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    政大機構典藏 > 法學院 > 法律學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/32829
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/32829

    Title: WTO協定間法律適用關係之研究
    A Study on the overlaps between provisions in WTO agreements
    Authors: 張南薰
    Chang,Nan Hsun
    Contributors: 黃立
    Hwang, Li
    Chang,Nan Hsun
    Keywords: 法律衝突
    conflict of norms
    conflict clause
    definition of conflict
    WTO Agreements
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2009-09-17 14:32:15 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 關於WTO協定間條文與條文間之適用關係,依據小組所建立的原則,即基於WTO協定係屬一體承諾之性質,WTO協定下之義務應屬累積的義務,會員在任何時點均應遵守所有的義務,除非有形式上的衝突存在。然而,整個WTO協定包括了馬爾喀什建立WTO協定、商品貿易多邊協定、服務貿易總協定、智財權等不同部門的協定,到決議文、瞭解書等,有多達六十多種不同的法律文件。這些法律文件是在不同時期及不同背景下,經由不同的談判者所協商而成,而談判者在談判當時,對於各項法律文件間之關係未必有所認知並進一步地為適當的安排,因此未預見的重複、漏洞或衝突,即有可能產生。對於WTO協定條文間錯綜複雜的關係,WTO實務在若干案件中雖有所著墨,但對於何時應屬累積適用及何時構成法律衝突而具有排除適用之效果,並無一致性的判斷標準存在,因此本文即希望透過將WTO協定間法律適用關係之類型化,進而歸納出應屬累積適用關係及排除適用關係的條文,並尋求體系化及一致性的的判斷標準。
    Because of the Uruguay Round negotiations brought about a 'single WTO package' at a very late stage of the negotiations, the WTO system itself has not clearly regulated the issue of the possible relationships between provisions in GATT 1994 and other Annex 1A Agreements or provisions in different Agreements. The only linkages set out in WTO law are one general rule of prevalence, in case of conflict (the General Interpretative Note to Annex 1A) and several cross-references in individual Agreements. The authors submit that panels and the Appellate Body have so far identified four relationships between provisions of the WTO Agreements, which can be characterized as conflict, express derogation, confirming, and complementarity. These relationships have different legal effects on the application of the provisions concerned. Although it is not excluded that over time more types of relationships will be identified and developed, it is useful to take stock of the case law setting out the possible linkages. While not purporting to be exhaustive, the present work is an attempt to analyze the cases that appear to be the most significant for clarifying the different relationships.
    Reference: 一、、中文文獻
    1. 羅昌發,國際貿易法,月旦,1997年。
    2. 林倫帆,WTO貨品貿易協定中「必要性」概念之研究,國立臺灣大學法律學研究所碩士論文(2004)。
    3. 楊光華,由「未預見之發展」要件論WTO防衛協定面臨之兩難,載:第三屆國際經貿法學發展學術研討會-WTO新議題與新挑戰(2003年8月)。
    1. 林彩瑜,論WTO架構下區域貿易協定防衛措施適用之有關問題,政大法學評論,第86期(94年8月)
    2. 張南薰,世界貿易組織下美國鋼品防衛措施爭端解決之研究,政大法學評論,第84期(94年4月)
    1. Wolfram Karl, Conflict Between Treaties, in 4 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW 935, 936(Rudolf Bernhardt ed., 2000)
    2. JOHN H. JACKSON, The WTO: structure of the treaty and the institution, in SOVEREIGNTY, THE WTO, AND CHANGING FUNDAMENTALS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 104, 104-105(2006).
    1. Andrew D. Mitchell, The Legal Basis for Using Principles in WTO Disputes, 10 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW 795, 796(2007).
    2. Axel Desmedt, Proportionality in WTO Law, 4(3) JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW 441, 443(Sep. 2001)
    3. Christopher J. Borgen, Resolving Treaty Conflicts, 37 GEORGE WASHINGTON INTERNATIONAL LAW REVIEW 573, 575(2005).
    4. Craig Thorn & Marinn Carlson, The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, 31 LAW AND POLICY IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS 841, 841(2000)
    5. Didier Chambovey, How the Expiry of the Peace Clause(Article 13 of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture)Might Alter Disciplines on Agricultural Subsidies in the WTO Framework, 36(2) JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE 309(2002).
    6. David Palmeter & Petros C. Mavroidis, The WTO Legal System: Source of Law, 92 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 398, 399(1998)
    7. Duncan French, Treaty Interpretation and the Incorporation of Extraneous Legal Rules, 55 INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW QUARTERLY 281, 305-307(2006).
    8. Elisabetta Montaguti & Maurits Lugard, The GATT 1994 and other Annex 1A Agreement: Four Different Relationship? 3 JOURNAL OF INTERNATONAL ECONOMIC LAW 473(2000)
    9. Erich Vranes, The Definition of “Norm Conflict” in International Law and Legal Theory, 17 EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONA LAW 395,(2006)
    10. E.W. Veirdag, “The Time of the Conclusion” of a Multilateral Treaty: Article 30 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties and Related Provisions, 59 BRITISH YEARBOOK OF INTERNATIONAL LAW, 100(1988)
    11. Fabian Delcros, The Legal Status of Agriculture in the World Trade Organization-State of Play at the Start of Negotiations, 36(2) JOURNAL OF WOLRD TRADE 219, 251(2002).
    12. Felix Mueller, Is the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Article XIX “Unforeseen Developments Clause” Still Effective Under the Agreement on Safeguards? 37(6) JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE 1119, 1130(2003)
    13. Gabrielle Marceau & Joel P. Trachtman, The Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement, the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Agreement, and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 36(5) JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE 811, 836(2002)
    14. Gabrielle Marceau, Conflict of Norms and Conflicts of Jurisdictions; The Relationship between the WTO Agreement and MEAs and other Treaties, 35(6) JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE 1081, 1084(2001)
    15. Han Aufricht, Supersession of Treaties in International Law, 37 CORNELL L.Q. 655, 700(1952)
    16. International Law Commission, Report of the Study Group of the International Law Commission, Fragmentation of international law: difficulties arising from the diversification and expansion of international law, U.N. GAOR, 54th Sess., at.17,U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/L.682,(2006)
    17. Jan Neumann & Elisabeth Türk, Necessity Revisited: Proportionality in World Trade Organization Law After Korea-Beef, EC-Asbestos and EC-Sardines, 37(1) JOURNAL OF WOLRD TRADE 199, (2003)
    18. James Cameron & Kevin R. Gary, Principles of International Law in the WTO Dispute Settlement Body, 50 INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW QUARTERLY 248, 257(2001)
    19. John O. McGinnis, The Appropriate Hierarchy of Global Multilateralism and Customary International Law: The Example of the WTO, 44 VIRGINIA JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 229, 231(2003).
    20. Julia Ya Qin, Defining Nondiscrimination under the Law of the World Trade Organization, 23 BOSTON UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL LAW JOURNAL 215, 253(2005)
    21. Joost Pauwelyn, The Role of Public International Law in the WTO: How Far Can We Go?, 95 AMERICAIN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 535, 541, 570(2001).
    22. Lorand Bartels, Applicable Law in WTO Dispute Settlement Proceedings, 35(3) J.W.T.499, 502(2001).
    23. Matthew C. Porterfield, U.S. Farm Subsidies and the Expiration of the WTO’s Peace clause, UNIVERSITY OF PEENSYLVANIA JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONL ECONOMIC LAW 999, 1020-1021(2006)
    24. Margaret A Young, The WTO Use of Relevant Rules of International Law: An Analysis of the Biotech Case, 56 INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW QUARTERLY 907, 912(2007)
    25. Mark Wu, Small States, Big Veto: Customary International Law in the WTO after EC-Biotech, 32 YALE JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 261, 265(2007)
    26. Michael Lennard, Navigating by the Star: Interpreting the WTO Agreements, 5 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW 17, 70-71(March, 2002)
    27. Richard H. Steinberg and Timothy E. Fosling, “When the Peace End: the Vulnerability of EC and US Agricultural Subsides to WTO Legal Challenge”, 6(2) JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW 377(2003).
    28. Reinbard Quick & Andreas Blüthner, Has the Appellate Body Erred? An Appraisal and Criticism of the Ruling in the WTO Hormones Case, 2(4) JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW 603, 631-632(Dec. 1999)
    29. Robert Howse, The Use and Abuse of other “Relevant Rules of International Law” in Treaty Interpretation: Insights from WTO Trade/Environment Litigation, IILJ Working Paper 2007/1(www.iilj.org)
    30. Sabrina Safrin, Treaties in Collision? The Biosafety Protocol and the World Trade Organization Agreement, 56 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 606, 614(2002)
    31. Wilfred Jenks, The Conflict of Law-Making Treaties, 30 THE BRITISH YEARBOOK OF INTERNATIONAL LAW(BYIL)401, 425(1953)
    32. Yong-Shik Lee, Critical Issue in the Application of the WTO Rules on Safeguards-In the Light of the Recent Panel Reports and Appellate Body Decisions, 34(2) JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE 131, 136(2000)
    33. Yong-Shik Lee, Destabilization of the Discipline on Safeguard? Inherent Problems with the Continuing Application of Article XX after the Settlement of the Agreement on Safeguards, 35(6) JOURANL OF WORLD TRADE 1235, 1239(2001).
    1. Andrea Schulz, The Relationship Between the Judgments Project and Other International Instruments 14(Hague Conference on Private International Law, Prel. Doc. No. 24, 2003), http://hcch.e-vision.nl/upload/wop/genaff_pd19e.pdf(last visited Oct. 31, 2007)
    2. Chris Wold, Legal Assessment of Compatibility Issues between the Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW) to the Cartagena Convention and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), http://www.lclark.edu/org/ielp/objects/opinion_spaw.pdf(last visited Nov. 5, 2007)
    3. Jeffrey Waincymer, Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety,
    http://www.apec.org.au/docs/waincymer2001.pdf (last visited 6 November 2007)
    1. Australia-Measures Affecting Importation of Salmon, WT/DS18/R(12 June 1998); WT/DS18/AB/R(Oct. 20. 1998)
    2. Australia-Measures Affecting Importation of Salmon - Recourse to Article 21.5 by Canada, WT/DS18/RW(18 Feb., 2000)
    3. Argentina-Safeguard Measures on Imports of Footwear, WT/DS121/R(25 June 1999);WT/DS121/AB/R(14 Dec. 1999)
    4. Brazil-Measures Affecting Desiccated Coconut, WT/DS22/R(17 Oct. 1996);WT/DS22/AB/R(21 February 1997)
    5. Canada-Measures Affecting Exports of Unprocessed Herring and Salmon, BISD 35S/98(adopted on 22 March 1988)
    6. Canada-Measures affecting the exportation of dairy products and the importation of milk; recourse to Article 21.5 of the DSU by New Zealand and the United State, WT/DS103/RW, WT/DS113/RW(11 July 2001).
    7. Chile-Price Band System and Safeguard Measures Relating to Certain Agricultural Products, WT/DS207/R(3 May 2002);WT/DS207/AB/R(23 September 2002).
    8. European Communities-Measures Affecting Asbestos and Products Containing Asbestos, WT/DS135/R(18 September 2000);WT/DS135/AB/R(12 March 2001)
    9. European Communities-Regime for the Importation, Sale and Distribution of Bananas, WT/DS27/R/ECU, WT/DS27/R/GTM, WT/DS27/R/HND, WT/DS27/R/MEX, WT/DS27/R/USA,(22 May 1997);WT/DS27/AB/R(9 September 1997
    10. European Communities — Customs Classification of Certain Computer Equipment, ¶84, WT/DS62/AB/R, WT/DS67/AB/R, WT/DS68/AB/R(5 June 1998).
    11. European Communities-Conditions for the Granting of Tariff Preferences to Developing Countries, WT/DS246/R(1 Dec. 2003);WT/DS246/AB/R(7 April 2004)
    12. European Communities-Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones), WT/DS26/R/USA(18 August 1997);WT/DS26/AB/R(16 January 1998)
    13. European Economic Community-Payments and Subsidies Paid to Processors and Producers of Oilseeds and Related Animal-Feed Proteins, L/6627 BISD 37S/86(25 January 1990).
    14. European Communities-Trade Description of Sardines,WT/DS231/R(29 May 2002)
    15 European Communities – Measures Affecting the Approval and Marketing of Biotech Products, WT/DS293/R(29 September 2006).
    16. Guatemala-Anti-Dumping Investigation Regarding Portland Cement from Mexico, WT/DS60/R(19 June 1998);WT/DS60/AB/R(2 November 1998).
    17. Indonesia-Certain measures Affecting the Automobile Industry, WT/DS54/R, WT/DS55/R, WT/DS59/R, WT/DS64/R(2 July 1998)
    18. Japan-Taxes on Alcoholic Beverages, WT/DS8/AB/R, WT/DS10/AB/R, WT/DS11/AB/R(Oct. 4, 1996).
    19. Korea-Measures Affecting Imports of Fresh, Chilled and Frozen Beef, WT/DS161/R, WT/DS169/R(July 31, 2000)
    Korea-Measures Affecting Imports of Fresh, Chilled and Frozen Beef, WT/DS161/AB/R, WT/DS169/AB/R(Nov. 12, 2000)
    20. Korea-Definitive Safeguard Measure on Imports of Certain Dairy Products, WT/DS98/R(21 June 1999);WT/DS98/AB/R(14 December 1999).
    21. Korea-Measures Affecting Government Procurement, WT/DS163/R(1 May 2000)
    22. Thailand-Restrictions on Importation of and Internal Taxes on Cigarettes, BISD 37S/200(adopted 7 Nov. 1990)
    23. Turkey-Restrictions on Imports of Textile and Clothing Products, WT/DS34/R(31 May, 1999)
    24. United States-Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, BISD 36S/345,(adopted Nov. 7, 1989)
    25. United States-Definitive Safeguard Measures on Imports of Circular Welded Carbon Quality Line Pipe from Korea, WT/DS202/R(29 October 2001);WT/DS202/AB/R(15 February 2002).
    26. United States-Anti-Dumping Act of 1916, WT/DS136/R(13 March 2000)
    27. United States-Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, WT/DS2/AB/R(29 April, 1996)
    28. United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Hot-Rolled Steel Products from Japan, WT/DS184/AB/R(24 July 2001)
    29. United States-Subsidies on Upland Cotton, WT/DS267/R(8 September 2004);WT/DS267/AB/R(3 March 2005)
    30. United States-Tax Treatment for "Foreign Sales Corporations", WT/DS108/R(8 October 1999);WT/DS108/AB/R(24 February 2000)
    31. United States-Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products, WT/DS58/AB/R(Oct. 12 1998)
    32. United States-Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products, WT/DS/58/RW(15 June 2001)
    33. United States-Definitive Safeguard Measures on Imports of Certain Steel Products, WT/DS248/R, WT/DS249/R, WT/DS251/R, WT/DS252/R, WT/DS253/R, WT/DS254/R, WT/DS258/R, WT/DS259/R(11 July 2003);WT/DS248/AB/R, WT/DS249/AB/R, WT/DS251/AB/R, WT/DS252/AB/R, WT/DS253/AB/R, WT/DS254/AB/R, WT/DS258/AB/R, WT/DS259/AB/R(10 November 2003)
    Description: 博士
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0906515051
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[法律學系] 學位論文

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