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    Title: 西元初期至第七世紀環馬來半島港市國家、文明和航線之發展
    Other Titles: Development of Port-city States, Civilization and Sealane Surrounding Malay Peninsular Since Early A.D.
    Authors: 陳鴻瑜
    Chen, Hurng-yu
    Contributors: 歷史系
    Keywords: 東南亞;港市國家;馬來半島;印度文化;印度化國家
    Southeast Asia;Port-city states;Malay penninsular;Indian culture;Indianized states
    Date: 2007-11
    Issue Date: 2014-01-08 10:48:34 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 現代東南亞國家和文明起源於何時?在1950-60年代時,是研究東南亞史學者討論的課題,惟論點各異。在探討該問題時,本文擬提出四項假設,第一個假設,東南亞海島地帶,原先散佈著零星的小群聚落,過著原始的漁獵生活,在長期的歷史演變下,因為外來移民移入,使得若干小聚落因為人口繁衍增加,逐漸形成大部落,甚至形成雛形國家。而有些部落,則一直停留在非國家(現代意義)的組織形態。第二個假設,國家的出現和文明發展有密切關係,當部落形成雛形國家時,其文明亦相對提升。而部落之所以發展成雛形國家,可能與受外來文化刺激有關,未受影響者,停留在部落狀態的可能性愈高。此一文明發展的形態,是從西往東擴散。第三個假設,關於東南亞國家和文明的形成,與該一地區海運航線的開闢有密切的關連。而因為航運的開闢,連帶地帶動了人口和民族的移動,最早的雛形國家是以港市為基礎,港口成為國家存在的條件,也因為有港口,才能聚集人口,然後透過港口的動能,向外擴散該一地區的文化和宗教,同時也接受外來的文化。第四個假設,當一個國家無論在人口數量、文化活力、對舶來品的需求方面,達到一定規模時,才有遣使向外尋求貿易機會的需要。據本文之初步研究,馬來半島應是早期印度人進入海洋東南亞的重要通道,依次進入爪哇、蘇門答臘、東印尼群島、婆羅洲等。而此一族群移動與海洋航行之進步有密切關連,港市國家應是早期國家形成的特殊形態。
    When is the beginning of modern port-city state and civilization of Southeast Asia? Scholars discussed this topic sincerely in the 1950s and 1960s, but there was no consensus among them. Some scholars regarded that the Indians transited through Malay peninsular into Sumatra, Java, and other islands. But other scholars think the aborigines of Yunnan moved south into Indo-Chinese peninsular, one part of them crossed through Malay peninsular into Indonesian Archipelagoes, other part of them voyaged over the South China Sea into Indonesian Archipelagoes and the Philippines. I tried to refer the old states recorded in Chinese Annals, and connected them to draw up a picture of sequence of state-shaping and civilization. Base on this findings, I think the beginning of modern port-city state and civilization of Southeast Asia was from the Malay peninsular, and then spread into Java, Sumatra, and other islands. The character of this shaping of port-city state was depended on voyage progress and island-by-island transplantation.
    Relation: 國立政治大學歷史學報, 28, 131-188
    The Journal of History, 28, 131-188
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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