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    Title: 京都議定書下之彈性機制運作之法律分析(I)
    Other Titles: A Legal Analysis of the Flexible Echanisms under the Kyoto Protocol (I)
    Authors: 施文真
    Contributors: 國立政治大學國際貿易學系
    行政院國家科學委員會
    Keywords: 法律;京都議定書
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2012-06-22 09:48:27 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 依據世界氣象組織於2005 年12 月之新聞稿指出,2005 年為歷史上第二炎熱的年份,而過去十年(1996-2005)則為歷史上最炎熱的年代,同時,南太平洋上之島國吐瓦魯則成為第一個因溫室效應導致海平面上升、因而損失國土面積的國家。因此,為了管制溫室氣體之排放所形成的國際環境管制體系:氣候變化綱要公約(1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change,以下簡稱FCCC)以及京都議定書(1997 Kyoto Protocol,以下簡稱議定書),逐漸成為國際間相當重要的環境管制體系。議定書要求已開發國家(「附件一」或「附件B」國家)必須於2008-2012 年間、針對六種溫室氣體負擔不同的減量義務。有鑑於溫室氣體的排放以及減量均涉及相當大的經濟衝擊,故,為了協助負有減量義務之締約國可以有效的達成管制目標,議定書遂設計三種彈性的履約機制:共同減量(Joint Implementation,以下簡稱JI)、清潔發展機制(Clean Development Mechanism,以下簡稱CDM)、以及排放權交易(Emission Trading),協助負有減量義務之會員達成管制目標。於議定書尚未生效之前,已經有許多國家以及企業積極的投入CDM 計畫之設計、規劃等,2005 年10 月20 日CDM 執行委員會正式就兩件水力發電場之CDM 計畫核發經認證之排放減量單位:CERs。而共同減量則早於FCCC 之時代,即開始一試驗性質的「共同減量活動」(activity implemented jointly,AIJ)。至於排放權交易,則於議定書尚未生效前,已於若干國家之內國環境管制體系開始運作,而議定書則是第一個國際間處理大氣環境問題中使用排放權交易的國際環境公約。當此三類機制於國家或企業層級進行操作時,相關的國際法以及國內法律規範是否完備將是其運作成功與否以及各參與者是否願意積極參與之關鍵因素。此三類機制涉及之法律議題相當廣泛以及複雜,包括公法以及私法、國際法與國內法之議題,因此,本計畫預計以兩年的時間,針對此三項機制之運作進行法律議題之分析。就我國而言,政府似乎尚未針對我國是否要承諾溫室氣體之減量達成共識。惟此是否代表我國可以無視上述之國際管制體系?就產業、環境、以及國際壓力之角度觀察,我國其實應及早針對將來可以必須要承擔的溫室氣體減量義務以及減輕對策,展開因應對策的思考與準備。而有鑑於所涉及之產業衝擊,使用京都議定書下之彈性機制,應該是可以兼顧環境面與經濟面之政策工具之一。因此,瞭解此三類機制運作之相關法律制度設計,包括身為一非締約國,我國可否參與議定書下之機制,預計可提供相關之主管機關作一政策上之參考。
    According to the World Meteorological Organisation, the year 2005 is currently the second warmest in the temperature record since 1861. Meanwhile, the state of Tuvalu in the South Pacific becomes the first country that lost part of its territory due to sea level rise as a result of global warming. The Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, thus, have become one of the most important international environmental regulatory regime. The Kyoto Protocol prescribes concrete emission reduction timetable and target for six types of greenhouse gases (GHGs) for the so-called Annex B Parties (i.e. developed country Parties). In view of the potential economic impact associated with the reduction of GHGs, the Kyoto Protocol also designs three flexible mechanisms to facilitate these Parties to comply with these reduction obligations: joint implementation, clean development mechanism, and emission trading. Before the entering into force of the Kyoto Protocol in 2005, various countries and industries have already begun to involve in the planning and operation of CDM projects. The CDM Executive Committee officially issued the certified emission reductions for two hydroelectricity CDM projects in October 2005. As for JI, a pilot phase AIJ (activity implemented jointly) has taken place after the first COP to the FCCC in 1994. With regard to emission trading, several countries and regional organisation have already employed this mechanism to solve environmental problems such as acid rain and greenhouse effect. The Kyoto Protocol is, however, the first multilateral environmental agreement concerning atmospheric protection to adopt such mechanism. A sound legal system concerning the design and operation of these three mechanisms at the international, domestic, and firm level will be the key to a successful implementation and create incentive to attract participation of all stakeholders. Therefore, this research project intends to conduct a thorough legal analysis of these three mechanisms in the next two years. As for Taiwan, it seems that the government has yet to commit itself to reduce the emission of GHGs. Does this imply that Taiwan can plainly ignore the international regulatory regime? From the perspective of environmental protection, industry competitiveness, and the potential international pressure, it is recommended that the government should begin to consider the necessary policy implications as early as possible. And in view of the economic impact involved, these flexible mechanisms can be used to achieve both the goal of environmental protection and sustainable economic development. The result of this research will, thus, be able to offer some policy guidance to the government.
    Relation: 基礎研究
    學術補助
    研究期間:9508~ 9607
    研究經費:223仟元
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[Department of International Business ] NSC Projects

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