As staunch believers of the ”greater Chinese nationalism,” many mainlanders in Taiwan have iden4fied themselves as ”Chinese” in both an ethnic and political sense. They have also considered Taiwan to be a part of China and the island's eventual unification with the Chinese mainland as desirable. The rapid democratization of the early 1990s and the victory of the pro-independence Chen Shui-bian in the 2000 and 2004 presidential elections sensitized the island residents' choice of identity as Taiwanese or Chinese and their policy preference on the issue of Taiwan independence. How have the mainlanders on the island responded to these political changes? How can these responses, if any, be explained? And, how have changes in mainlanders' identity affected their policy preferences regarding Taiwan's future relations with China? Utilizing nine sets of survey data collected through personal interviews in Taiwan, this paper shows that mainlanders have been increasingly acculturated and are shifting away from a Chinese identity to a dual Chinese-Taiwanese identity. This progressive change of identity has led many mainlanders to be more supportive of Taiwan independence or maintaining the status quo while adopting an indeterminate position on the island's future relations with China.