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    Title: 甄選面談中應徵者防禦型印象管理策略及效果之研究
    Authors: 吳祉芸
    Wu, Chih Yun
    Contributors: 蔡維奇
    Tsai, Wei Chi
    吳祉芸
    Wu, Chih Yun
    Keywords: 防禦型印象管理策略
    甄選面談
    知覺應徵者能力
    喜好程度
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-04-08 15:40:24 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 相對於肯定型印象管理,防禦型印象管理是印象管理行為的另一個重要面向,也是近年來漸受重視的議題,但在面談領域的研究相對缺乏,其有效性也未達共識。參酌其他領域的文獻,本研究試圖整合不同理論觀點以求完整周延的看待影響歷程,以探討應徵者防禦型印象管理之效果。為貼近真實情況,本文先進行前導研究,了解業界觀點及真實面談情境中的策略使用頻率。
    由態度理論及資訊處理觀點,本研究同時探討面試官面對應徵者使用防禦策略的認知歷程與情感歷程,納入知覺應徵者能力及其對應徵者的喜好程度兩大類評價,以驗證面試官解讀應徵者防禦型印象管理策略的心理歷程。依據前導研究的結論,本文將應徵者防禦型印象管理策略分作道歉、開脫及合理化三類,採三因子受試者間實驗設計進行研究。
    研究結果指出,合理化策略以能力評價為主要歷程,其關係強度大於對情感評價的影響,開脫策略對能力評價的影響卻未得證,至於道歉策略雖如預期以情感評價為主要路徑,但對喜好程度卻呈負向影響,推測可能是非口語行為的未預期效果所造成。因此,於後續補收資料中排除非口語行為作進一步驗證,結果發現道歉策略的確能修復面試官對應徵者的喜好程度,推知非口語行為對道歉說詞的品質存在著交互效果,而開脫策略的能力修復效果依舊未得證,推測應該是其說詞內容終究未能提出正面的能力訊息,導致說服力不夠。本研究結果可供應徵者作為策略選擇的參考,亦幫助面試官了解自己在面談過程中的訊息解讀歷程。
    Verbal self-presentation tactics comprise the central part of impression management (IM), separated as assertive IM and defensive IM. In job interview settings, assertive IM tactics were once considered as much more frequently used, relative to defensive IM tactics. However, the statistics in recent research shows that over sixty percent of applicants have used defensive IM tactics during interviews, which should not be ignored.
    According to “attitude theory” and “information processing perspective,” the researcher discusses cognitive and affective mechanisms of defensive IM tactics simultaneously. “Perceived applicants’ competence” and “liking toward applicants” are included to capture the interviewers’ cognitive and affective evaluations. Following the findings of pilot studies, the researcher adopts tripartition of defensive IM tactics: apology, excuse, and justification. A 2x2x2 between-subject experiment with video-taped design is conducted to investigate the impact of defensive IM tactics on interviewers’ psychological processes.
    The results show that the main mechanism of justification lies in cognitive evaluation, however, the main mechanisms of apology and excuse are not identified as expectation. These unexpected findings may result from the actor’s non-verbal behaviors. Therefore, another sample is collected for further investigation, and the audio-taped design is used to wipe out the effect of non-verbal behaviors. It shows the influence of apology on liking is supported, though the impact of excuse on perceived competence remains unsupported. These findings provide not only further understanding of interviewers’ psychological processes, but also guidance for the applicants to choose appropriate defensive IM tactics.
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