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    Title: 台灣華語語調詞組與三聲變調
    Taiwan Mandarin tone sandhi and the intonational phrase
    Authors: 陳怡臻
    Chen, Yi Jen
    Contributors: 蕭宇超
    Hsiao, Yuchau E.
    Chen, Yi Jen
    Keywords: 語調詞組
    Intonational phrase
    Prosodic hierarchy
    Taiwan Mandarin
    Tone sandhi domain
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2017-07-11 11:21:56 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 華語三聲變調的運作範疇(domain)一直以來皆是漢語音韻學家激烈探討的主題,不同研究對於運作範疇的定義皆不同,而過去研究也留下了一些尚待解決的問題,例如分類詞(Classifier)以及介係詞(Preposition)如何與其他音節形成三聲變調的運作範疇。本篇論文藉由觀察語料庫中324句最短為6音節,最長為24音節且由數個三聲音節所組成的中文句子,來檢視台灣華語三聲變調若以Nespor & Vogel (1986)所提出之韻律階層(Prosodic hierarchy)為範疇來運作是否能得出自然且多樣的聲調組合。以下分析主要根據韻律階層的順序分成以下四部分:音韻詞(Phonological word)、附著詞組(Clitic group)、音韻詞組(Phonological phrase)、語調詞組(Intonational phrase)。而作者假設三聲變調有兩種運作方式,一種為循環(Cyclic),一種為同時(Simultaneous)。循環運作時,三聲變調可先以音韻詞邊界為範疇,再以附著詞組邊界為範疇,再以音韻詞組邊界為範疇,最後再以語調詞組邊界為範疇。同時運作時,三聲變調則只以語調詞組邊界為範疇。語料庫分析結果顯示,中心語(Head)之非遞歸邊(Nonrecursive side)的分支性(Branchingness)需被納入音韻詞組的定義中以得出正確的聲調組合。再者,語調詞組的定義也需將語意(Semantic)以及韻律(Metric)的因素納入考量,以限制語調詞組邊界的形成。經過修正,韻律階層理論不僅能成功描述分類詞以及介係詞之三聲變調現象更可預測華語三聲變調的多樣性。
    Mandarin tone sandhi has been argued by different scholars to apply to different phonological domains such as the foot, the phonological phrase etc. This thesis tackles three main issues left by Shih (1986) and Hsiao (1991): the classifier, the preposition and the under-generation problem. In revising the framework of Nespor & Vogel (1986)’s Prosodic Hierarchy, this thesis proposes a possible explanation of the problems.
    This thesis constructed a corpus of 324 sentence tokens consisting of 6 to 24 third tone syllables. The tokens were recorded from four Taiwan Mandarin native speakers at a speech rate of at least 200 beats per minute. Through the observation of the tone patterns collected, it is found that the original definitions of the phonological phrase and the intonational phrase given by Nespor & Vogel (1986) are not able to describe the Taiwan Mandarin data. This thesis provides a revision of the prosodic hierarchy by taking into account the branchingness of the nonrecursive side on the phonological phrase level and by incorporating Selkirk (1984)’s Sense Unit Condition on the intonational phrase level. Finally, a foot formation condition is also proposed in order to restrict the minimal length of a phonological phrase or an intonational phrase.
    Reference: Bickmore, Lee S. (1989). Kinyambo prosody (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). UCLA, California.
    Cheng, Lai Shen. (1987). Derived domains and Mandarin third tone sandhi. Chicago Linguistic Society, 23(2), 16-29.
    Duan, M., & Schuler, W. (2015). Parsing Chinese with a generalized categorial grammar. Proceedings of Grammar Engineering Across Frameworks 2015, 25-32.
    Giorgi, A., & Longobardi, G. (1991). The syntax of noun phrases: Configuration, parameters and empty categories. Cambridge University Press.
    Hsiao, Yuchau E. (1991). Syntax, Rhythm, and Tone: A Triangular Relationship. Taipei: Crane Publishing Co., Ltd..
    Hung, Tony. (1987). Syntactic and semantic aspects of Chinese tone sandhi (Doctoral dissertation). University of California, San Diego.
    Inkelas, Sharon. (1989). Prosodic constituency in the lexicon (Doctoral dissertation) Stanford University, California.
    Lin, Hui-shan. (2002). Constraint reranking and Mandarin tone sandhi. Chinese Phonology, 11, 191-213.
    Lin, T. H. J. (2006). Comparative grammar of Chinese and English: An elementary introduction to the grammars of Chinese and English from a comparative perspective. Retrieved from
    Nespor, Marina and Irene Vogel. (1986). Prosodic phonology. Dordrercht: Foris Publication.
    Selkirk, Elisabeth. (1984). Phonology and syntax: The relation between sound and structure. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
    Shih, Chilin. (1986). The prosodic domain of tone sandhi in Chinese (Doctoral dissertation). University of California, San Diego.
    Tooley, K. M., Konopka, A. E., & Watson, D. G. 2014. Can intonational phrase structure be primed (like syntactic structure)?. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40(2), 348-362.
    Lee-Schoenfeld, V., & Kandybowicz, J. (2009). Sandhi sans derivation: Third tone patterns in Mandarin Chinese. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, 15(1), 125-134
    Description: 碩士
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1035550082
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute of Linguistics] Theses

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