Applying theory on justification and self-control, this research examines the impact of physical activity on dieters' and nondieters' food consumption patterns. The results from two studies demonstrate that dieters, but not nondieters, consume more food after exercising as compared to situations in which no exercise is involved. In addition, dieters consume more food when they anticipate engaging in physical activity as compared to when they have completed their exercising. When physical activity is framed as fun (vs work), dieters decrease the amount of food they consume after exercising. Estimation of calories burned through exercise underlies this result.