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    Title: 自動化與資訊化對製造業生產力的影響—生產力矛盾說的檢定
    Authors: 王敏潔
    Wang,Ming-Chieh
    Contributors: 陳香梅
    王敏潔
    Wang,Ming-Chieh
    Keywords: 生產力矛盾
    資本與技術互補
    技術偏向進步
    揉合資料
    productivity paradox
    capital-skilled complementarity
    skill-biased technical change
    polling data
    Date: 2004
    Issue Date: 2009-09-18 11:03:11 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 從一九九0年代開始,由於微電子、電腦、衛星通信、網際網路、光學纖維等資訊科技的發展,不僅造成社會生活的變遷,也帶動了國家競爭的新形勢。
    在這樣的時代環境下,資訊知識發展與科技運用成為經濟發展成功的關鍵,唯有促使科技出現重大突破,才能提昇產業的競爭力。
    在學術界,討論資訊科技的文獻上出現了生產力矛盾(productivity paradox)的說法,即他們發現使用資訊科技對於生產力的提升出現了不顯著甚至是負的結果。針對此,後續有許多學者提出各種解釋生產力矛盾的原因,諸如過度投資(overinvestment)、衡量錯誤 (mismeasurement)等問題。
    因此,本研究以生產力指標中的總要素生產力為衡量對象,檢視資訊科技對台灣製造業是否具有矛盾的情形,並觀察當技術革新時,對人力資本的需求變化,資料期間為1995-2002年,採用的計量模型為揉合資料(pooling data)模式。
    根據實證結果,自動化設備的應用出現生產力矛盾(productivity paradox)的情形,而人力資本對總要素生產力的貢獻則為顯著的正值,若觀察投入自動化生產設備對人力資本的需求,則發現有資本與技術互補(capital-skilled complementarity)的情形。因此推論:單獨增加自動化設備並無法提升總要素生產力,唯有透過自動化設備投資與人力資本的配合,兩者互補之下,以提升台灣製造業生產力。
    Reference: 一、中文文獻
    1.行政院主計處電子處理資料中心 (2002),《台閩地區電腦應用概況調查》,臺北,臺灣: 行政院主計處。
    2.行政院主計處(1995-2002),《職業別薪資調查報告》,臺北,臺灣: 行政院主計處。
    3.行政院主計處(1995-2002),《受雇員工動向調查報告》,臺北,臺灣: 行政院主計處。
    4.行政院主計處 (2003),《中華民國統計年鑑》,臺北,臺灣: 行政院主計處。
    5.行政院主計處 (2003),《多因素生產力趨勢分析報告》,臺北,臺灣: 行政院主計處。
    6.行政院主計處國科會(1995-2002),《中華民國科學統計要覽》,臺北,臺灣: 行政院主計處。
    7.李雅玲(2002),《研究發展支出與企業生產力之實證分析-以經濟部所屬事業協助中小企業推動研究發展計畫為例》,國立台灣科技大學企業管理系碩士論文。
    8.林惠玲、陳正倉 (2001),「工廠自動化與經濟效益關係之研究--台灣製造業之實証研究」,《國家科學委員會研究彙刊:人文及社會科學》,11(3),256-270。
    9.胡勝正、詹維玲 (1999),「台灣總要素生產力決定因素之研究」,《自由中國之工業》,89(9),1-50。
    10.莊奕琦、許碧峰(1999),「研究發展對生產力的貢獻及產業間的外溢效果:台灣製造業實證」,《經濟論文》27(3),407-432。
    11.黃泉興(1986),《總要素生產力─我國製造業之實證研究》,國立政治大學經濟研究所碩士論文。
    12.鄒孟文、劉錦添 (1999),「先進技術與工資報酬:台灣電子業之實證」,《經濟論文叢刊》,27(3),285-309。
    13.經濟部統計處 (1995),《中華民國台灣地區製造業第七次生產自動化調查報告》,臺北,臺灣: 經濟部統計處。
    14.經濟部統計處 (1997),《中華民國台灣地區製造業第八次生產自動化調查報告》,臺北,臺灣: 經濟部統計處。
    15.經濟部統計處 (2000),《中華民國台灣地區製造業第九次生產自動化及電子化調查報告》,臺北,臺灣: 經濟部統計處。
    16.經濟部統計處 (2002),《中華民國台灣地區製造業第十次生產自動化及電子化調查報告》,臺北,臺灣: 經濟部統計處。
    17.經濟部統計處 (2002),《中華民國台閩地區工業統計調查報告》,臺北,臺灣:經濟部工業統計調查聯繫小組。
    18.經濟部工業局 (2002),《中華民國工業發展年鑑》,臺北,臺灣: 經濟部工業局。
    19.資策會MIC與經濟部技術處智慧資本專案(ITIS) (2002),《資策會MIC,ITIS計畫》,臺北,臺灣: 資策會MIC、經濟部技術處。
    20.楊佳勳 (2002),《資訊與通訊科技(ICT)對台灣製造業生產力影響分析》,國立中山大學經濟研究所碩士論文。
    21.劉瑞文 (2001),「產業結構變遷對國內就業與所得分配的影響」,《經濟論文叢刊》,29(2),203-233。
    22.藍科正、蔡坤宏 (1992),「政府獎勵自動化生產對電子零組件業廠商生產績效的影響」,《臺北市銀行月刊》,22(8),2-9。
    23.蕭家斌 (2002),《自動化生產技術對於生產力之影響--台灣製造業之實証研究》,國立清華大學經濟研究所碩士論文。
    二、英文文獻
    1.Abramovitz, M. (1962) ,“Economic Growth in the United Sates,”American Economic Review, 52, 762-82.
    2.Arrow, K. J., H. B. Chenery, B. S. Minhas, and R. M. Solow (1961),“Capital-Labor Substitution and Economic Efficiency,”The Review of Economics and Statistics, 43, 225-250.
    3.Autor, D. H., L. F. Katz, and A. B. Kreuger (1998),“Computing Inequality: Have Computers Changed the Labor Market? ”Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113(4),1169-1213.
    4.Baltagi, B. H. (2001),Econometric analysis of panel data, 2nd ed., New York: Wiley.
    5.Berndt, E. R. and C. J.Morrison (1995),“High–tech capital formation and Economic Performance in U.S. manufacturing industries: An exploratory analysis,”Journal of Econometrics,65,9-43.
    6.Berman, E. B. and J. Griliches (1994),“Changes in the Demand for Skilled Labor within U.S. Manufacturing: Evidence from the Annual Survey of Manufactures ,”Quarterly Journal of Economics,109(2),367-97.
    7.Bresnahan, T., E. Brynjolfsson and L. Hitt (2002),“Information Technology,Workplace Organization, and the Demand for Skilled Labor: Firm Level Evidence,”Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117(1), 339-376.
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    10.Brynjofsson, E. and L. Hitt (2000), “Beyond Computation: Information Technology, Organizational Transformation and Business Performance,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14, 23-48.
    11.Chun, H. (2003), “Information Technology and the Demand for Educated Workers: Disentangling the Impacts of Adoption Versus Use,” Review of Economics and Statistics, 85(1), 1-8.
    12.Daveri, F. and M. Andrea (2002), “ The I.T. Revolution across the U.S. States,” NBER Working Paper,no. 226
    13.David, P. A. (1990), “The Dynamo and the Computer: An Historical Perspective on the Modern Productivity Paradox,”American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, 80,355-361.
    14.Denison, E.F. (1962), “United States Economic Growth,”The Journal of Business, 35,109-121.
    15.Diewert, W.E. (1976), “Exact and Superlative Index Numbers,”Journal of Econometrics, 4, 115-135.
    16.Doms, M., T. Dunne, and K. Troske (1997), “Workers, Wages, and Technology, ”
    Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112, 253-290.
    17.Fabricant, S. (1959), “Basic Facts on Productivity change,” NBER Occasional paper, no.63.
    18.Ferguson, C. E. (1965), “Time-Series Production Functions and Technological Progress in American Manufacturing Industry,”The Journal of Political Economy, 73, 135-147.
    19.Gordon, R. J. (2003), “Hi-Tech Innovation and Productivity Growth:Does Supply Create Its Own Demand? ”NBER Working Paper, no. 9437
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    21.Griliches, Z. (1986),“Productivity, R&D and Basic Research at the Firm Level in the 1970s’, ” American Economic Review, 76, 141-154.
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    26.IMD (2001), The World Competitiveness Yearbook.
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    29.Jorgenson, D. W. (2001), “Information Technology and the U.S. Economy,”American Economic Review, 91(1), 1-32.
    Laurits R. C., D. W. Jorgenson, and L. J. Lau(1973), “Transcendental Logarithmic Production Frontiers,”The Review of Economics and Statistics, 55, 28-45.
    30.Lee, B. and A. Barua (1999), “An Integrated Assessment of Productivity and Efficiency Impacts of Information Technology Investments: Old Data,New Analysis and Evidence,”Journal of Productivity Analysis,12,21-43.
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    三、網站資料
    1.ITU Telecommunication Indicators website (http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/)
    2.行政院主計處第三局國內生產各業產值雙面平減(http://www.dgbas.gov.tw/dgbas03/bs4/def.htm)
    3.資策會FIND資訊網 ( http://www.find.org.tw/)
    Description: 國立政治大學
    財政研究所
    91255013
    93
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0912550132
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[財政學系] 學位論文

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