在每次承包政府工程時維持一定水準的服務品質並實現合理利潤。這涉及公司在專案的每個流程和環節中的有效管理,而這正是本研究的核心目標,旨在協助中小土木工程企業優化和實踐專案管理。
    本研究以一間規模逐漸擴大的土工工程中小企業為研究對象,透過訪談與各項資料的搜集與分析,來了解土木工程中小企業是如何進行每個承包案的專案管理,以及在每個流程所遇到的問題,而本研究後續將根本原因歸納為三大部分:資料系統設備、公司制度設定以及人力資源管理(包含招募以及培訓)。
    研究過程發現,資料系統設備的不足導致專案進行效率低,無論是在資料的查閱以及計畫書的撰寫等過程;公司制度設定的不足使得專案同仁對工作內容和流程的規範不明確,而且不完善的內部制度可能導致工作不協調和不一致性;由於土木工程是勞動密集型的產業,招募和培訓流程的不完善導致員工專業度不足、計畫書撰寫效率低,同時也提升同仁的流動率,進而影響到整體專案的進度。本研究根據上述所歸納整理出來的問題,各別提出討論以及提出相對應的解決辦法。
    針對資料系統設備,公司面臨著閒置軟體和資料整理格式缺乏統一的困擾。建議透過與軟體供應商合作,進行資料導入和整理的流程,過程由資訊部門專人負責,同時安排內部員工參與系統教育訓練,以提高整體資料處理效率。另外,建議設定專案電子檔的統一建檔格式和權限設定,以便管理和保護公司機密文件。公司制度的不完整以建議透過建立完善的專案排程和規劃制度,這包括建立工作手冊或電子檔,清晰呈現每個崗位的工作職責和範圍,以確保每個專案都有一致的結構。
    針對公司的招募流程,主要在面試階段的非結構式面談方式可能導致招聘到的人才在實際工作中難以適應,進而增加高離職率。為優化招募流程,建議考慮使用結構式面談,透過明確的問題和評估標準,確保候選人符合公司需求。同時,引入技能測試或任務評估,以確保候選人擁有必要的資料處理和軟體能力。
    在人才培訓流程方面,新人培訓方式目前採用的訓練模式效果不明顯,建議優先招聘具有相關經驗的人才,並在入職初期安排新進人員與同職位的資深同仁學習。此外,員工培訓方面,建議採用企業內部講師培訓,課程內容可以依照公司內部人員的經驗來設計,以確保培訓內容為企業所需。為了確保培訓的效果,公司應實施培訓績效評估:在招募流程中,可透過反應層次評估應徵者對面試過程的滿意度;新人培訓流程則可透過學習層次的模擬練習和行為層次的觀察訪談,評估新進同仁的學習效果和工作表現;員工培訓,可以利用學習層次和結果層次評估內部講師培訓的效果,以及培訓是否對整體組織產生直接影響。
    綜合上述,這項研究提供了對中小土木工程企業在專案管理方面的了解,同時提出解決方案以應對目前個案公司面臨的挑戰。後續,研究者提出了針對業者、個案公司以及後續研究者的建議,以供未來研究的參考,以期許公司能夠更有效地因應產業變革和競爭壓力。
    There are an increasing number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the
    construction industry. Faced with intense competition, rising costs, and labor shortages,
    companies need to maintain a certain level of service quality and make a profit on each
    project. This involves effective management by the company in every process, which is the
    core objective of this study, aimed at assisting SMEs in improving and implementing
    project management.
    The participant in this study is a gradually expanding SME in the construction
    industry. Through interviews and information collection and analysis, the study aims to
    understand how SMEs in the construction industry manage each project and the challenges
    faced in each process. And the study indicates the root cause of the problems are
    information systems, company policies, and human resource management, including
    recruitment and training.
    The research shows that inadequate information systems lead to low efficiency in
    processes such as information retrievals and proposal writing. Inadequate company
    policies result in unclear standards for colleagues regarding job content, and lead to work
    discoordination and inconsistency. Since the construction industry is a labor-intensive
    industry, deficiencies in hiring and training processes result in insufficient employee
    expertise, low efficiency in proposal writing, and increase employee turnover, which
    affects the overall project progress. Based on the above-mentioned problems, the study
    proposes related solutions.
    Regarding information systems, companies face problems such as disused software
    and a lack of unified data formatting. It is suggested that IT department collaborates with
    software vendors for data importation and arranges for internal staff to participate in
    system training to improve data processing efficiency. Additionally, it is recommended to
    establish a unified filing format and permission rules for project files to protect
    confidential documents. Incomplete company policies suggest establishing comprehensive
    project planning, including creating workbooks clearly outlining job responsibilities and
    contents for each position to ensure consistent project standards.
    In terms of recruitment processes, the unstructured interviews during the interview
    may lead to difficulties for recruited talents to adapt to actual work, thus increasing high
    turnover rates. To optimize recruitment processes, it is suggested to consider structured
    interviews, ensuring candidates meet company requirements through clear questions and
    assessment criteria. Moreover, adding skills tests ensure candidates have the necessary data
    processing and software skills.
    Regarding talent training processes, the current new employee orientations don’t
    work well. It is recommended to hire experienced talents and arrange for new employees to
    learn from senior co-workers in the early stages of employment. Furthermore, for
    employee training, utilizing internal trainer with course content designed based on the
    experience of internal personnel ensures training meets employees needs. To ensure the
    effectiveness of training, companies should implement training performance evaluations:
    recruitment process can use candidate satisfaction to assesse; for new employee training
    processes, the simulations situations of learning level and the observation of behavior level
    can evaluate the learning effects and job performance of new colleagues; employee
    training can use learning and result level evaluations to assess the effectiveness of internal
    trainer and whether training has a direct impact on the overall organization.
    In summary, this study provides solutions to address the project management
    challenges in the case company. Subsequently, providing recommendations to
    practitioners, the case company, and future researchers, so that companies can more
    effectively respond to industry changes and competitive pressures.
    Reference: 一、英文文獻
    1. Al-Mashari, M. & Zairi, M. (1999), “Business Process Reengineering: A Survey of International Experience,” Business Process Management Journal, 5(1), 30-50.
    2. Barney, J. (1991), “Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage,”
    Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.
    3. Blanchard, P. N. & Thacker, J. W. (2013), Effective Training: Systems, Strategies, and Practices (5th ed.), Manhattan, NY: Pearson.
    4. Cleland, David I. & King, William Richard. (1983), Systems Analysis and Project
    Management (Vol.3), Manhattan, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    5. Davenport, T. H. & Short, J. E. (1990), “The New Industrial Engineering: Information Technology and Business Process Redesign,” Sloan Management Review, 31(4), 1-31.
    6. Gary R. Heerkens (2001), Project Management, Manhattan, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies.
    7. Hammer, M. & Stanton, S. A. (1995), The Reengineering Revolution: A Handbook, Manhattan, NY: Harper Business.
    8. Hammer, M. (1990), “Reengineering Work: Don't Automate, Obliterate.” Harvard Business Review, 68(4), 104-112.
    9. Hammer, M. & Champy, J. (1993), Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution, Manhattan, NY: Harper Business.
    10. Kerzner, H. (1995), Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Manhattan, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
    11. Kettinger, W. J., Teng, J. T., & Guha, S. (1997), “Business Process Change: A Study of Methodologies, Techniques, and Tools,” MIS Quarterly, 21(1), 55-80.
    12. Kirkpatrick, D. L. (1959), “Techniques for Evaluating Training Programs,” Journal of the American Society of Training Directors, 13(3), 21-26.
    13. Lewis, J. P. (1998), Mastering Project Management, Manhattan, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    14. Manley, J. H. (1973), “Implementation Attitudes: A Model and a Measurement Methodology,” Elsevier, 183-202.
    15. Meredith, J. R., & Mantel Jr, S. J. (2012), Project Management: A Managerial Approach. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
    16. Muthu, S., Whitman, L., & Cheraghi, S. H. (1999), Business Process Reengineering: A Consolidated Methodology, Annual International Conference on Industrial Engineering Theory, Applications, and Practice, TX.
    17. Noe, R. A. (2013), Employee Training and Development (6th ed.), Manhattan, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
    18. O’Neill, P., & Sohal, A. S. (1999), “Business Process Reengineering A Review of Recent Literature,” Technovation, 19, 571-581.
    19. Petrozzo, D. P., Stepper, J. C. (1994), Successful Reengineering, Manhattan, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
    20. Pinto, J. K. (1986), Project Implementation: A Determination of its Critical Success Factors, Moderators, and Their Relative Importance Across the Project Life Cycle, Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh.
    21. Pinto, J. K., & Slevin, D. P. (1987), “Critical Factors in Successful Project Implementation,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 34(1), 22-27.
    22. Schultz, R. L. & Slevin, D. P. (1975), Implementing Operations Research/Management Science, Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier Publishing Company.
    23. Talwar, R. (1993), “Business Re-Engineering—A Strategy-Driven Approach,” Long Range Planning, 26(6), 22-40.
    24. Yin, R. K. (1981), “The Case Study as a Serious Research Strategy,” Science Communication, 3(1), 97-114.
    25. Yin, R. K. (2009), Case Study Research. Design and Methods (4th ed.), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
    二、中文文獻
    1. 王國政 (2007),連鎖餐飲業導入知識管理之比較研究,台灣科技大學碩士論文。
    2. 王精文編譯(2012),人力資源管理:全球經驗 本土實踐(第四版)(Fundamentals of Human Resource Management, 4th ed.)(Raymond A, Noe, Hollenbeck, John R. Hollenbeck, Gerhart, Barry, & Patrick M. Wright原著)。台北:雙葉書廊。
    3. 吳銘達、廖珮妏、王娟惠、陳清惠(2006),我國半導體高科技產業管理人才能力及培訓措施之研究。稻江學報,1(2),27-43。
    4. 宋文娟、黃振國等譯(2001),專案管理(Successful Project Management) (Jack Gido. & James P.Clements 原著)。台北:滄海書局。
    5. 李美華、游景榮、陳瓊如(2008),企業人力資源發展與培訓。人力資源管理學刊,8(2),1-24。
    6. 林秀芳(2021),「營造業不同工種缺工問題及改善策略-台灣南部地區的調查分析」,崑山科技大學房地產開發與管理系碩士論文。
    7. 林金定、嚴嘉楓、陳美花(2005),質性研究方法:訪談模式與實施步驟分析。身心障礙研究季刊,3(2),122-136。
    8. 林柏君(2017),我國營造業之發展現況與趨勢。經濟前瞻,174,43-48。
    9. 林進南(2021),我國營造業景氣之現況與展望,今日合庫, 第559期,17-52。
    10. 洪榮昭(2002),人力資源發展:企業教育訓練完全手冊。台北:五南圖書。
    11. 張保隆、陳文賢、蔣明晃、姜齊、盧昆宏、 王瑞琛(1997),生產管理。台北:華泰書局。
    12. 張緯良(2003),人力資源管理(修訂二版)。台北:雙葉書廊。
    13. 許勝明(1999),「我國機械產業基層主管人才培訓需求之研究」,國立彰化師範大學碩士論文。
    14. 陳世國(1996),「企業流程再造管理策略之研究」,國立台灣大學資訊管理學系碩士論文。
    15. 陳致瑋(2019),做好人力資源管理布局. 聯盛企管 取自:https://rcsa-consultant.com/index.php/view/organizational-development/article282
    16. 熊培霖、吳俊德、蘇佳慧等譯(2002),專案管理知識體系導讀指南(Project Management Institutes 原著)。台北:博頡策略顧問股份有限公司。
    17. 趙真(2015) ,提升國有企業員工培訓效果的策略探討。大眾科技,17(6),211-213。
    18. 盧美月(2016),從TTQS淺談企業內部講師培訓。TTQS電子專刊,第11期。
    三、網路資料
    1、 中華專案管理學會網站 : http://www.npma.or
    2、 行政院主計處營建工程物價指數:https://www.stat.gov.tw/cp.aspx?n=2665
    3、 延車公里定義:https://www.freeway.gov.tw/Upload/Html/2017824171/news/1091224.pdf
    4、 勞力缺工數據:https://www.stat.gov.tw/News.aspx?n=2837&sms=11110
    5、 國道交通量數據來源:https://www.freeway.gov.tw/Upload/202305/111年高速公路局年報.pdf
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    企業管理研究所(MBA學位學程)
    110363033
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0110363033
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[企業管理研究所(MBA學位學程)] 學位論文

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