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    Title: 電信普及服務制度之研究
    A study on Universal service obligations in Telecommunications Environment
    Contributors: 王國樑
    黃世雄
    Keywords: 規模經濟
    電信解制
    吸脂作用
    負擔得起
    管制理論
    普及服務
    無形利益
    棄置營收
    效率化
    economies of scale
    regulation of telecommunications
    cream skimming
    affordability
    regulatory theory
    universal service obligations
    intangible revenue
    revenue foregone
    efficiency
    Abstract:   過去電信事業強調無論任何一端用戶透過電話機、傳輸線路、交換機等網路連接至另一端用戶,進行點對點(end to end)語音或數據之通信時,基於網路不可分割之特性,進行整體固定網路設備投資相當龐大,且因具規模經濟特性而形成自然獨占;加以其多屬民生攸關之公用事業,又須具備一定之服務品質及可負擔之合理價格,始能提供不論居住何處之全國民眾使用,故大多由政府主導經營。
      然隨著電信自由化來臨,民國八十五年七月一日電信解制,分為監理電信業務之電信總局及國營事業之中華電信公司,確立監管架構及電信業務開放以引進競爭市場。惟為避免新進業者會對更多需求及更可獲利的城市地區首先提供服務,而忽略了鄉村偏遠地區,形成吸脂作用(Cream skimming)。故顯然電信自由化後,儘管商業利益的考量是競爭市場存續的重要因素之一,然而為避免關切公共服務的精神隨之而消失,那麼政府如何適度藉入以求得其間的平衡性,這應屬必要的。
      基本上,應以國民基本通信之概念考量普及服務之範圍,同時應基於公平及合理的原則下,以負擔得起且日常生活中有必要的電信服務;然由於在公平的、合理的、負擔得起、有必要性等充分條件下,仍須加上一定的「服務品質」為必要條件,才能使普及服務的精神顯露,特別在隨著電信科技發展、社會環境變遷及民眾需求,仍須作階段性不同之定義,才能符合普及服務的真正目的。
      因此,本論文採用文獻探討、政策德菲法(Delphi method)及實例探討,從管制理論的基礎,說明管制因環境之所需,尤其當電信自由化之初,引入市場競爭之同時,適時的管制對於公平的競爭是有需要的;另再參酌美國、英國、澳洲、香港及法國等先進國家之電信普及服務機制,透過美國、英國、澳洲及香港等國家之電信監理機構之網站,及相關電信自由化之文獻,蒐集到各國對普及服務相關之管理方式與法規規定,歸納出各國對普及服務目標之界定,普及服務之提供者,成本計算方式,分攤普及服務之義務者及分攤方式等,再進行整理、分析與比較,嚐試提出一個適合國情的普及服務制度,並對實務執行所面對的問題提出建議,以供主管機關參考。
      本論文結論重點為,除建立一套含理論及實務運作的電信普及服務機制外,為發現整理出相關問題如:(1)「電信事業普及服務基金」非為政府基金之管理,是否須要編列年度業務計畫及預算書,值得商榷。(2)就商業利益考量,固網業者收取申裝市內電話之「界外工料費」應無不可,然是否能適用普及服務補助的問題。(3)易將普及服務基金視為另一個社會安全或防災救助的課題,扭曲其設立之精神。(4)提供普及服務所產生之無形利益是否應納入棄置營收之計算。(5)海岸電台船舶遇險及安全通信服務是否納入普及服務之考量。
      其政策建議重點則為:(1)為消彌外界之疑慮,並兼顧效率運作之原則,除必要之管理費用應撙節使用外,相關之收支帳目宜經由會計師簽證予以公開透明化。(2)為維護消費者之權利,裝置材料費用應有下降趨勢,應重新檢討並提出合理成本,訂定合理之收費方式。(3)社會安全或急難救助所經費,應由社會福利安全政策編列預算支應,以免增加電信業者之成本負擔,並轉價至最終消費者。(4)無形利益應可加以計算納入棄置營收項目內,可利用每一家或前五大業者平均的廣告效果估算;或利用消費者行為之抽樣問卷調查,求出潛在消費者及平均消費之貢獻,做為無形利益的推估。(5)可成立專案小組,針對海岸電台設備及維運費用等訂定效率化之衡量標準;或以公開招標方式,徵求自願投入之電信業者;或協調海巡暑整編至該單位。(6)必須建立一套成本資料管理及稽核制度,以增加核算資料的明確性。(7)考慮修法開放可以行動電話做為普及服務之提供,公開徵詢有興趣之行動電話業者,並於北、中、南區各找一處以行動電話提供普及服務之實驗。(8)第一類電信事業部分,可由普及服務管理委員會就經營效率性、虧損之持續性等相關因素,予以審核後得免予繳交;第二類電信事業部分,以經營語音單純轉售及網路電話兩項從事語音電話服務為主,衡酌經營差異程度,排除一定營業額以下者可免予繳交。
      In the past, in order to provide seamless end-to-end communications services for the end users, telecom enterprises that required cost-sunk expenditure, economies of scale and operated an indivisible network had been regarded as a naturally monopolistic business. Moreover, telecommunications as one of public services relevant to the people’s livelihood has to be provided for all nationals at an affordable price and a reasonable level of service quality. As a result, most telecom enterprises worldwide were operated and conducted by the Government.
      Nevertheless, along with the global trend of telecom liberalization, on July 1 1996 our government reorganized the DGT into a sole telecom regulator and established the state-own holding company, CHT, to provide telecom services, with a view to build up a regulatory regime and to open the telecom market further. To avoid newcomers in a competitive environment tending to focus on high revenue growth telecommunication markets, such as metropolitan areas, resulting in the phenomenon of ‘cream skimming’ and in the impediment to the spirit of public services, there is a need for government intervention in the provision of telecom services.
      Basically, the concept of universal telecommunications service shall be confined to the basic telecommunication services which are indispensable to every citizens and should be provided on reasonable request at an affordable price and a reasonable level of quality. However, universal telecommunications service might has different definitions over time so as to fulfill its policy objectives in each phase given the development of technologies and the changes in social environment.
      Accordingly, by conducting Documentary-type method, Delphi method and Case Studies, this dissertation has illustrated with regulatory theory why regulation shall be based on the requirement of the environment. Particularly, during the early stages of telecom liberalization, regulatory involvement at right moment is required for creating a level-playing field when introducing competition. From the websites of several telecom regulators in advanced countries, e.g. US, UK, Australia, HK, etc., and some literatures on telecom liberalization, this dissertation has collected those countries’ management criteria and legal framework for universal service and summed up their universal service objectives, providers, cost calculation methods and obligation sharing mechanisms. Then through a further analysis and comparison, it has tried to propose a universal service mechanism that might better fit our national conditions and offer the authority concerned some practical recommendations for the implementation issues.
      In conclusion, this dissertation has built up a universal telecommunications service mechanism based on both theoretical analyses and practical considerations. Besides, it has included some key findings as follows: (1) Given the fact that the universal service fund is not one kind of government funds, shall it still be managed through annual official planning and budgeting? (2) From a viewpoint of profitable undertaking, a fixed network operator might want to charge a remote subscriber outside its service area for some extra facilities fees for service installation. This might be reasonable under commercial terms. But shall we allow such extra fees to be subsidized by the universal service fund? (3) Some people might regard the purpose of the universal service fund as an issue on social security or emergency rescue, and hence distort the spirit of universal service fund. (4) It is questionable whether intangible benefits, resulting form the provision of universal service, could be grouped into revenue forgone. (5) Is it appropriate for an operator to recover its costs of providing coastal radio maritime emergency and safety communication services from the universal service fund?
      Furthermore, it has given several key policy recommendations as follows: (1) For the sake of dispelling people’s doubts and managing the efficiency in universal service fund, all of the accounts of expenditures shall be open and transparent except that the administrative costs must be kept at minimum. (2) In order to protect consumers’ rights, the equipment installation fee should follow a downward trend and must be cost based. (3) To avoid increasing the burden of telecom operators whose costs are ultimately entailed by consumers, budgets for social security or emergency rescue should be supported by national social welfare policies. (4) Intangible revenue that might be calculable by evaluating average effect of advertisement of each operator or top five operators should be grouped into revenue foregone. Or it may be possible to make a sampling survey of consumers’ behavior, finding the average contribution of each potential customer so as to estimate intangible revenue. (5) Grouping a task force to revise measuring criteria for the facilities and maintenance costs in coastal radio services efficiently. Besides, bids for these services may be opened for volunteers, or be coordinated with and incorporated into the function of Coast Guard Administration, Executive Yuan. (6) It is necessary to build up a mechanism of data management and auditing so as to increase the accountability of re-calculating data. (7) To think over the feasibility that mobile phone can be used for the provision of universal service as well by revising the relevant laws, and then in North, Middle, and South Taiwan, try to conduct a field trial in each area for providing universal service by using mobile phone. (8) For Type I telecommunications businesses, universal service committee can exempt them from universal service obligations with the concerns about their operation efficiency and the duration of losing money, and so on. For Type II telecommunications businesses, only those operating voice communications services, including simple resale and internet phone services, should bear the obligations, but whether they need to make contributions to the universal service fund or not can be decided through the evaluation of their business performance.
    Reference: 一、英文參考書目
    1.Arup O.& Partners(1996),”Telecommunications development in rural England”,p15-29
    2.Autel 網站:http://www.autel.au, 1997may.
    3.Aulstrulian, Telecommunications Universal Service Obligation, Occasional paper,1994 oct.
    4.Aulstrulian, Colin Jones, Telecommunications Universal Service─An international perspective,Occasional paper, 1996 July
    5.Australian Communications Authority(1999),”Telecommunications Performance report”,p67-78,p175-182
    6.Australian Communications Authority,”Estimate of Net Universal Service Costs for 1998/1999 and 1999/2000”,p7-8,p10-15,p41-43
    7.Cowhey P.F.& Mccubbins .M D.(1995),”structure and policy in Japan and United States”,p119-176
    8.England, Universal Telecommunications Services, Consultative Document, 1997 Feb.
    9.Fcc網站:http://www.fcc.us, 1997 mar.
    10.Graham Cosmo(1995),”Universal Service:A Comparative Perspective”,p61~71
    11.Hicks Carole(1995),”Universal Service Obligations: A Policy Review”,Based on papers presented at a CTI seminar in London on 29 March 1995,p1-75
    12.Hong Kong, Universal Service Arrangement the regulatory Framework, Discussion paper,1997 June
    13.Kennedy. D(1997),”Liberalisation of the British Telecommunications Industry”, p1-32
    14.Oftel 網站:http://www.oftel.uk, 1997 apr.
    15.OECD:Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development(1995),”Universal service obligations in a competitive Telecommunications environment”,p19-135
    16.Ofta 網站:http://www.ofta.hk, 1997 Feb
    17.Powell M K. (2001),”Digital Broadband Migration, Part II”,p1-4
    18.Scanlan Mark & Neu Werner (2000),”Study on the re-examination of the scope of Universal Service in the context of the 1999 review”,p3-17,p29-33,p38-48,p76-80,p99-101,p129-133,p178-180
    19.Thatcher Mark (1999),”The Politics of Telecommunications:national institutions, Convergence, and Change in Britain and France”,p168,p189,209-210,p213,p223
    20. William N. Dunn.(1994),”Public Policy Analysis : An Instroduction 2th ed..”,p232-240
    參考文獻
    二、中文參考書目:
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    11.莊春發(1998),競爭概念的發展、演變與反托拉斯政策,公平交易季刊,第六卷第一期(87/1),第29-49頁
    12.馮建三、石世豪、郭力昕(2002),無線電視公共化的生命史,1986-2002:一個偏向晚期行動者的記錄與分析,政大公共政策論壇(全球化與台灣)論文集,第3-1-1頁至3-1-12頁
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    行政管理碩士學程
    91
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#A2010000103
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[行政管理碩士學程(MEPA)] 學位論文

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