學者們咸認為伊比鳩魯視正義這個德性為一種契約，人們藉由與他人訂定契約便可因契約的簽定而受其保障，進而可免於焦慮。此一傳統的詮釋使得伊比鳩魯的正義僅具有工具的意義與價值，正義的追求是為了利益。然而如果我們更仔細地檢證伊比鳩魯的倫理學思想，或許會發現在他討論友誼這個德性時，他似乎將其視為一具有內在價值性的德性，且我們因友誼自身而去追求它。如果上述伊比鳩魯對友誼的看法能被證成，那我們一般對其正義觀的詮釋或許亦有修正的必要。本文主旨即在嘗試對伊比鳩魯的正義觀做一不同於傳統的詮釋。 It is commonly held by scholars that Epicurus regards the virtue, justice, as a kind of contract. By entering the mutual contract, the contractees will be safely protected by the contract signed. On this traditional interpretation of the Epicurean notion of justice, the role of justice has merely the instrumental meaning. However if we look into his moral thought more carefully, we might find that Epicurus seems to have a view of virtues that is different from the traditional interpretation rendered by the scholars to him. That is, when Epicurus talks of friendship he seems to see the virtue as having the intrinsic value, which is worth being sought for the sake of itself. If this claim on friendship could be proved right, then we might have to change our view on the Epicurean notion of justice, or his view on the virtues all together. The main purpose of this paper is to explore this theme, hopefully a revisional interpretaion of the Epicurean notion of justice could be brought out.
政治大學哲學學報, 12, 101-122 The national Chengchi university philosophical