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|Other Titles: ||Analysis of Taiwan's Mode 4 Commitments and Strategies for Type 3 Personnel|
GATS;movement of natural persons;Mode 4;Type 3 personnel;a natural person employed by business entities in Chinese Taipei
|Issue Date: ||2016-05-16 16:49:37 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||新回合談判伊始，自然人移動之議題 即再次為會員角力的重要戰場，除人力資源豐沛，具有比較利益的開發中會員外，對於人口結構逐漸呈現高齡化、教育水準高的已開發會員而言，許多產業經常出現人力短缺之情形。尤其，跨國企業歷經數十年來之發展，現已日趨成熟，其內部人員亦常有調動至他國之必要。儘管兩大陣營間基本之立場仍有歧異，然在新回合談判中，自然人移動之議題，勢已無可迴避。\r 自然人移動的議題甚多，如服務提供者入出境措施之簡化、經濟需求測試（economic needs test）、薪資平等原則（wage parity），乃至於服務提供者資格認許等，不一而足。各項自由化議題外，另一個逐漸受到學者矚目的問題，乃GATS架構下，是否涵蓋地主國企業僱用外國自然人的類型。WTO秘書處依據GATS第一條第二項（d）款，及自然人移動附件（Annex on Movement of Natural Persons Supplying Services under the Agreement）第二項等規定，對此採取否定之見解；而絕大多數會員，亦未將此類型填載於承諾表內。邇來，已有若干經濟學者對否定說造成的不合理處提出質疑，並指出此種類型開放後，能為全球創造巨大利益。然而，在就業市場保護、移民、社會秩序等敏感政策考量之下，儘管此主張頗有見地，惟至目前為止，否定說為主流見解的態勢未被動搖。 正當絕大多數會員對開放本國企業僱用外國人不表支持之情況下，看似保守的我國自然人移動之承諾內，卻發現“a natural person employed by business entities in Chinese Taipei”之記載。此一記載，不僅於會員間未之見，在我國水平承諾中，亦未如其他三類人員有定義性之說明，如依國貿局所譯之「受中華台北企業僱用之自然人」，則似涵蓋所有台籍企業，果如此，則我國在人員移動之開放上，不但足為所有會員表率，就業市場之門戶亦將因此大開。\r 自我國其他三類人員之承諾，及就業服務法等相關法令之管制情形來看，此一解釋上可能涵蓋台籍企業僱用外人之記載，恐係當初入會談判時，對GATS架構認識錯誤之產物。近來，國內勞動市場主管機關——行政院勞工委員會，亦特別就此承諾可能引發之後續效應，召集學者專家研擬因應措施。本文首先分析是類人員對我國可能造成之影響，並提出可能之解套方案，及各方案所應注意之風險，俾供主管機關卓參。|
Notwithstanding the fact that GATS has taken an important step towards bringing services into the multilateral framework of trade, the liberalization commitments reaped during the first round of negotiations have so far been limited. They are highly asymmetric across different sectors and modes of supply, in particular, the movement of natural persons, otherwise referred to as Mode 4. Developing countries were disappointed by the dearth of commitments to their comparative advantage, and now seek to great openness. Meanwhile, many multinational corporations have been attempting to enlarge the scope of movement of personnel as well. Accordingly, a variety of proposals highlight Mode 4 liberalization issues, for instance, GATS Visa, Economic Needs Tests (ENTs), wage parity and social security as such have been raised in the current round of negotiations. Apart from the above-mentioned proposals, another issue is being debated: whether the natural person employed by host-country companies falls within the GATS regime. It has been argued that since the Annex of the Movement of Natural Persons covers those “employed by a service supplier of a Member”, this could include foreigners employed by host-country companies. Due to the fact that Art.1: 2 (d) of GATS defines Mode 4 as “the supply of service … by a service supplier of one Member, through the presence of natural persons of a member in the territory of any other Member”, this argument is not held by a majority of the Members. While this employment-based movement is denied by most of the Members, Taiwan’s schedule of specific commitments nonetheless encompasses the description of “a natural person employed by business entities in Chinese Taipei” (Type 3 personnel). Type 3, unlike other personnel -- business visitors (BV), intra-corporate transferees (ICTs) and contractual service suppliers (CSS)--imposes no restrictions other than an entry period of three years. Consequently, the Council of Labor Affairs (CLA) is now attempting to devise strategies to address the negative influence of opening the domestic labor market. The aim of the study is to submit several proposals for the reference of CLA and other authorities that are parties to the current negotiations. After analyzing the potential risks of all methods, the study then suggests that, for the time being, the best alternative would be to maintain the status quo, and limit the scope of Type 3 by applying to Art. 31 of the Vienna Convention of Law Treaties (VLCT). Yet, initiating procedures for withdrawing or amending could solve all the problems directly; owing to its costly and time-demanding nature, however, the approach should be the last alternative.
|Relation: ||法學評論, 93, 203-268|
|Data Type: ||article|
|Appears in Collections:||[法學評論 TSSCI] 期刊論文|
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