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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/51862

    Title: 近代臺灣的動物園(1915-1986)
    Authors: 鄭麗榕
    Contributors: 歷史學系
    Keywords: 動物園歷史;動物文化史;臺北圓山動物園;動物之愛
    zoo history;cultural history of animals;Taipei zoo in Yuan-shan;love of animals
    Date: 2014-12
    Issue Date: 2011-11-10 10:03:23 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在展覽會及博物館史、動物表演史、動物權與動物文化史、環境史中的動物研究裡,已有不少涉及動物園的面向,相關概念與方法上都可資參考,但對於近代臺灣動物園(1915-1986)的整體個案研究,尚有深入探討的空間。本文擬以動物文化史的概念探討人與動物的關係,從民間生活、國家、戰爭、環境與動物等面向,分析近代臺灣圈養動物的多重意涵,從動物園作為人與動物的關係的隱喻著手,透過時間的移轉,觀察帝國對殖民地的文明展示及教化、觀眾的創造性想像、動物從城市消費文化對象,轉化為必須尊重的生命的過程。這個過程可能不是線性發展,而是重層的、累積的現象,也受到時局變動,有相應的波動。而跨越戰前與戰後,長時間的架構,是欲藉此比較前後不同主政者對動物園的處理的異同。   在研究視野上,本文也嘗試關注動物作為一種生命,與人之間的各種文化交錯現象,因此在章節中,探討動物之愛、動物處分(實即殺戮)、慰靈祭、保護與虐待、生死展示等主題,希望能從情感面,探究動物園內的動物與人之間複雜的關係,另一方面也顯示其背後人們的動物觀。   本文除緒論、結論外,分五章討論近代臺灣的動物園史,章節如下:   第一章為「動物園的文化背景」,從圈養家畜以外的動物、利用動物表演與展示動物這三項與動物園最密切相關的特性,來分析人們建構動物園的文化背景。首節從大家族的庭園與田園生活的例子,談民間社會的動物圈養傳統,試從人與自然的關係,來了解人們喜愛養殖動物的文化因素,從而探索人們蒐集野生動物並形成動物園的心理。其次,從馬戲團及巡迴動物園看庶民娛樂中的動物表演問題。然後由博覽會中的動物展示,看早期作為物產的動物觀覽活動。   第二章為「國家與動物園」。首先探討國家與動物園的關係,看動物園在日本統治中如何作為文明的象徵、動物園與博物館的關係。其次從市政型動物園的角色,探討圓山動物園的經營與管理方式,以及公園與動物園的關係。   第三章處理「戰爭與動物園」。依動物園的經營情況,將戰爭時期(1931年起)與戰後初期併談。包括戰時的軍用動物之愛、戰爭末期的猛獸處分政策、慰靈祭的舉行。   第四章處理「娛樂、教育與動物園」。首節從遊樂園、動物表演與明星動物看動物園的娛樂功能。第二節從動物保護問題、兒童與動物園以及動物生前及死後的展示來探討動物園的教育功能。   第五章處理「環境與動物園」。首節談綜合動物園的原則、動物來源與棲地變化,次節談全球化過程中保育與動物福利的國際趨勢,以及臺北動物園在保育潮流中相關措施和新園的規劃。   本文擬完成下列數項目標:(一)整理並書寫尚待清理的臺灣動物園史。(二)透過臺灣動物園歷史的探討,為動物政治文化史的書寫略盡棉薄之力。(三)嘗試在本土研究中與世界史接軌,探索全球化中人與動物關係的臺灣個案意義。(四)在帝國主義的視野中,了解動物園展示的意義。(五)了解動物園與民眾的記憶,兒童與動物園的關係。(六)從動物園的案例,探討臺灣近代史中的動物觀、生命觀、自然觀。(七)從動物園的案例看動物所處的環境與棲地變遷。(八)分析動物園在現代社會的意義與問題。 Most of public zoos in Taiwan were governmental institutions. At the beginning of 20th century, a zoo was a facility which represented civilization of a progressive empire, country or city. Animals in zoos were like “pets” for all citizens. In the 1970s, global environmental and political situations influenced ways to manage zoos. The collectivization of zoos became popular. Many of them cooperated and shared zoological researches with others more frequently. Besides, there showed a more international vision in nursing, registering, breeding or exchanging animals in zoos. Their values and positions in the global ecosystem were eventually emphasized.      In addition to exploring the reason why zoos strived to make a clean break from their past, this thesis intends to discuss how the country or the society utilized captive wild animals and to examine situations of captive wild animals in different periods as well. How were they (or their ancestors) brought from their habitats in the wild to cities? How were they arranged to integrate into human society and became a part of people’s social life? Therefore, this study is not a history of a particular zoo or about zoo management. Instead, this thesis attempts to demonstrate the zoo history from a viewpoint of a cultural history of animals.       This thesis not only examines issues like animal abuse from the opening of Taipei Zoo in Yuan-shan but also refers to some celebrities’ descriptions of popular animal stars’ physical and mental illness due to being confined within enclosures before the end of World War II. Moreover, it reveals that from the 1970s managers of zoos began to pay attention to animal welfare when making spatial planning or managing the zoo. Even though in the 1950s staff in Taipei Zoo founded a society for animals’ care and protection, they still strictly focused on buying precious animals, training them to perform tricks for visitors or exhibiting them in order to entertain human beings. These behaviors could be scarcely comparable to those caring actions designed to meet animals’ real needs. To explore history of human-animal interaction more fully can surely help us to think about how to live more harmoniously with nature. This is indeed the main goal for this thesis.
    Relation: 研究期間:10008~ 10107
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[Department of History] NSC Projects

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