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|Language Planning Work in Sorbian-One Almost Abandoned West Slavic Language
Sociolinguistic;Language Planning;EU;West Slavic Language;Sorbian
|2014-12-30 11:35:13 (UTC+8)
|就語言的隸屬關係而言，西斯拉夫語為斯拉夫語族的一支，其中包括捷克語、波蘭語、斯洛伐克語以及較少為人知的索布語（Sorbian）和卡舒比語（Cassubian） 。早在七世紀初便有相關史料記載索布族的西向遷徙，而在歷經兩次世界大戰以及冷戰等重大歷史變遷之後，索布族人目前主要分布於德國西部的薩克森（Saxony）以及布萊登堡（Brandenburg）等地。索布語目前主要有兩個標準語言變體，即上索布語（Upper Sorbian）以及下索布語（Lower Sorbian），語言使用人口數分別為四萬人以及一萬人左右（Schiemann 2000）。此外，由於索布語長時間與德語進行語言接觸，因此無論是在構詞上或是在句法上都受到德語的影響。\\r1997年7月德意志聯邦共和國政府通過「歐洲理事會保護少數民族公約」，並據此宣布索布族為德國境內被保護的少數族群之一。1998年7月德意志聯邦共和國政府更進一步根據「歐洲區域或少數語言憲章」確定上索布語以及下索布語的少數語言法定地位。隨著上下索布語法定地位的被確認，一連串由德國政府根據歐盟相關規章的語言規劃工作便在該區開始展開，其中主要反映在相關傳播媒體的增加以及學校教育上。本文結論認為索布語的語言規劃工作為順應歐盟尊重語言文化多樣性的標準產物，其次，也反映了索布族本身的族群語言意識長久以來在「泛斯拉夫民族主義」以及環繞四周的日耳曼族群的拉扯下無法獨立發展。
The West Slavic languages are a subcategory of the Slavic language group that includes Czech, Polish, Slovak, Sorbian and Cassubian. After the migration from east in the seventh century and survival from the two world wars in European Continent, currently the Sorbs are living in the eastern part of Germany, close to the border with the Czech Republic and Poland. The language of the Sorbs, or Wends , linguistically has two standard varieties. One is Upper Sorbian, spoken by about 40,000 people in Saxony, and the other one is called Lower Sorbian, spoken by about 10,000 people in Brandenburg. (Schiemann 2000) Because of the long history of language contact with German, Upper and Lower Sorbian both are influenced by German not only morphologically but also in the syntactic level.With the “Law on the Framework Convention of the Council of Europe for the Protection of National Minorities” passed by the Federal Parliament on July 22, 1997, the Federal Republic of Germany enacted that members of the Sorbian nation belong among the protected and promoted national minority groups in Germany. Under the terms of the federal law on the “European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages” of July 9, 1998, Upper Sorbian and Lower Sorbian became, by law, recognized, protected and promoted as minority languages. After the confirmation of the legal status of Sorbian, there started so-called language planning work in the area.In the past 10 years, promotion of the Sorbian language has mainly been reflected in the increase in the Sorbian media available, the continued fundamental pursuit of a policy to promote nationalities and a guarantee of the right to acquire Sorbian by corresponding measures in the schools system.This paper is trying to conclude that the current language planning work in Sorbian is the standard product following by the main spirit of the European Union, i.e. to maintain the linguistic and cultural diversity in Europe. However, on the other hand, the language planning work (officially started from 2000) motivated by the Federal Republic of Germany also reflects one fact that Sorbs who struggle between Pan-Slavism and Germanic Peoples for a long time, are still unable to develop their own ethnic ideology and language independently.
|俄語學報, 13, 133-145
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