本文試圖處理在赫拉克利圖斯的思想中，ἓν πάντα εἶναι（多就是一）作為λόγος結構的問題。對赫拉克利圖斯而言，產生世界的永恆活火作為ἀρχή（始基）概念不能只具有物質性的意義，它必須同時是事物自身的秩序或可理解性，而對於ἀρχή這種雙重意義的要求就表現在λόγος的結構ἓν πάντα εἶναι當中。因此，本文以斷簡30中κόσμος（世界秩序）與πῦρ ἀείζωον（永恆活火）之關係作為研究的進路，試圖論證永恆活火隱含的雙重意義如何清楚地表現在λόγος概念中。其次，進一步論析斷簡50中λόγος的結構ἓν πάντα εἶναι，其具體內容將在兩個面向中討論：一是在斷簡51所提及的「一再回歸的和諧」或「尋求對立的統一」之意義；二是斷簡12在靈魂與河水脈絡下所呈現的一與多的問題。最後，以斷簡112的“σωφρονεῖν”（健全地思考）為中心概念，處理λόγος與可理解性的問題。 In the present study, we attempt to deal with the question of ἓν πάντα εἶναι (all is one) as the structure of λόγος in Heraclitus’ thinking. To Heraclitus, the concept of everliving fire which creates the world as ἀρχή (principle) must not only be of material meaning, but also has to be the order or intelligibility of matter itself at the same time. The requirement of this dual meaning of ἀρχή is shown in the structure of λόγος, ἓν πάντα εἶναι. Thus, using the relation between κόσμος (world’s order) and πῦρ ἀείζωον (an everliving fire) in Fragment 30 as the study path, we attempt to verify how the implicated dual meaning of πῦρ ἀείζωον is clearly expressed in the concept of λόγος. Next, ἓν πάντα εἶναι, the structure of λόγος, will be further analyzed, and its concrete content will be discussed from two aspects: one is the meaning of “attunement in repeated turning back on itself” or “seeking for the unity in opposition” mentioned in Fragment 51, and the other is the question of one and all which was demonstrated under the relation between soul and river in Fragment 12. Finally, the question of λόγος and intelligibility will be dealt with by taking “σωφρονεῖν” (sound thinking) in Fragment 112 as the central concept.
政治大學哲學學報, 33, 77-122 The national Chengchi university philosophical