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    Title: 明清時期的民間療法與保健手冊---關於推拿、灸法與導引的研究
    Other Titles: Folk Healings and Handbooks for Health in Ming-Qing China--- A Survey of Massage, Moxibustion and Gymnastics Texts
    Authors: 陳秀芬
    Contributors: 行政院國家科學委員會
    國立政治大學歷史學系
    Keywords: 推拿;灸法;導引;民間療法;明清
    massage;moxibustion;gymnastics;folk healing;Ming-Qing
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2011-11-10 10:03:18 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 無論是在傳統中國社會或今日華人社會,推拿、灸法與導引都是深受歡迎的治療法與健身術。本計畫擬從明清保健手冊的分析,來探究推拿、灸法與導引在民間的流通,主要有四個考量。首先,推拿與灸法在明清時期受到官方醫學的排擠,以及推拿成為兒科病症專用,與當時儒醫的崛起、兒科知識變遷、醫者地位消長、醫療市場競爭、文本與經驗傳承的衝突、儒家嚴男女之防與身體接觸等醫療與社會因素有直接或間接的關係;研究這些主題之間錯綜複雜的關係,將可幫忙釐清身體知識與醫療技藝彼此交相型塑的情況,以及它們與廣大的「社會脈絡」之間的互動作用。其次,就推拿、灸法與導引三者而言,由於有證據顯示它們的醫療活動與健身行為亦見於某些佛教、道教、民間教派與秘密組織裡,因此透過本研究將有利於釐清明清的宗教、信仰與醫療之間的關係。第三,推拿、灸法與導引這些身體療法與技藝除了刻本、印刷本,仍有不少是以手抄本的形式傳世,而且號稱是獨門「秘傳」;若能針對與之相關的不同文本所承載的內容加以比對,勾勒出它們的知識系譜與關係網絡,將有助於理解在醫學傳承之中口語傳統與書寫傳統的差距,以及秘傳知識與公開知識的不同。最後,明清時期的這些推拿、灸法與導引文本多附有插圖,若本計畫能從視覺文化的角度,解析這些圖與文的關係,或可得知圖像與文字在身體與醫療技藝傳承的過程中所發揮的作用,進而掌握這些民俗療法與身體技藝得以歷久不衰、延續至今的原因。
    Massage, moxibustion and gymnastics (daoyin; lit. “guiding and pulling”) are all popular methods for healings and preserving health in both traditional and modern Chinese societies. By analyses of health handbooks this project is aimed at a survey of the practices of these medical therapies and bodily techniques and the ways of their circulation in Ming-Qing society. The first question to be raised is why massage and moxibustion, despite their celebrity by the laity, were gradually marginalized from the learned medical landscape and highly despised by the royal physicians and scholarly doctors in late imperial China. For explanation I suggest that the rising status of “Confucian doctors”, the changing theories of pediatrics, the medical competition between elite doctors, popular healers and folk therapists, and Confucian gender segregation, all help to reshape the boundaries between learned and popular medicine and should be detailed with priority. Secondly, the influences from Daoist, Buddhist and sectarianism in which massage, moxibustion and gymnastics were likely practiced should also be taken into account. Thirdly, I will focus on the transmission of massage, moxibustion and gymnastics as healing arts by examining and comparing the different forms of their texts – ranging from manuscript, engraved print and modern typeset print. In doing so it will help to clarify how they were circulated in the society from below, as well as show the gap between oral and written traditions, secretly transmitted and open knowledge. Last but not least, as some of these techniques-oriented texts are illustrated, either delicately or vulgarly, it will be interesting to compare these text and illustration and see what kind of roles they have played in the transmission of massage, moxibustion and gymnastics in Ming-Qing China.
    Relation: 基礎研究
    學術補助
    研究期間:9908~ 10007
    研究經費:370仟元
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[歷史學系] 國科會研究計畫

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