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    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 歷史學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/60104
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/60104


    Title: 重新思考14世紀至17世紀 開封猶太後裔之文化認同
    Reconsidering the cultural identity of Kaifeng Jewish Descendants during the 14th-17th centuries
    Authors: 魏卓生
    Dror Weil
    Contributors: 王明珂
    張中復

    魏卓生
    Dror Weil
    Keywords: 猶太
    開封
    認同
    明代
    Kaifeng
    Jews
    Kaifeng Jewish Community
    Identity
    Ming
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2013-09-04 15:30:47 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 自從藉由耶穌會有關開封猶太人的「披露」的新聞在17世紀來到歐洲時,中國猶太人的議題即受到廣泛的注意。中國猶太人的主題被認為是早期聯結西東方的橋樑。然而,於歐洲被激起的主題,激動與狂喜,開啟了一道中國猶太人的研究領域疆土與其他相關於中國的宗教—社會史領域之間的裂縫。
    如同我將在此論文闡明的,在元明之間的王朝變動所呈現的不僅是權力的轉換,且更重要地是社會和文化論述的轉變。開封的猶太後裔,身為中國社會的一部分,在此轉變中重新界定其文化認同。此論文企圖分析14到17世紀期間,參與形塑開封猶太人後裔的文化認同的社會和文化要素。
    元代中國「猶太人性質」的民族範疇為廣泛社會典範的一部分,其在合法的、官僚主義的和當地的背景中被合併及顯示。猶太人似乎過著隔離的生活,保存著他們的遺產和宗教習俗,且保持著獨特的文化認同。在某些案例中,猶太人在起源於中亞,例如穆斯林和基督徒—統合於「回」以及「色目人」的分類類別之下—的一神論大集團下被確認。 元明換代改朝之際,社會民族典範也改變了。明代初期的猶太後裔不得不重新設定其與周圍社會的關係。
    統治權的轉變並不只是權力的轉換,亦顯示於社會、政治和宗教改革以及新的官方社會論述的起始之中。當新社會論述無法理解蒙元時期的民族分類,且將此認同性的觀念重組為「文明的」和「野蠻的」的二分架構時,猶太後裔面臨假定的自我定位之新範疇的真正需求。如同第五章所介紹的,姓族和被視為主要社會框架的親屬聯繫之社會建構,透過「猶太性質」而能以新的形式出現。民族集聚,在新的社會現實之下,伴隨對於姓族和宗譜的認同,而被替代。因此,宗譜變成個體和集體認同的主要組成部分。
    新的社會現實亦包含被當地社群認可的社會分層和菁英階級的出現,且負有對當地的責任。如同我將在第6章所討論的,歷史材料呈現了在當地社會的上層階級中的猶太後裔的顯著參與。因此,為了能夠增進對於開封猶太後裔的文化認同之討論,本論文探討晚期帝國時期的菁英的自我意識。如此看來,菁英不僅是創造和維持認同性的主要行為者,其獲得在歷史材料以及一些猶太歷史遺跡所出現過的「一賜樂業」之名,且他們試圖應用此團結類型以強化當地自治以及擴展他們的社會人脈。本論文此部份在於討論涉及開封猶太後裔之間的文化認同的菁英角色的性質。
    猶太認同的中心,如同其在傳教士的著作以及近期學院學者的著作中被宣稱,被歸因為猶太禮拜寺或會堂。根據此觀點,猶太認同的顯示為猶太儀式和宗教習俗的遵守。如同我在第7章所討論的,此描述並不能完整地符合我們對於晚期帝國時期的宗教氛圍—充滿對抗異端教派和儀式的陣營以及嚴格宗教控制的執行—的認識。本研究此部份試圖緩和某些猶太認同的出現和普遍於當地社會的宗教現實之間的衝突。因此,此部份將提供一種能夠增進我們對於猶太後裔的文化性質的理解之社會框架。
    為了進一步討論開封猶太後裔的文化認同,本論文介紹三位猶太後裔的故事作為個人案例。這三人,雖然都屬於所謂的開封猶太社群,不過各顯示出不同的生活模式與文化認同。這三人的生平可表現14世紀至17世紀長達300年的時段中,猶太後裔所面臨的社會趨勢。
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    歷史研究所
    95153023
    98
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