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    Title: 美元霸權與石油金融化:再思霸權穩定論
    Dollar hegemony and financialization of oil: rethink hegemonic stability theory
    Authors: 黃偉倫
    Huang, Wei Lun
    Contributors: 鄧中堅
    黃偉倫
    Huang, Wei Lun
    Keywords: 美元霸權
    石油金融化
    霸權穩定論
    國際貨幣權力
    金融全球化
    Dollar Hegemony
    Financialization of Oil
    Hegemonic Stability Theory
    International Monetary Power
    Financial Globalization
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2011-10-11 17:05:57 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本論文以「美元霸權」為核心,討論美國做為貨幣霸權對於國際金融體系的影響。首先介紹霸權穩定論之理論內涵與發展,經過重新檢視霸權穩定論的思想內涵後,筆者發現霸權穩定論有許多缺陷並提出修正。其次,討論美元霸權在布列敦森林體系瓦解之後的形成與運作。美元霸權的起源是1971年尼克森將美元與黃金脫鉤,之後,經由1974年「石油-美元計價機制」與金融全球化進一步鞏固美元的霸權地位。最後,以「石油金融化」現象為例,說明美國是如何結合「石油-美元計價機制」與「金融全球化」來鞏固美元霸權地位,最後也導致國際金融體系的不穩定。

    本文認為,美國將石油市場變成了一個大型賭場。石油價格暴漲暴跌將對世界經濟,尤其是發展中國家帶來不利影響。「石油-美元計價機制」是一種「誘捕」,它強化了從屬國家對美元的依賴。憑著不對稱的金融相互依賴,美國穩居霸權地位。然而,一個穩定的國際金融體系不能只靠主導國家權力的使用,一個階層狀態的國際關係,還必須有從屬國家配合的意願。隨著「二次大戰效應」的消失,美國無法再以國內市場的龐大需求滿足發展中國家的出口導向政策,因此,身為主導國家的美國必須運用國際金融發展的不對稱性,提供從屬國家支持美元霸權的誘因,此種不對稱性的互賴關係也是美元霸權的權力來源。此外,霸權權力具有自我毀滅的傾向。在金融全球化的過程中,政府的權威不斷被削弱,導致政治反應能力遠遠落後於經濟力量的發展。若美國不採取行動管理國際金融體系,取得主導國家的正當性,則衰落是不可避免。
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    Description: 碩士
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