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    Title: 漁業勞動政策立法發展方向之初論
    Other Titles: Primary Study on Fishery Labor Policy and Legislation in Taiwan
    Authors: 成之約
    Cheng, Chih-Yu
    Date: 1994-12
    Issue Date: 2008-12-02 14:58:39 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 由於勞動者經濟和人格的從屬,使得勞動者經常處於弱勢和物化之威脅;因此,國家有其勞動政策及立法,而其目的是在保障勞動者勞動權益與條件。 漁業勞動者也具有經濟和人格從屬的特性,但是對於其勞動權益與條件的保障,長期以來,卻一直付之闕如。有鑑於此,本文針對如何落實保障漁業勞動者之勞動權益與條件做深入之探討,期許對於漁業勞動者盡一份心力。 由於漁業勞動者有著不同於陸上勞動者之勞動特性,因此在政策立法上也必須予以適當的調整。綜合而論,漁業或海上勞動和勞資關係具有以下的特性: 1.工作時間的持續性,即工作時段與休憩時段不易分割; 2.共險制度(CO-adventure system)使得階級利益模糊、產生衝突,也使得工資收入不確定; 3.海上勞動的孤立性和離鄉性,使得勞動者團體意識無法產生、團體力量無法凝聚; 4.海上生產作業基地或場所是政府公權力無法貫徹的地方,再加上其經常暴露於天候變化之中,工作安全性令人質疑: 5.部門特定之經驗與技能,使得海上勞動者無法輕易做部門移轉;和 6.海上勞動的長期經驗和早期消耗之對比,使得勞動者的新進待遇和退休前後之福利必須予以重視。 由於有這些勞動特性的差異存在,不僅使得現行許多勞動政策及立法無法適用,也使得在貫徹漁業勞動者勞動權益保障的課題上,必須審慎思考。 配合現行法制,本文提出以下之建議: 第一步:協調交通部增修研議中之「船員法」。否則, 第二步:政府主管機關制訂「海上勞動基準法」,保障漁業受僱者之個別勞動權益。之後, 第三步:增修相關勞動立法,提昇漁業受僱者之團結權、交涉權和爭議權,以保障其集體勞動權益。 誠如前述,海上勞動與陸上勞動一般,有其個別及集體關係特質。於法於理,關係海上勞動之個別和集體勞動關係立法皆不可偏廢。然而,考量主客觀因素,如海上勞動者團結力量之不易凝聚,因此建議政策立法之優先次序應自個別勞動關係和勞動基準之保障爲始,爾後才逐步推展集體勞動關係面向。此外,海上勞動有必要與陸上勞動一視同仁,儘管海上受僱者比例較少,而對於海上勞動者勞動權益之保障應與陸上勞動者無二。
    One key issue usually ignored by the R.O.C. government is that characteristics of labor relations for finshery workers are largely different from that of ordinary workers on land, legislation concerning the regulation of fishery workers' labor relations should therefore be written separately. The R.O.C. fisheries, including off-shore and distant water fisheries, are now facing a dilemma of development. Although off-shore and distant water fisheries have their own difficulties in development, both share common problems of labor shortage and decay in quality of human resources. Behind the problems, ignorance of fishery workers' welfare should be singled out. To inquire factors leading to the ignorance of fighery workers' welfare, denial of fishery workers' rights to organize and bargain collectively has been playing a leading role. Legislation stipulating collective labor relations is not written to take into account the unique needs of fishery workers. Although the Labor Standards Law applys to the fisheries, provisions conerning labor contracts, wage, work hours, time off, leave of absence and retirement ect. are in practice no applicable to the terms and conditions of employment in the fisheries. In short, the current R.O.C. legislation aimed at regulating collective and individual labor relations is not either fit into the actual needs of fishery operations or totally impossible to be implemented. Without the protection of rights by law, fishery workers would surely not gain any influence in the formation of terms and conditions of their employment and protect their interests and rights from employer deprivation. Therefore, how to make appropriate law in order to protect fishery workers' rights and benefits becomes the major focus of this essay.
    Relation: 勞資關係論叢 2,123-165
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[勞工研究所] 期刊論文

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