十年建設期間（1928-1937）國民政府曾大力推動造林運動，其中一項政策，即是開放公有荒地提供民眾以林業合作社或公司等名義承領，並進行造林。當時森林被認為具有防災、經營致富的作用，是建國要務之一。領荒造林政策一方面由於經濟因素，因各項建設展開，中國木材供應不足；一方面是環境因素，希望藉由造林減少水旱災，保護生命財產安全，經濟與環境考量相互影響之下促成。1930年代實業部林墾署成立，為主持這項政策的權責機關，其餘如全國荒地調查、《森林法》修正、育苗等工作於這段時間也漸次完成，提供執行此政策的基礎。林業事實上可視為利用土地進行種植生產的產業，一般民眾參與承領荒地造林可以增加副業，獲得日常用材、出售木材等實質利益，將原本無生產力的荒地賦予經濟價值，故參與荒地承領造林，有現實經濟意義。環境方面，此時國民政府宣傳造林防水防旱的功能，並希望通過造林達到防沙固堤的效果，民眾通過承領荒地，亦可積極參與改善環境。通過環境改善，又保障農業活動、生命財產安全等經濟利益，造林、經濟、環境三者乃相依互存的關係。此一運動由於中日戰爭爆發，曾一度中斷，然而日本華北佔領區當局於戰時重新進行調查試驗、推廣造林，顯示造林工作之重要與延續性。因此，經濟與環境，可說是瞭解政府推動、民間參與造林運動的重要線索。 The government of Republic of China had tried to carry out some policies about forestation in China during 1927-1937. One of those policies was to encouraged people to claim the public's wasteland and afforest it. The reasons of forming this policy could differentiate two parts: economic and environment. The preparations for this policy started after 1928, the government organization reshuffled in 1931 and the ”forest law” legislated in 1932, according to those preparations, wasteland afforesting policy could accomplish progressively. During 1928-1937, because of the nation building, China's import of woods was more than 353,616,000 yen and went up year by year. Financial difficulties compelled government and people to cooperation of wasteland afforesting, and people would increase in revenue and sideline through this policy. In environment reason, people in China were persecuted by the flood and drought for a long time, especially the yellow river flooded many times in 20th century. Forestation could help people to modify flood and drought, and also could improve daily life. Overall, people executed the wasteland afforesting policy could improve the economic and environment conditions.