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    Title: 跨太平洋夥伴協定(TPP)對越南勞動法制影響之探討
    A Study on the Impact of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement on Vietnam’s Labor Law
    Authors: 阮瑞草
    Nguyen, Thuy-Thao
    Contributors: 成之約
    Cheng, Chi-Yue
    阮瑞草
    Nguyen, Thuy-Thao
    Keywords: 區域貿易協定
    勞動規範
    越南勞動法制
    Regional Trade Agreements
    TPP
    Labor Provisions
    Vietnam’s Labor Law
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2019-08-07 16:44:07 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 無論是發達國家或發展中國家,均積極展開區域貿易協定之談判簽署工作,顯示區域經濟整合已成為全球趨勢,且為各國看重之經貿政策。越南也不例外,自1986年以來,已陸續參加16項不同區域貿易協定之談判及簽署,其中,跨太平洋夥伴協定(TPP)是唯一設有高標準勞動規範之協定。越南為符合加入TPP之要求,必須進行一系列勞動法規與制度改革。本研究以文獻探討為研究方法,藉由文獻之蒐集、分析,來作為研究依據,並進行專家訪談,整理本研究相關之專家意見,評估TPP勞動規範對越南勞動法制之影響,進而提出改善越南勞動法制之建議。
    TPP的勞動規範包括第19章勞動專章,以及美國與三個TPP締約方另行個別談判的雙邊換文,為勞動專章的附件。越南為三個締結雙邊換文的國家之一,該換文正式名稱為『美國 – 越南間加強貿易與勞資關係之計劃』。越南必須同時受到TPP勞動專章與雙邊換文之規範。
    TPP文本第19章規範係適用於TPP所有締約方之間,主要內容包括各締約方應在其勞動法規、政策中落實國際勞工組織(ILO)宣言所臚列之勞動基本權利,締約方亦負有不得降低該等保護水準,而造成各締約方之間投資與貿易影響的義務。如違反此等規定,締約方得訴諸爭端解決程序。此外TPP勞動專章也通過合作規定,希望促進締約方的勞動法規、政策透明性以及提高合作程度。
    美越換文則詳列越南必須進行之法律、制度改革,具體指出須修正或應落實之條文,為美國要求越南落實TPP勞動專章的詳細執行計劃。換文內容主要包括法規改革與制度改革兩部分。在法規改革上,換文集中於勞工自由結社、集體協商、罷工三個權利相關的法律改革,為此未來越南將開放設立不受越南總工會管轄之工會,一家企業可能出現複數工會,此等工會將享有更高的自主權,罷工限制亦應減少。在制度改革方面,換文要求越南必須加強勞動執法,包括應擴增勞動檢查官人數等;越南亦負有增進法規透明性之義務。在實體規定外,換文同時亦設有不同於TPP第19章本文之監督與爭端解決機制,以確保越南充分履行換文之義務。
    本研究結果顯示,TPP勞動規範將有助於完善越南勞動法規及提高執法效率,使其更符合國際標準,同時也有助於提升越南勞動法律之開放、透明性。
    本研究透過整理專家之意見,得出一些改善越南勞動法制,以合乎TPP要求之政策建議,包括:加強對勞工、雇主或其他利害關係人進行法律教育、宣導;推動企業社會責任;對勞動檢查官進行能力與道德培訓;參考其他已與美國簽署自由貿易協定之發展中國家之勞動法律改革經驗;爭取ILO之技術協助。
    最後,為了讓越南順利履行TPP所規範之制度改革與能力建構之相關義務,本研究建議越南應採取下列對策:修正其勞動檢查規則,減少使用定期或有事先通知之檢查方式,改用不事先通知之檢查方式;制定針對勞動檢查官違規、貪腐、為難企業之行為的罰則;與ILO及其他TPP成員國合作進行對勞動檢查官之培訓;建立檢舉違反勞動法規案件之熱線;透過電視廣播及有關政府機構乾部赴童工通常集中之地區進行宣導童工對兒童的危害;要求外國直接投資企業推動企業社會責任;進行勞動法律相關教育、宣導從學校做起。
    Both developed and developing countries have actively participated in the negotiation and signing of regional trade agreements, indicating that regional economic integration has become a global trend and is an important economic and trade policy for almost all countries. Since 1986, Vietnam has taken part in the negotiation and signing of 16 different regional trade agreements. Among them, the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) is the only agreement with high standard labor provisions. In order to meet the requirements for joining the TPP, Vietnam must carry out a series of labor regulations and institutional reforms. This study uses literature review and interviews with experts to evaluate the impact of TPP’s labor provisions on Vietnam’s labor law, and then provides proposals and measures to improve the labor law of Vietnam.
    The results of this study show that TPP’s labor provisions will help to improve Vietnam’s labor regulations and law enforcement efficiency, making them more in line with international standards, and also help to improve the of transparency Vietnam’s labor law.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    勞工研究所
    105262027
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0105262027
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU201900632
    Appears in Collections:[勞工研究所] 學位論文

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