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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/51887


    Title: 身體、權力與認同---中國文化中「身體」的實際與虛構-躁╱鬱的帝國---明清時期的情志、瘋狂與精神醫療
    Other Titles: Empire of Mania/Melancholy---Emotions, Madness and Mental Healing in Ming-Qing China
    Authors: 陳秀芬
    Contributors: 行政院國家科學委員會
    國立政治大學歷史學系
    Keywords: 情志;瘋狂;身體;精神醫療;明清
    emotions;madness;the body;mental healing;Ming-Qing
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2011-11-10 10:04:02 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本計畫將考察明清時期的情志與瘋狂的現象,以觀察時人的身心、疾病與社會之間的關係;其具體作法在於從醫療、社會與法律三方面,檢視個體的心理與情緒對於社群所產生的衝擊效應、環境對於個人情緒所造成的壓力、壓迫,以及身體在此互動過程中所扮演的角色。關於癲狂與情志病症,自古醫籍即有記載,但其醫療意涵有重大轉折,乃始自金元時期,並於明清時定型。這些病症雖指涉內在情緒、心理、思考、認知、感官等問題,其「社會能見度」卻得借助於身體與外在行為表現,例如情緒的爆發、混亂的言語、錯誤的表達、異常的舉止、粗暴的行為等等;嚴重時還可能訴諸言語與肢體的暴力攻擊,出現自殘、自殺、詈罵、傷人甚至殺人等威脅自己與他人安全、違反社會秩序的行為,輕則違逆民俗風情,重則觸犯法律規範。在日常生活中,癲狂、煩躁、暴怒者除了讓患者受苦、家人困擾,還可能因逾越禮教、律法,凸顯「病態」、「異常」、「失序」的形象而受到同情、輕視、譴責甚至懲罰。身體在此不僅是心理的宿主,疾病的載體,同時也提供「內在世界」(精神、情緒、感知)與「外在世界」(家庭、社會、國家)相互溝通的平台。因而,本研究所彰顯的意義是多重的,不僅有助於今人瞭解特定歷史條件下的內外壓力所造成的身心失衡、行為乖違,還有政治仲裁、法律規範以及醫界與民間對於特定身心狀態的認定標準,同時,它們也反映了社會大眾因「逾矩」的混亂所引發的不安與焦慮。本計畫將分為三年進行。由於情志與瘋狂的認定涉及主觀感受與客觀印象,其定義常因人因時因地而異,因此本計畫在第一年首要處理的是情志、精神疾患與醫療的意義、內涵,探討醫者、病人、病家之間的關係,比較不同類型的「醫療」行為之間的異同。第二年筆者將著重於社會與法律的探討,檢視「瘋人」在非醫療領域(例如宗族、社稷)裡所呈現的多重角色,以及中央與地方政府、行政與法律官僚、相關法規律例對此失序現象與當事人的處置。本計畫的最後一年將聚焦於十九世紀後半的西醫傳入中國,探討醫療傳教士的理論與實務對於中國的瘋狂與情志病的認識所帶來的衝擊,以及後者對前者的回應。縱觀以上的主題,將包括心與身的鬥爭、個人與群體的角力、疾病與道德污名的糾葛,以及社會秩序與心靈失序之間的辯證關係。
    This research project is aimed at exploring a medical, social and legal history of emotions and the state of mind in Ming-Qing society. By scrutinizing emotional disorders, madness and their healings in various contexts, this project will hopefully not only contribute to a better understanding of the emotions and mind as problematic in pre-modern China. Furthermore, it will also shed light on the interaction between the ill, the mad, the society and the state in general. Emotional disorders and the state of mind had widely been recorded since early China. However, their medical discourses and healing practices were not significantly transformed until the Jin-Yuan period. Later, the medical system created an unprecedented complicated and complete nosology on emotional disorders and insanity, which shows the physicians』 knowledge on the mind of human being rather mature and distinctive than their predecessors. In the late Qing –i.e. the second half of the nineteenth century –the Chinese medicine encountered with a new challenge, owing to the transmission of Western medicine into China. When the asylum for the mentally ill was established for the first time in Canton, China in 1898, it indicates not only a new century for the western medicine to come, but a new landmark for mental healing in China. Meanwhile, it is foreseeable the chaos brought about by the mad in social and political spheres. Not only the mad and their family suffered from changeable and unpredictable conditions, but the society and the state faced possible threats and potential dangers caused by the mad. How to treat the mad was often served as an important issue in legal codes, political rules, as well as folk customs. It is therefore my attempt to survey the 『mental healing』in broader contexts, ranging from scholarly medicine, shamanistic tradition, religious ritual, and national law, to social rule. This project is expected to be completed in three years. In the first year it will examine the definitions and boundaries of the mind, the emotions, their disorders and therapies in medical realms and religious fields. In the second year, the focus of this project will shift to the social impacts of these mental/emotional disorders, discussing the attitudes of the rulers, lawmakers, bureaucrats towards them. In the final year this project will turn to explore the influences of western missionary medicine introduced into China in the late Qing, and more significantly, how it changed dramatically the images and reality of Chinese madmen since then
    Relation: 基礎研究
    學術補助
    研究期間:9808~ 9907
    研究經費:484仟元
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[歷史學系] 國科會研究計畫

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