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    Title: 論“懶抑”(acedia)在聖伯富、波特萊爾與西歐洪作品中的呈現
    Other Titles: Acedia in Literature : Sainte-Beuve, Baudelaire, Cioran
    Authors: 舒卡夏
    Contributors: 歐洲語文學程
    Keywords: 懶抑宗教與道德哲學 聖伯富;波特萊爾 西歐洪
    acedia;philosophy of religion;philosophy of moral;Sainte-Beuve;Baudelaire;Cioran
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2016-04-15 11:50:01 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 許多世紀以來基督教的靈性思維不斷的給予法國作家與思想家在寫作上的啟發。例如十七世紀的道德哲學家與傳道者:巴斯卡(Pascal)、費耐隆(Fénelon)、波胥艾(Bossuet)、馬西永(Massillon)、布達盧(Bourdaloue)等人的傑作即是對於人類因原罪而導致的曖昧、墮落與未完成性所作的思索。對於這些作者而言,人是墮落的生命體,他不斷地被惡(le mal)所吸引,但在這同時,他對於在墜落之前的純潔又充滿懷舊。然而事實上人要傾向於哪一個面向,也就是要往上帝靠攏或向撒旦讓步都在於他自己本身。 其中這些壞的傾向或思想若是真的被實行,用基督教的語彙,我們稱之為「罪惡」(péchés)或「邪惡」。從西元第六世紀以來基督教便列舉人類的七大死罪(sept péchés capitaux):驕傲、吝嗇、忌妒、憤怒、奢華、貪食、懶惰。但早在這之前,在基督教士的著作中便提到意圖追求靈性完美之人的第八種罪:懶抑(acédie),它意指人在追尋善的路途中所表現的軟弱與言行不一。這個向善的行為可被理解為像是修道的志向、追求心靈的潔淨或是在專業上的成功。 本計畫主要在於分析三位法文作家聖伯富(Sainte-Beuve)、波特萊爾(Charles Baudelaire)與西歐洪(Emile Cioran)的書寫中所呈現,但至今尚未被研究者發覺,關於基督教之靈性思維的曖昧性。對本人而言,懶抑(Acedia)這項罪雖然在今日西方的日常用語已消失不見,但它卻正好可對本研究計畫帶來相當有助益的切入觀點。 聖伯富曾在其講述基督教之文集Port-Royal中提及acédie。但特別是其名為《歡愉》Volupté 的小說提供了關於這個詞彙的內涵更具體的呈現。本書的主人翁阿莫里(Amaury)博學聰敏,對於靈性生活更表現強烈的企圖心。在作品中他希望藉自己的經歷,透過書信的方式規勸一位年輕人走避世俗生活所帶來的危險。而他充滿不自覺的愛眛與不一至的言行正是本計畫要用來理解基督靈性中的雙重性的最佳範例。 波特萊爾曾指出人類的特性來自於牽引他的兩個根本的與矛盾的傾向:一者向上帝,一者向撒旦。而這正是“懶抑"發展的起點與存在的狀況。波特萊爾的一生便是不斷地被這兩種極端對立的力量撕扯。但他藉此而發展出自己特有的美學。在詩集《惡之華》Les Fleurs du mal中,他沉浸於惡與美、痛苦與愉悅的思索,他的創作處處表現憂鬱之情,與對理想與無法進入之地的懷舊訊息,這些都是懶抑的基本元素。 西歐洪與聖伯富或波特萊爾在精神心靈上有極大的共同性。在他的格言與隨筆作品中常出現類似的問題意識 : 面對人類生活之神秘的詫異、基督教中上帝與惡魔並存所帶來的迷惑。西歐洪的思想與著作對懶抑的內涵有相當的探索。他的作品似乎見證了他終其一生不斷與這些難以命名的惡(例如:事事往後延宕的需要、憂傷、膽怯、固著意念的糾纏、難以滿足與懷疑心等等)的抗爭,但同時也表現了他逃離因懶抑所帶來的精神囚牢而享有的片刻喜悅和與世界的融合。
    The spirituality of Christianity has always inspired numerous French writers and thinkers. The eighteenth century moralists and preachers such as Pascal, Fénélon, Bossuet, Bourdaloue were characterized by their brilliant works whose most specific feature was contemplating on ambivalence, corruption and unfinished human being as a result of the original sin. For these thinkers, the human being is a fallen nature, with the tendency to evil. Nevertheless this human being has a kind of nostalgia for purity which existed before the original sin. According to these authors it is up to the human being whether he chooses the God or the Satanic temptation. These tendencies to evil are called sins. Since the sixth century, the Christianity distinguished seven deadly sins : Pride, Envy, Sloth, Lust, Greed and Gluttony. However, before the sixth century, the Fathers of the Church had named the eighth sin - acedia which is especially dangerous for those people who desire the spiritual perfection. This sin is a sort of apathy and inactivity in the practice of virtue. It does not matter what kind of virtue it is, it can be the religious vocation, the purity of heart or the professional success. This article is going to analyse the eighth sin in the Sainte-Beuve’s, Baudelaire’s and Cioran’s writings. This sin is nowadays eliminated from the colloquial language, though, it could be really helpful in understanding the ambivalence of spirituality of Christianity. Sainte-Beuve (1804-1869) mentions the acedia in Port-Royal, however, his work Volupté shows more greatly his state of spirit. The main character of Volupté, Amaury, the man who is very intelligent and ambitious when it comes to his spiritual perfection, addresses his letters to his young friend as he wants to save him from the traps and temptations of the world. In the past Amaury’s life was full of temptations and depravity. Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867) affirms that in every human being there are two basic contrary tendencies : one approaching the God and the other approaching the Satan. This contradiction is a necessary condition when it comes to acedia. During his whole life Baudelaire was torn between these two diametrically opposite tendencies which inspired his specific aesthetics. In his poetry book Les Fleurs du Mal, Baudelaire contemplates on the connection between the beauty and the evil, the pain and the delight. All his works are characterized bylmelancholy,. nostalgia for perfection andl unavailable utopia. These characteristic features are the main ingredients of acedia. Emile Cioran (1911-1995) belongs to the same spiritual family as Sainte-Beuve and Baudelaire. He is the author of the aphorisms and essays, in the heart of which there are still the same issues: the fascination of the secret of human’s life, the God, Christianity and the Satan. Cioran’s various thoughts are dedicated to acedia. His works (especially Cahiers) show his violent fight against the temptation of this sin (procrastination, sadness, the lack of courage, obsession, psychical instability, despair..) but they also prove his numerous moments of joy and his deep bond with the world. This moments of joy are a kind of grace which enabled him to leave his acedia’s prison.
    Relation: 計畫編號 NSC101-2410-H004-197
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲語文學系] 國科會研究計畫

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