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    Title: 加拿大原住民族的土地權
    Other Titles: Indigenous Land Rights in Canada
    Authors: 官大偉
    Kuan,Da-Wei
    Contributors: 民族系
    Keywords: 加拿大;原住民族;原住民族土地權格;原住民族土地權
    Canada;Indigenous peoples;Aboriginal title;Indigenous land rights
    Date: 2011-03
    Issue Date: 2014-05-27 17:27:22 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 加拿大最高法院對R. v. Marshall 一案的判決,藉由對歷史契約的承認,確認了Mi’kmaq 族在漁業活動上擁有特殊權利,在一定條件下,可以免於一般漁業法規的規範。此案判決為加拿大原住民族權利保障之里程碑,但也引發許多重大爭議,甚至衍生後續若干暴力衝突。在這些爭議中,似乎蘊涵著所謂族群正義與分配正義的對立,這是原住民族主張其差異權利時,最常碰觸到的議題。支持方認為,原住民族漁業或其它自然資源取用行為,若其正當性確有其歷史根據,此一族群間基於歷史承諾所構成的族群差異權利,本就應該獲得保障,方為族群正義之展現。但反對方認為,在當今自然資源逐漸枯竭的狀況下,此類族群差異權利之實施,對依靠同一資源對象為生的非原住民族同行而言,無疑影響其生存空間,違反分配正義精神。換言之,在該案中,反對方認為,為滿足族群正義而獲最高法院確認的特殊權利,傷害了自由社會對於分配正義的承諾。本文試圖論證,在本案中,當爭議中的族群差異權利載入契約的那個歷史時刻,族群正義與分配正義取得了一致性,更重要的是,即使在當今社會繼續行使該項權利,也不必然會因為為了追求族群正義而傷害了分配正義。
    Even though indigenous peoples are facing diverse issues due to the social contexts they are situated in, the recognition and realization of land rights is a common issue to indigenous peoples around the world.The experience of indigenous peoples (First Nations) in Canada has being a source of inspiration since Taiwan indigenous peoples began the efforts to build connection with the global indigenous movement. Aiming to explore the Canadian experience of recognizing and realizing indigenous land rights that Taiwan society can learn from, this paper: 1) reviews the transition of indigenous policy, and the interpretation of aboriginal title in Canada; 2) scrutinizes the process of identifying the contents of indigenous land rights, and the area to exercise these rights; and, 3) make suggestions to realization of indigenous land rights in Taiwan.
    Relation: 台灣國際研究季刊,7(1),59-78
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[民族學系] 期刊論文

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