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    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 宗教研究所 > 期刊論文 >  Item 140.119/62366
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    Title: 佛教譬喻文學中的男女美色與情慾——追求美麗的宗教意涵
    Other Titles: Religious Desire and Religious Beauty: Gender Difference and Sensual Beauty as Represented in the Avadâna Literature
    佛教譬喻(Avadâna)文學中的男女美色與情慾——追求美麗的宗教意涵
    Authors: 李玉珍
    Li,Yu-Chen
    Contributors: 宗教所
    Keywords: 佛教譬喻文學;性別研究;佛教身體觀
    Buddhist Hermeneutics;the conception of the body;sensual beauty;gender and soteriology
    Date: 1999.12
    Issue Date: 2013-12-12 11:31:24 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 佛教譬喻文學中罕有醜陋的女子,不論前來誘惑佛陀,阻止他成道的魔女,阿娜多姿;歷經人世波折,終而幡然悔悟出家求道的蓮花色尼,也是美麗絕倫。她們的美麗是因也是果,以一世來證悟輪迴中的一瞬心念動靜。所以賤婢藉施捨功德轉生入王族之家,卻由於施捨時嫌惡僧醜的一念,生成容貌醜陋的王女;王女又因虔信懺悔,一夕變成美女。而美麗多情的女子,則因迷戀年經僧侶,沈淪墮生為蛇類。這些譬喻文學中的故事,或許未曾出現在佛教辯論經典的正式場合中,卻不斷的藉由壁畫、寶卷、說唱文學和戲劇,一再向婦女們陳述。還有一群很重要卻常被遺忘的聽眾-教團中的僧眾和尼眾-也可能籍由這些故事來認識女子的美麗/醜陋與情慾/昇華。 就捨棄俗世的牽絆和維持教團的清淨原則之下,佛教譬喻文學相當程度地反映原始佛教對身體(色相)的排斥和壓抑。佛教以男性為主體的修行機制,尤其傾向異化女性的身體,將女性的各種生理與心理特質簡化為慾念的化身。換句話說,佛教譬喻文學中所呈現的美麗與醜陋的男女形象,已經不僅僅是對身體的分類,而更蘊含一套定位(orientation)和再生產(reproduction)性別角色的複雜過程。以往學者研究佛教文學中的身體觀,推論經典中多以男性生理特徵做為聖人的身體表微,影響所及,女性甚至被剝奪成佛的可能性,但是鮮少論及其間經典描述(textual description) 與性別認同(gender identity)互動之機制。譬喻文學類中像戒律這樣直接規範女性修行者身體行為的資料,或許能有助於我們了解佛教身體觀如何建構性別角色。 本文將嚐試分析佛教譬喻文學中如何陳述美麗的概念(the norm of being beauty)以及其宗教意涵,以討論佛教的身體觀和教團中女性性別角色的建構。全文主要分成三部分。首先介紹譬喻文學中男女美色的範疇,以比較男女性別角色的異同。接著從修行和貞操的角度,分析為何教團中的男女美色為情慾追逐的對象。最後則就教團對性與性別的描述與控制,來探討教團中去性別化的機制。筆者旨在呈現宗教上美麗與美色的劃分,經常是一體兩面。身體既然同時兼具象徵性和工具性,在以身體具體化某些宗教特質的過程中,追求和抗拒體態上的美麗,將交織構成宗教實踐的主體經驗。這種復雜性,尤其會呈現在「女性」(being women)這個性別範疇上。
    The Avadâna literature has contributed to the spread of Buddhist ideas through its concise and dramatic narrative style. The Avadâna literature made the images of such Buddhist figures as the nun Padma, the monk Ananda, and Sakyamuni Buddha so popular that they embodied Buddhist beauty physically and spiritually. Based on the Avadâna literature, this article is divided into seven sections: (1) Introduction: the conflict between beauty and desire; (2) how does the Buddhist literature represent sensual beauty? (3) the beauty of a Buddhist saint: Sakyamuni Buddha; (4) Buddhist beauty of Ananda and Moon Girl; (5) Women as embodiments of desire; (6) the female body and female sexual organs; and (7) conclusion. The question of whether one can achieve Buddha-hood in the female body has contributed to debates on the nature of Buddhist soteriology. The Buddhist textual tradition has created a substitute theory of "transforming the female body into the male one" focusing on the illusion of gender difference. However, it is said that pious followers will be reborn with a non-female body into the Western Paradise of Amitabha Buddha. Unlike previous research tending to equate body transformation with discrimination against women, this article first examines the conceptualization of sensual beauty between men and women in the Avadâna literature. Then, this article demonstrates the soteriological theme underlying the hermeneutic expression of sensual beauty. Not only the Buddhist synecdoche consider the sensual beauty of women as inferior to that of men, but it also promotes this conception of the male body as goal and reward of religious inspiration. In sum, the Buddhist definition of sensual beauty represents a system of ontological understanding and soteriological discipline.
    Relation: 新史學, 10(4), 31-65
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[宗教研究所] 期刊論文

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