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    Title: 社群媒體與政治溝通─以俄羅斯總統梅德韋傑夫的臉書為例
    Social Media and Political Communication: The Case of Russian President Medvedev's Facebook
    Authors: 郭貞均
    Kuo, Chen Chun
    Contributors: 林永芳
    Lin, Yung Fang
    郭貞均
    Kuo, Chen Chun
    Keywords: 第二媒介時代
    俄羅斯媒體
    網際網路
    政治溝通
    the second media age
    the media in Russia
    the internet
    political communication
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2015-11-02 14:57:39 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 第二媒介時代的來臨,改變了人們之間互動的方式。訊息的流通不再是單一方向,而是藉由網路媒體達成兩者互動的特點。自從Dmitry Medvedev使用臉書以來,就經常發布各式各樣貼文、照片與資訊,試圖與民眾達成線上溝通。本文藉由政治溝通理論檢視現今俄羅斯政治人物使用大眾媒體得到的效果。

    相較於傳統媒體,網路的花費比較昂貴。雖然比較自由,但是無法像其他傳統媒體,例如:電視或報紙,可以直接影響大眾。根據歷史的爬梳,可以發現俄羅斯深受歷史所影響,以至於可看見法律條文中政府的干預,如此一來,可能會影響俄羅斯網際網路的發展自主性。

    端看Medvedev的臉書,可以發現內容的多樣性以及豐富性。議題從政治方面、經濟、社會至文化層面,利用影片、文字、網址連結以及照片呈現不同的內容;而網友的回應也包含著啟發、轉換、強化及激化這四種特色。透過分析臉書上的互動,本文發現俄羅斯在媒體使用環境上的限制著實讓線上的政治溝通有難以實行之面,導致網際網路的使用人口不廣泛,進而使得訊息發送的範圍不廣泛;此外,政治人物是否視臉書為其重要的訊息傳播工具也將是影響能否達到有效溝通重要因素。
    The coming of the second media age has changed the way people connect with each other. A one-way flow of media messages turns into a two-way interaction
    characteristic of internet media. Since Dmitry Medvedev has used the Facebook, he
    regularly posts a bunch of post, shares pictures and information in order to make an
    online communication with his followers. This paper uses the concept of political communication to examine uses and effects of mass media that nowadays used by the Russian politician.
    Compared with the traditional media, costs of the internet is more expensive. Despite the fact that internet is more free, it’s difficult to make a deep influence directly on people like television or newspaper. The study shows that Russian has been influenced by their own history for a long time, the using of the media is intervened by the law. Therefore, it might restrict the autonomous development of the internet.
    This paper shows that there is a variety of the contents in Medvedev’s Facebook. The topic of discussion includes of policy, economy, society and even culture with the help of a short film, words, links and photos. Responses for his post are filled with 4 kinds of characteristics: initiation, conversion, reinforcement and activation. Analyzing the interaction between the politician and his followers, the limitation of the internet makes the online political communication difficult to practice, which causes the users unequally distribute in Russia, and makes the message hard to widely spread. Furthermore, the politician’s attitude toward the medium is the main key to influence the result of the political communication.
    Reference: 一、中文部分

    (一)書籍
    林維國,《新媒體與民意》,台北,五南圖書出版股份有限公司,2013。
    林文益 譯,McNair, Brian 著,《政治傳播學》台北市,風雲論壇有v 限公司,2001年,頁30-33李美華等 譯,Earl Babbie著,《社會科學研究方法(下)》,台北市:時英,1998。
    李瑋,《轉型時期的俄羅斯大眾傳媒》,上海:新華書店上海發行所經銷,2005。
    邱瑞惠,《俄羅斯傳播體系:變遷與發展》,台北:風雲論壇有限公司,2009。
    胡逢瑛 吳非,《透視蘇俄傳媒轉型變局》,台北市:秀威資訊科技,2005。
    胡逢瑛 吳非,《政治傳播與新聞體制》,台北市:秀威資訊科技,2006。
    胡逢瑛,《俄羅斯傳媒新戰略 : 從普京到梅普共治的時代 Russian media strategy from Putin to Medvedev : under the power of Putin 》,台北市:秀威資訊科技,2009。
    黃元鵬、吳佳綺譯,Paul Hodkinson著,《媒介、文化與社會》(Media, Culture and Society),國基教育研究院,2013年。
    國立編譯館 主譯,David Holmes著,《媒介、科技與社會─傳播理論的面向》,台北,國立編譯館,2009年。
    彭懷恩 編著,《新政治學Q & A》,台北市,風雲論壇有限公司,2004年。
    鄧中堅等 編著,《政治溝通與談判技巧》,國立空中大學,上校文化印刷有限公司,2013。
    戴鑫 譯,Siebert, Fred、Peterson, Theodore、Schramm Wilbur著,《傳媒的四種理論》,北京:中國人民大學,2008。


    (二)論文期刊
    內政部,〈從社區發展的觀點,看社區、社區意識與社區文化〉,社區發展季刊,1995。
    方瑞華,〈虛擬社群網站之使用者評估─以TaipeiLink為例〉,國立台灣大學圖書資訊學研究所碩士學位論文,2011。
    林瑞欽,〈社區意識凝聚之道〉,社會福利,1995。
    邱瑞惠,〈俄羅斯大眾傳媒法規與新聞自由之探討〉,《俄羅斯學報》,第七期,2007年12月。
    張庭瀚,〈臉書粉絲專頁經營方法之研究〉,國立中山大學企業管理學系碩士論文,2014。
    陳宜蓮,〈普丁時期社會福利制度〉,政治大學俄羅斯研究所碩士論文,民97年。
    黃榮,〈蘇聯民警機關權限與社會主義法制〉,《環球法律評論》,1984。
    蔡鈴芳,〈俄羅斯老人福利制度〉,淡江大學俄羅斯研究所碩士論文,民97年。
    楊雲竹,〈粉絲經營Facebook粉絲專業成功關鍵因素之探討〉,中國文化大學商學院資訊管理研究所,2011。
    趙瑋,〈普丁時期俄羅斯大眾傳播媒體與政權關係之研究〉,國立政治大學俄羅斯研究所碩士論文,2008。
    謝君宜,〈俄羅斯影子經濟與貪污之研究〉,政治大學俄羅斯研究所碩士論文,2008。

    二、 英文
    (一)專書
    Castells, Manuel(2001). The Internet Galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, Business,and Society, New York, Oxford University Press
    Castells, Manuel(2009). Communication Power, New York, Oxford University Press
    Cook, Linda J.(2013), Postcommunist Welfare States, Reform Politics in Russia and Eastern Europe , Cornell University Press
    Kirkpatrick, David(2010). The Facebook Effect. The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting the World, New York:Simon & Schuster Hargel
    J. & Armstrong A.(1997), Net Gain: Expanding Markets Through Virtual Communities, Boston Harvard Business Press
    Hoffman, David(1997). Powerful Few Rule Russian Mass Media, Washington Post
    Nick Manning, Ovsey Shkaratan, and Nataliya Tikhonova(2001), Work and Welfare in the New Russia, Ashgate Pub Ltd
    Oates, Sarah(2013), Revolution Stalled: The Political Limits of The Internet in The Post-Soviet Sphere, Oxford University press
    Perloff, Richard M. (1998). Political Communication: Politics, Press, and Public in America. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
    Ranney, Austin (2001). Governing: An Introduction to Political Science, 8th Edition.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
    Rheingold, Howard(1993). The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley Pub Co.

    (二)期刊專文
    Alexandrova, Anastassia and Struyk ,Raymond, “ Reform of In-Kind Benefits in Russia: High Cost for A Small Gain,” pp.153-166.
    V. Prokhorov Alexander, “Cigarette Smoking and Priorities for Tobacco Control in the New Independent States”, Premature Death in the New Independent States,pp.275-286.
    B Roberts, A Gilmore, A Stickley, D Rotman, V Prohoda, C Haerpfer, M McKee, “Changes in smoking prevalence in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union between 2001 and 2010”, American Journal of Public Health 2012, pp.1320–1328.
    BM Segal (1990), “The Drunken Society: Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Soviet Union”, A Comparative Study, New York, pp.539-606.
    Caramani, Daniele(2010).” Political Communication”, Oxford University Press, pp. 1-41.
    Cerami, Alfio, “Welfare State Development in the Russian Federation: Oil-Led Social Policy and the Russian Miracle”, pp.105-120.
    Dahlgren, Peter (2006). ” The Internet, Public Spheres, and Political Communication:Dispersion and Deliberation”, Political Communication, pp. 147-162.
    Dixon, John and Kim,Hyung Shik ”Social Welfare under Socialism,” in John Dixon and David Macarov eds., Social Welfare in Socialist Countries,New York:Routledge,1992), pp.2-4.
    Hall, Stuart, (1993)“Encoding, Decoding”, The Cultural Studies Reader,London:Routledge, pp.90-103.
    IONESCU, Nicoleta (2013). ” Online Political Communication: The Role of Image Upload on Facebook”, pp. 53-58.
    Julian, Isabel Pla, “The Transformation of Russian Social Policy in the Transition toward a Market Economy,” pp.87-104.
    Kosals, Leonid(19 October 2010), “Police in Russia: Reform or Business Restructuring?”, Russian Analytical Digest, No. 84, ,pp.2-5.
    L. Caldwell, Melissa(2007), “Elder Care in the New Russia: The Changing Face of Compassionate Social Security, European Journal of Anthropology, p.66-80.
    Leino ,Katri,&Riuttanen, Laura,& Nieninen, Tuomo, “Biomass-Burning Smoke Episodes in Finland From Eastern European Wildfires”, Boreal Environment Research, 2014, p.275-292.
    MOMOC, Antonio (2012). “Social Media in Romania: Left Wing or Right Wing? The Case of the 2009 Presidential Campaign: Blogs and Facebook”, Journal of Media Research, pp. 77-95.
    Moen-Larsen, Natalia (2013). “Communicating with the Nation: Russian Politicians Online”, Russian Analytical Digest, no.123, pp. 10-12.
    National Institute on Aging(2007), “Growing Older in America”, The Health and Retirement Study. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC: U.S.pp.10-102 .
    Pridemore Alex William(2002) “Vodka and Violence: Alcohol Consumption and Homicide Rates in Russia”, Public Health Matters, p.1921-1930.
    Popkova, Anna (2014). “Political Criticism From the Soviet Kitchen to the Russian Internet: A Comparative Analysis of Russian Media Coverage of the December 2011 Election Protests”, Journal of Communication, pp. 95-112.
    Raacke, J & Bonds-Raacke J.(2007), “My Space and Facebook: Applying the Uses and Gratifications Theory to Exploring Friend-Networking Sites”,CyberPsychology& Behavior, pp.169-174.
    RT Jensen, Richter K(2004), “The health implications of social security failure:evidence from the Russian pension crisis”, Journal of Public Economics,pp.209–236.
    Selivanova Anna, Jane M Cramm, “The Relationship Between Healthy Behaviors and Health Outcome Among Older Adults in Russia”, BMC Public Health, 2014, vol.14.
    Semukhina ,Olga& Milwaukee, “From Militia to Police: The Path of Russian Law,Enforcement Reforms”, Russian Analytical Digest, No.151, 30, June 2014, p.2-5.
    Wiktorow ,Aleksandra, ”Soviet Union,” in John Dixon and David Macarov eds., Social Welfare in Socialist Countries (New York: Routledge, 1992), pp.184-207.
    Wen, Wei-Chun (2013). “Facebook Political Communication in Taiwan: 1.0/2.0 Messages and Election/Post-Election Messages”, Chinese Journal of Communication, pp. 19-39.
    V. Tchernina Natalia, Tchernin Efim A. (2002), “Older People in Russia’s Transitional Society: Multiple Deprivation and Coping Responses”, Ageing and Society,
    pp. 543-562.
    World Bank, “Russia Social Protection During Transition and Beyond”, (Report no.11748-RU)(Washington DC: World bank, February 2, 1994), pp.19-23.
    World Health Organization, “World Health Report.Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva” , World Health Organization, 2002, pp.2-248.
    WC Cockerham, “Health lifestyles in Russia”, Social Science&Media, 2000,pp .1313–1324.

    三、俄文
    И. Т.Тарасов,”Полиция Росси и История законы реформы ,Составление и редакция”, В. С. Чижевский-М.:Книжный мир,(2011),стр,P18

    四、網路資料
    (一)中文
    中國森林防火網:http://www.slfh.gov.cn/slfhw/default.aspx
    (二)英文
    “A smoky curtain falls on Moscow”, <http://www.theage.com.au/world/a-smoky-curtain-falls-on-moscow-20100807-11pcw.html>(08.08.2010)
    “Barack Obama’s Facebook” <https://www.facebook.com/barackobama>

    “Changes to the law “On Police””,
    <http://sputniknews.com/infographics/20101101/161164642.html>(01.10.2010)
    “Digital EastFactor”, <http://www.digitaleastfactor.com>
    “Duma passes new Law on Police despite “no” from opposition”,
    < http://www.rt.com/politics/police-law-passed-duma/>(28.01.2011)
    “Europe BBC news”, http://www.bbc.com/news/world/europe>
    “Heat wave could cost Russia almost 1 percent of GDP”,
    <http://www.dw.de/heat-wave-could-cost-russia-almost-1-percent-of-gdp/a-5887442>(11.08.2010)
    “International Programs”,
    <http://www.census.gov/population/international/data/idb/informationGateway.php>
    “More than 300 journalists killed in Russia since 1993, says joint report”,
    < https://www.ifex.org/russia/2009/06/24/partial_justice/>(24.06.2009)>
    “Medvedev Cracks Down on Russian Navy Administration”, <http://english.pravda.ru/russia/politics/05-08-2010/114497-dmitry_medvedev_navy-0/>(05.08.2010)
    “Pew Research Center”, < http://www.pewresearch.org>
    “Russian president fires naval officials after blaze at naval facility”, <http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/europe/08/04/russia.wildfires> (06. 08. 2010)
    “Russians Suffer Deadly Fires, Heatwave, Magnetic Storm”,
    <http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/aug2010/2010-08-09-02.html>(09.08.2010)
    “Russia Profile Weekly Experts Panel: Will Police Reform Result in Name Change
    Only?”,< http://russiaprofile.org/experts_panel/a1282921466.html>(08.27.2010)
    “Volunteers Take Fires Into Own Hands”, < <http://www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/volunteers-take-fires-into-own-hands/412473.html>(17.08.2010)
    (三)俄文
    “Видеоблог Дмитрия Медведева” ,< http://blog.da-medvedev.ru/>
    “В Москве жестоко избит журналист &quot;Коммерсанта&quot;”,
    <http://lenta.ru/news/2010/11/06/kashin/>(06.11.2011)
    “Дмитрий Медведев на Facebook”, <https://ru-ru.facebook.com/Dmitry.Medvedev>
    “Интернет в России: динамика проникновения. Лето 2013”,
    < http://runet.fom.ru/Proniknovenie-interneta/11067> (06.09.2013)
    “ИА Ореанда”, <http://www.oreanda.ru/common/events/Medvedev_ozabotilsya_voprosom_dosuga_pojilyh_rossiyan_Foto/article509684/>(25.10.2010)
    “Медведев утвердил госпрограмму «Развитие лесного хозяйства»”, <http://www.baltinfo.ru/2012/12/30/Medvedev-utverdil-gosprogrammu-Razvitie-lesnogo-khozyaistva-327489>(30.12.2012)
    “Hациональный проект”,<http://www.rost.ru/>
    “Основные Социальные Гарантии Установленные Законодательством Российской Федерации”, <http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/B07_13/IssWWW.exe/Stg/d02/06-17.htm>
    “Президент России”, <http://kremlin.ru/>
    “Пожары 2010”, <http://www.greenpeace.org/russia/ru/campaigns/forests/fires/2010/>(03.09.2013)
    “Право и Интернет”, <http://www.russianlaw.net/>
    “Россияне обсудят в интернете законопроект &quot;О полиции”, <http://primamedia.ru/news/09.08.2010/131177/(09.08.2010)
    “РиаНовости”, <http://ria.ru/>
    “Ushahidi’s Blog”,
    <http://www.ushahidi.com/2010/08/02/russia-crowdsourcing-assistance-for-victims-of-wildfires/>
    “Федеральное Агентство Лесного Хозяйства”,< http://www.rosleshoz.gov.ru/>
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    俄羅斯研究所
    101263014
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0101263014
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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