考試院和台灣社會一向深信國家統一考試分發用人制度是公平的同義字，本文根據三個考選制度的政策目標，包括功績、組織需求和成本效能，深層分析公務人員考選制度的歷史發展成就和挑戰。評估分析顯示，獨立考選制度保障人力遴選公平陸的說法，事實上並未如社會的認知一般，那麼的公平公開！特別是實質公平的不足。至於獨立考選在達成組織用人需求和成本效能兩個目標上的成就，更是值得討論。人力資源管理理論和實務觀點指出，有意義的考選要能兼顧本文所提出的三個政策目標，僅重視公平而過度輕忽遴選適合用人組織需要的人力，並不是最佳的制度選擇模式。本文認為，隨著台灣政治體制的民主化，全球化和知識社會對政府競爭力的挑戰日益加重，重防弊的政府考選制度之階段性成應該受到肯定，也應該繼續受到應有的重視之餘，獨立考選制度的正當性必須也要能夠更重視積極性目標，即能夠甄補政府經營變革需要的更多優秀專業人力，這才真正是國民的最大利益。因此，本文最後提出諸多與現行制度不一的變革構想，目的並非貶低考選功能的重要性和考試院的歷史地位，而是期許考選制度能有更積極的蛻變，真正成為所有用人機關仰首期盼的人力評量專業機構。 The civil service examination system in Taiwan differs significantly from those other developed nations. A centralized and independent Examination Yuan established by the constitution has indeed made a great contribution by establishing a generally open competition under an authoritarian regime and, most importantly, has prevented the emergence of a spoils or political patronage system of the type so often seen in developing countries. Nonetheless, past successes should not lead us to ignore the many challenges that Taiwan`s civil service examination system now faces. This paper raises concerns stemming from the three major policy goals of selection: merit, organizational workforce needs and cost-effectiveness. With Taiwan`s government is facing more challenges from global competition, the civil service examination system has to emphasize the strategic human resource management function more than the prevention of political interference. Therefore, this paper strongly suggests that the test validity and organizational workforce needs are two main goals that should drive the civil service examination system in the future. In particular, the Examination Yuan should consider reviving the certified lists system so that government agencies can play the major role in deciding whom to hire. In the new era, the Examination Yum as an "independent" institution has to make civil service selection and public personnel policy that aligns with effective government human resource management. In the end, the civil service examination is hot an end in itself. Rather it is simply an instrument for strengthening the ability of government to govern.