Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
United States Vital Interests: Does Taiwan Measure Up?
Charles Andrew St.Sauver
Leng, Tse Kang
Charles Andrew St.Sauver
|Issue Date: ||2010-12-09 16:59:10 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||It has been 60 years since the Republic of China’s government fled to the island of Taiwan during the Chinese Civil War. Taiwan’s rival on mainland, the People’s Republic of China, is of the view that there is only one China and Taiwan is part of China. In recent years the mainland has reiterated and then formalized its policy to use force if necessary against Taiwan in the name of reunification. Caught between these positions is the United States. Since the Republic of China’s arrival on Taiwan, the United States has provided an external assurance of security for Taiwan. As the People’s Republic of China’s economic, military, and political power grows it will increasingly have the ability to shape issues in East Asia and beyond, therefore challenging United States’ national vital interests. Vital interest is defined as an issue at stake which is so fundamental to the political, economic, and social well being of the United States that it cannot be compromised even if defending it requires military action. Is Taiwan truly a vital interest? Donald Nuechterlein’s 16 national vital interest factors are used to evaluate this question from two angles: a literature review and questionnaire. Much like the United States’ described position of ambiguity toward Taiwan, this study is also inconclusive to the core question, Taiwan’s position as a vital interest in terms of US policy. This conclusion was unexpectedly reached because both analyses scored a virtual 1 to 1 ratio between value and potential costs/risks, thereby providing no differentiation. However, the analysis did reveal issues that should be seriously considered by policy makers when making any final determination on the Taiwan question. Criteria such as the economic and military costs of war are important as well as the fact that Taiwan is fellow democracy and important cog in the regional balance of power. Finally, recommendations provided for more in depth study on Taiwan as a vital US interest may reveal more definitive answers.|
|Reference: ||Almanac of Policy Issues. (2002) Congressional Resolution Authorizing Force Against Iraq. Retrieved from http://www.policyalmanac.org/world/archive/hgop_iraq_resolution.shtml|
Allison, G. (1971). Essence of Decision. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.
Baker, P. (2010, May 22). Obama Outlines National Security Strategy. The Caucus Blog. New York Times. Retrieved from http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/05/22/president-obama-at-west-point/
Bartholomees, Jr., J. (2006). U.S. Army War College Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy. Strategic Studies Institue.
BBC World Service Pole. (2010). p. 6. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/160410bbcwspoll.pdf
Belasco, A. (2008). The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11. CRS Report For Congress. Retrieved from http://zfacts.com/metaPage/lib/CRS-Belasco-2008-02-Iraq-Costs-RL33110.pdf
Brookes, P. (2003, November 14). U.S.-Taiwan Defense Relations in the Bush Administration. Heritage Lecture #808 at Navel War College. Retrieved February 22, 2010 from http://www.heritage.org/Research/AsiaandthePacific/hl808.cfm
Brookings Institute. About Brookings. Retrieved on 24 February, 2010, from http://www.brookings.edu/about.aspx
Bush, R., & O’Hanlon, M. (2007). A War Like No Other: The Truth About China’s Challenge to America. Hoboken, NJ:John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Burchill, S. (2005). The National Interest in International Relations Theory. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Burr, W. (2000). The Kissinger Transcripts. New Press.
Carr, E. (1945). Nationalism and After. London.
Carroll, J. (2004). Joint Theater Missile Defense In Taiwan: Protecting United States Interests and Friends. US Army Command and General Staff College. Fort Leavenworth, KS.
Casualty (person). (2010, May 10). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 02:20, May 23, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Casualty_(person)&oldid=361259580
Center for a New American Security. About CNAS. Retrieved on 1 March, 2010, from http://www.cnas.org/about
Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Retrieved on January 25, 2010, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2001rank.html?countryName=China&countryCode=ch®ionCode=eas&rank=3#ch
Chang, J. (1986). United States-China Normalization An Evaluation of Foreign Policy Decision Making. Baltimore.
Chase, M. (2008). Taiwan’s Security Policy, External Threats and Domestic Politics. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers Inc.
Chen, Y. (2007). Taiwanese American Grassroots Lobbies on the Hill: A Case Study of the Formosan Association for Public Affairs. Issues & Studies. 43 (1), p. 41-77.
Chow, P. (2006). Speech before Awkward Bedfellows: Taiwanese Businessmen, Mainland Chinese Seminar, July 18, 2006. Retrieved from http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?topic_id=1462&categoryid=8EF8540E-E3B0-FA92-8727563242D93F67&fuseaction=topics.events_item_topics&event_id=190242
Cliff, R, Burles, M., Chase, M., Eaton, D., & Pollpeter, K. (2007). Entering the Dragon’s Lair: Chinese Antiaccess Strategies and Their Implications fot he United States. RAND Corporation. Santa Monica, CA.
Clinton, D. (1988). Introduction. In D. Clinton, & K.Thompson (Eds). National Interest Rhetoric, Leadership, and Policy. Lanham, MD: University Press of American.
Clinton, W. (1994). The Two Faces of National Interest. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
Clough, R. (2001). Condflicting Tendencies: Economic Integration versus Political Impasse. In Scobell, A. (Ed.). The Costs of Conflict: The Impact on China of a Future War. Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. Carlisle, PA.
Cohan, W. (1999). The Security Situation in the Taiwan Strait. DoD Report to Congress.
(The) Cold War Foreign Aid Program, 1947-1953. (2009, August 22). In Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy. Retrieved from http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/E-N/Foreign-Aid-The-cold-war-foreign-aid-program-1947-1953.html
(The) Commission on America’s National Interests. (2000). America’s National Interests. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.
Congressional China Caucus Website. Retrieved on 22 May 2010 from http://forbes.house.gov/Biography/chinacaucus.htm
Council For Economic Planning and Development. (2009). Taiwan Statistical Data Book. Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan).
Council on Foreign Relations Project on U.S. National Interests after the Cold War, 1994–95 as cited in The Commission on America’s National Interests. (2000). America’s National Interests. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.
Council on Foreign Relations. Mission. Retrieved on 24 February, 2010, from http://www.cfr.org/about/mission.html
Council on Foreign Relations Transcript (CFR). Freeman, C. (2000, April 19). If Taiwan Declares Independence and China Reacts With Force, On Whom Should the U.S. Lean Harder, China or Taiwan? Retrieved from http://www.cfr.org/publication/3628/if_taiwan_declares_independence_and_china_reacts_with_force_on_whom_should_the_us_lean_harder_china_or_taiwan.html
Craig, G, & George, A. (1983).Force and Statecraft: Diplomatic Problems of Our Time. New York.
Deibel, T. (2007). Foreign Affairs Strategy: Logic for American Statecraft. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dittmer, L., &Wu, Y. (February 5, 2010). What Drives The Cross-Strait Rapprochement? Political Competition, Globalization, and Strategic Triangle. Paper presented at the International Conference, Below The Storm: 60 Years of Cross-Strait Connections, February 5-6, 2010, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
Downs, A. (1967). Inside Democracy. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.
Dumbaugh, K. (2009). Taiwan-US Relations: Developments and Policy Implications. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, R40493. Retrieved from www.fas.org/sgp/crs/index.html
East West Nation Brand Perception Indexes. East West Communications. Retrieved from http://www.eastwestcoms.com/
(The) Economist Intelligence Unit’s Index of Democracy 2008. (2008). The Economist. Retrieved from http://a330.g.akamai.net/7/330/25828/20081021185552/graphics.eiu.com/PDF/Democracy%20Index%202008.pdfEpstein, J. (1988). Dynamic Analysis and the Conventional Balance in Europe. International Security. 12 (4).
Fairlie, H. (1979). Source unknown.
FAPA.org. Retrieved on 20 May 2010 from www.fapa.org
Feldman, H. (1989). A New Kind of Relationship: Ten Years of the Taiwan Relations Act. In R. Myers (Ed.), A Unique Relationship The United States and the Republic of China Under the Taiwan Relations Act. Stanford: Hoover Institute Press.
Fighter aircraft. (2010, June 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 1, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fighter_aircraft&oldid=366008545
Fouse, D. (2005). Japan’s FY 2005 Naitonal Defense Program Outline: New Concepts, Old Compromises. Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies. 4 (3). 1-4. Retrieved from http://www.apcss.org/Publications/APSSS/JapansFY2005NationalDefenseProgramOutline.pdf
Gallup Poll. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/tag/Taiwan%2c%2bProvince%2bof%2bChina.aspx
Gates, R. (2009, January 27). Senate Armed Services Committee Statement. Retrieved from http://www.defense.gov/Speeches/Speech.aspx?SpeechID=1337
Gertz, B. (2009, November 5). Inside the Ring. Washington Times, Retrieved from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2009/nov/05/inside-the-ring-70787975/print/
Gill, B., & O’Hanlon, M. (2003). China’s Hollow Military. In Harries, O. (Ed.). China in The National Interest. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Global Fire Power.Com. (2009). GFP Military Strength Rankings. Retrieved on February 25, 2010, from http://www.globalfirepower.com/
Hanley, C. (2008, March 10). Studies: Iraq Costs US $12B Per Month. The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/03/10/studies-iraq-costs-us-12b_n_90694.html
(The) Heritage Foundation. About Us. Retrieved on 24 February, 2010, from http://www.heritage.org/about/
Hickey, D. (1994). United States-Taiwan Security Ties.Westport: Praeger
Holmes, K., & Lohman, W. (2009, June 26). Principled American Leadership for Asia. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/Research/Commentary/2009/06/Principled-American-leadership-for-Asia
Hu, S. (1998). Prospects for a Cross-Strait Conflict. Li, X., Hu, X., & Zhong, Y. (Eds.). Interpreting U.S. China-Taiwan Relations. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Icasualties.org. Retrieved 28 May, 2010.
Javers E. (April 9, 2009). Pentagon Preps for Economic Warfare. Politico. Retrieved from www.politico.com/news/stories/0409/21053.html
Kapila. S. (2007). Japan-Australia Defense Agreement: Perspectives. South Asia Analysis Group. Retrieved from http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/%5Cpapers22%5Cpaper2191.html
Kaplan, R. (2010). The Geography of Chinese Power: How Far Can Beijing Reach on Land and at Sea? Foreign Affairs. 89 (3). Retrieved from http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/66205/robert-d-kaplan/the-geography-of-chinese-power
Kaplan II, R. (2010, May 7). Transcript - Q&A With Robert Kaplan on China. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.foreignaffairs.com/discussions/interviews/qa-with-robert-kaplan-on-china
Keck, M, & Sikkink, K. (1998). Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International
Politics. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Kegley, Jr., C, & Wittkopk, E. (Eds). Perspectives on American Foreign Policy. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Kennedy, A. (2007). China’s Perceptions of U.S. Intentions Toward Taiwan. Asian Survey. 47 (2). 268-287.
Labonte, M. & Morrison, W. (2009). China’s Holdings of U.S. Securities: Implications for the U.S. Economy. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, RL34314.
Lasater, M. (1993). U.S. Interests in the New Taiwan. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Leahy, S. (1999). The Historical Battle Over Dispatching American Troops. USA Today. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1272/is_2650_128/ai_55149333/ Lieberthal, K. (2005). Preventing a War Over Taiwan. Foreign Affairs. 84 (2). Retrieved February 23, 2010, from http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/60621/kenneth-lieberthal/preventing-a-war-over-taiwan?page=show#
Library of Congress (2010, June 1). Taiwan Bill Summary & Status. Retrieved from http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/thomas
Lilley, J. & Ford, C. (2003). China’s Military: A Second Opinion. In In Harries, O. (Ed.). China in The National Interest. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Little, I. (1979). An Economic Renaissance. In W. Galenson. Economic Growth and Structural Change in Taiwan. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univeristy Press.
Lord, W. (1994, September 27). Taiwan Policy Review. Retrieved February 24, 2010 from http://usinfo.org/sino/review_e.htm
Lowther, W. (2009, April 24). US may launch Taiwan Policy Review. Taipei Times. p. 1.
Lowther, W. (2010, April 30). Congressman Calls For US-Taiwan FTA. Taipei Times. p. 1. Retrieved from http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/front/archives/2010/04/30/2003471847
Mainland Affairs Council. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.mac.gov.tw/english/index1-e.htm
McCarthy, M. (March 5, 2005). The Impact of Economic Interdependence on US-China Relations. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii Online <.PDF>. 2008-10-10 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p70506_index.html .
McGann, J. (2009). 2008 The Global “Go-To Think Tanks”. Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program. University of Pennsylvania.
Mearsheimer, J. (2005, November 18). The Rise of China Will Not be Peaceful at All. The Australian. Retrieved from http://mearsheimer.uchicago.edu/pdfs/P0014.pdf
Meinecke, F. (1998). Machiavellism. New Brunswick, NJ.
Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China. (2004). National Defense Report.
Moller. K. (2005). China’s Anti-Succession Law, the Taiwan Strait, and Regional Security. Paper presented at the conference on Peace, Stability, and Security in East Asia: The Question of China and Taiwan. The Hague. 25 November 2005.
Morrison, W. (2009). China-U.S. Trade Issues. Congressional Research Service Report to Congress, RL33536.
Myers, R. (1989). Introduction: A Unique Relationship. In R. Myers (Ed), A Unique Relationship The United States and the Republic of China Under the Taiwan Relations Act. Stanford: Hoover Institute Press.
Neuchterlein, D. (2001). America Recommitted A Superpower Assesses Its Role in a Turbulent World. Lexington, Ky: The University Press of Kentucky.
O’Hanlon, M. (2006). U.S. Military Modernization: Implications for U.S. Policy in Asia. In Tellis, A., & Wills, M. (Eds.). Strategic Asia 2005-06. Washington, D.C.: US Department of Defense.
Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. (2007). Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States. Retrieved from http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp1.pdf
Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD). (2009). Military Power of the People’s Republic of China. Annual Report to Congress.
One China: Taiwan Conflict. Wikiinvest. Retrieved on 22 May from www.wikinvest.com/concept/‘One_China’:_Taiwan_Conflict
Pei, M. & Swaine, M. (2003, December 7). Where Taiwan Support Stops. Carnegie Endowment For International Peace. Retrieved from http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=1417&zoom_highlight=us+vital+interests+taiwan
Polachek, S. (1980). Conflict and Trade. Journal of Conflict Resolution. 24 (1). 55-71.
President Chen’s Televised Statement of the Peace Referendum on March 20. Retrieved 23 February, 2010, from http://www.president.gov.tw/php-bin/docset/showenews.php4?_section=5&_rid=1584
Quandt, W.(1977). Decade of Decisions. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Risse-Kappen, T. (1999). Bringing Transnational Relations Back In: Introduction. In T. Risse-Kappen. (Ed.). Bringing Transnational Relations Back In: Non-State Actors, Domestic Structures and InternationalInstitution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Romberg. A. (2008, March 26). Transcript – U.S. Policy Toward Taiwan, Time for Change? Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved from http://www.carnegieendowment.org/events/?fa=eventDetail&id=1108&zoom_highlight=taiwan
Roskin M. (1994). National Interest, From Abstraction To Strategy. US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute Report.
Ross, R. (2002). Navigating the Taiwan Strait. International Security. 27, (2). 48-85.
Rousseau, J. (1960). The Social Contract. In Barker, E. (Ed.). Social Contract: Essays by Locke, Hume, Rousseau. New York.
Roy, D. (2003). Taiwan a Political History. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Sanger, D., Shanker, T. (2010, May 24). Pentagon and U.N. Chief Put New Pressure on N. Korea. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/25/world/asia/25korea.html?scp=19&sq=&st=nyt
Secretary-General Office of the Spokesperson. (2007). San Jose, California, 27 July 2007 - Secretary-General's press encounter with California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/apps/sg/offthecuff.asp?nid=1053
Shlapak, D, Orletsky, D., & Wilson, B. (2000) Dire Strait? Military
Aspects of the China-Taiwan Confrontation and Options for U.S. Policy, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation.
Shlapak, D, Orletsky, D., Reid, T., Tanner, Murray, & Wilson, B. (2009). A Question of Balance: Political Context and Military Aspects of the China-Taiwan Dispute. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
Sieff, M. (2009). Shifting Powers: The New and Emerging Relationship between the United States, China, and India. Washington, D.C., CATO Institute.
Sinha, R. (2003). Sino-American Relations: Mutual Paranoia. New York, NY: Palgrave.
Steinbruner, J. (1974). The Cybernetic Theory of Decision. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Sullivan, M. ( ). Theories of International Relations: Transition vs. Persistence. New York: Palgrave.
Tatum, K. (2009). The Noblest Form of Power: Implications For 21st Century Strategy. US Army Warfare Center. Carlisle Barracks.
Thompson, D. (2010). Think Again: China’s Military. Foreign Policy. Retrieved from http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/02/22/think_again_chinas_military?page=full
Treitschke H. (1916) Politics. London.
Tkacik, J. (2009, April 29). John Tkacik On Taiwan: An Obama TPR: Too Little, Too Late? Taipei Times. p. 8.
Trubowitz P. (1998). Defining the National Interest, Conflict and Change in American Foreign Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Truman Doctrine. (2010, June 3). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 06:44, June 4, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Truman_Doctrine&oldid=365920915
United Nations. (2010, June 2). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 08:01, June 2, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=United_Nations&oldid=365562667
USAID. (2009). U.S. Overseas Loans and Grants, China (Taiwan). Retrieved from http://qesdb.usaid.gov/gbk/
USITC DataWeb, (2010). United States International Trade Commission. Retrieved from http://dataweb.usitc.gov/
U.S. Census Bureau. The Asian Census 2000. Retrieved from www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-16.pdf
U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Foreign Trade. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/statistics/country/index.html
U.S. Pacific Command. USPACOM Facts. Retrieved on 2010, May 20, from http://www.pacom.mil/web/site_pages/uspacom/facts.shtml
U.S. Treasury Department, Report on U.S. Portfolio Holdings of Foreign Securities as of December 31, 2007.
U.S. Treasury Department, Major Foreign Holders of U.S. Treasury Securities, June 15, 2009
Vital. Dictionary.com. Retrieved on March 1, 2010, from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/vital
Wachman, A. (2007). Why Taiwan? Geostrategic Rationales for China’s Territorial Integrity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Waltz, K. (2000). Globilization and American Power. National Interest. 46-56.
White House. (2000) United States National Security Strategy. National Security Council.
White House. (2002) United States National Security Strategy. National Security Council
White House (2006) United States National Security Strategy. National Security Council.
World Public Opinion.org. (2008). Americans and the World. China. Retrieved from http://www.americans-world.org/PDF/china_data_update-8_2008.pdf
Wu, J. (2009). Economics, Lobbying, and U.S. Congressional Support for Taiwan, Buying American Support, 2002-2006. Asian Survey. 49 (2). 380-402.
Yang, P. (2006). Doubly Dualistic Dilemma: US Strategies towards China and Taiwan. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific. 6 (2). 209-225.
Yarger, H, & Barber, G. (1997). The U.S. Army War College Methodology for Determining Interests and Levels of Intensity. US Army War College.
Zhu, Z. (2006). US-China Relations in the 21st Century, Power transition and peace. New York, NY: Routledge.
Zweig, D., & Jianhai, B. (2005). China’s Global Hunt for Energy. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/61017/david-zweig-and-bi-jianhai/chinas-global-hunt-for-energy?page=show
|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0979240101|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[亞太研究英語博/碩士學位學程(IDAS/IMAS)] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.