Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
A study of mobility of flexibility and interorganizational relationship strategy
Chang, Chao Ching
Seetoo, Dah Shien
Yu, Chow Ming
Chang, Chao Ching
Mobility of Flexibility
Key Supplier Management
|Issue Date: ||2016-05-09 11:24:17 (UTC+8)|
Managing the transaction relationships with the key supplier is a critical decision related to vertical integration. The previous literature suggest that a firm can achieve the strategic benefits such as reducing operation cost and focusing on organizational core competence through outsourcing, while maintaining a close cooperative relationship with the key supplier who provides essential key factors such as key components or key material. However, focal firm may also hold-up by the key supplier when it over-dependent on the opposite site. Therefore, the practical puzzle is how to maintain flexibility of relationships in vertical transactions as well as to avoid hold-up by specific key supplier and to extend the transaction stability with the key supplier.
Standing the view of focal buyer, the study explores two related questions: how to avoid hold-up problem in an asymmetric buyer-supplier transactions, and, in the ex post transaction, how to increase relational flexibility in highly interdependence situation. The dyadic transactions between focal firm and its key supplier are the units of our analysis to confer with the managerial mechanism of key supplier relationship.
The study conducted interviews dozens of Taiwanese firm as case studies. We model an exploration-exploitation framework adopted by focal firm adapt to ex post asymmetric interorganizational relationships. Thus we see two behavioral mechanisms: reducing key suppliers’ mobility of flexibility through relational exploitation as well as exploration on transaction value and relationship for reinforcing interdependency in dyadic transactions, and, increasing focal firms’ mobility of flexibility through structural exploration as well as transaction value exploitation so as to diminish the dependency on the key supplier and heighten alternatives to cooperate with.
Using structure equation modeling approach, research hypotheses are tested on a sample of 250 focal firms established in Taiwan. We found the positive relationships between focal firms’ mobility of flexibility and cooperative performance perceived by focal firm, and, the negative relationships between key suppliers’ mobility of flexibility and cooperative performance perceived by focal firm. Empirical results confirmed the negative relationships between key suppliers’ mobility of flexibility and focal firm’s exploitation in relationship and transaction value as well as relationship exploration. The positive relationships between focal firms’ mobility of flexibility as well as structural exploration and transactional exploitation were also supported.
The study develop a theoretical extension based on the transaction cost theory, resource dependence theory, and the behavioral theory of firm. We also address dyadic mobility of flexibility as the decision criterion for balancing exploration and exploitation in the interorganizational relationship. These findings provide theoretical and managerial implications for vertical coordination in supplier relationship management in particular.
司徒達賢、熊欣華 (2004) ，「投機行為分析─價值差距、資訊差距與潛在懲罰力之影響」，中山管理評論，第12卷第4期，頁375-707。
Aaker, D.A. & Macarenhas, B. 1984. The need for strategic flexibility. Journal of Business Strategy, 5: 74-82.
Adler, T. R., Scherer, R. F., Barton, S. L., & Katerberg, R. 1998. An empirical test of transaction cost theory: validating contract typology. Journal of Applied Management Studies, 7: 185–200.
Afuah, A. 2001. Dynamic boundaries of the firm: Are firms better off being vertically integrated in the face of a technological change? Academy of Management Journal, 44(6): 1211-1228.
Ahuja, G. 2000. Collaboration networks, structural holes, and innovation: A longitudinal study. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45, 425-455.
Alchian, A. & Demsetz, H. 1972. Production, information, and economic organization. American Economic Review, 62: 777-795.
Alchian, A. A. & Woodward, S. 1988. The firm is dead: long live the firm. Journal of Economic Literature, 26: 65-79.
Allen, D. W. & D. Lueck. 1992a. The 'back forty' on a handshake: Specific assets, reputation and the structure of farmland. Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, 8(2): 366-376.
Allen, D. W. & D. Lueck. 1992b. Contract choice in modern agriculture: Cash rent versus cropshare. Journal of Law and Economics, 35(2): 397-426.
Anand, J., Mesquita, L. F., & Vassolo, R. S. 2009. The dynamics of multimarket competition in exploration and exploitation activities. Academy of Management Journal, 52(4). (In Press)
Anderson, E. & Jap, S. D. 2005. The dark side of close relationships. Sloan Management Review, 46(3): 75-82.
Anderson, J. C. & Gerbing, D. W. 1988. Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103: 411-23.
Anderson, J. C., & Weitz, B. A. 1989. Determinants of continuity in conventional industrial channel dyads. Marketing Science, 8: 310-323.
Argyres, N. S. & Liebeskind, J. P. 1999. Contractual commitments, bargaining power, and governance inseparability: Incorporating history into transaction cost theory. Academy of Management Review, 24(1): 49-63.
Armstrong, J. S. & Overton, T. S. 1997. Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research, 14(3): 396-402.
Arnold, H. J. 1982. Moderator variables: A clarification of conceptual, analytic, and psychometric issues. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 29(2): 143-174.
Arruñda B, & Vázquez X. H. 2006. When your contract manufacturer becomes your competitor. Harvard Business Review, September: 135-144.
Axelrod, R. 1984. The evolution of cooperation. NY: Basic Books, Inc.
Bagozzi, R. P. & Yi, Y. 1988. On the evaluation of structural equation model. Academic of Marketing Science, 16: 76-94.
Bahrami, H. 1992. The emerging flexible organization: perspectives from silicon valley. California Management Review, 34: 33-51.
Barney, J. B. 1999. How a firm’s capabilities affect boundary decisions. The Sloan Management Review, 40 (3): 137-145.
Baron, R. M. & Kenny, D. A. 1986. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51: 1173-1182.
Barringer, B. R. & Harrison, J. S. 2000. Walking a tightrope: creating value through interorganizational relationships. Journal of Management, 26(3). 367-403.
Barringer, B. R. 1997. The effects of relational channel exchange of the small firm: A conceptual framework. Journal of Small Business Management, 35(2): 65-79.
Barthélemy, J. & Quélin, B. V. 2006. Complexity of outsourcing contracts and ex post transaction costs: An empirical investigation. Journal of Management Studies, 43(8): 1775-1797.
Baum, J. A. C. & Greve, H. R. 2001. Multiunit Organization and Multimarket Strategy. Advances in Strategic Management. 18. :. UK: Elsevier Science.
Baum, J. A. C. 2005. The Blackwell Companion to Organizations. Blackwell Publishing.
Beckman, C. M., Haunschild, P. R., & Phillips. D. J. 2004. Friends or strangers? Firm-specific uncertainty, market uncertainty, and network partner selection. Organization Science, 15: 259–275.
Bensaou, M. & Anderson, E. 1999. Buyer-supplier relation in industrial markets: When do buyers risk making idiosyncratic investments. Organization Science, 10(4): 460-481.
Bentler, P. M. & Bonett, D. G. 1980. Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structure. Psychological Bulletin. 88: 588-606.
Bernheim, B. D. & Whinston, M. 1998. Incomplete contracts and strategic ambiguity. American Economic Review, 88(4): 902-932.
Bidault, F. & Salgado, M. 2001. Stability and complexity of inter-firm co-operation: The case of multi-point alliances. European Management Journal, 19 (6). pp. 619-628.
Biggart, N. W. & Delbridge, R. 2004. System of exchange. Academy of Management Review, 29(1): 28-49.
Blau, P. M. 1964. Exchange and power in social life. NY: John Wiley & Son.
Boone, R. T. & Macy, M. W. 1999. Unlocking the doors of the prisoner’s dilemma: dependence, selectivity, and cooperation. Social Psychology Quarterly, 62(1): 32-52.
Brandenberger, A. M. & Nalebuff, B. J. 1996. Co-optition. NJ: Pearson Eduuction.
Brehm, J. W. 1966. A theory of psychological reactance. NY: Academic Press.
Bromiley, P. 2005. The behavioral foundations of strategic management. MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Buchanan, L. 1992. Vertical trade relationships: the role of dependence and symmetry in attaining organizational goals. Journal of Marketing Research, 29:65-75.
Buckley, P. J. & Casson, M. 1988. A theory of cooperation in international business. In Cooperative Strategies in International Business. Contractor, F. J. and Lorange, P. eds. MA: Lexington Books.
Burgelman, R. A. 2002. Strategy as vector and the inertia of coevolutionary lock-in. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47(2): 325-357.
Burnham, T.A., Frels, J.K. & Mahajan, V. (2003). Consumer switching costs: A typology, antecedents, and consequences. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31 (2): 109-126.
Buvik, A. & Andersen, O. 2000. The impact of vertical coordination on ex post transaction costs in domestic and international buyer-seller relationships. Journal of International Marketing, 10(1): 1-24.
Buvik, A. & Andersen, O. 2002. The impact of vertical coordination on ex post transaction costs in domestic and international buyer-seller relationships. Journal of International Marketing, 10(1): 1-24.
Buvik, A. & John, G. 2000. When does vertical coordination improve industrial purchasing relationship?. Journal of Marketing, 64(4): 52-64.
Buvik, A. & Reve. T, 2001. Inter-firm governance and structural power in industrial relationships: The moderating effect of bargaining power on the contractual safeguarding of specific assets. Journal of Business Research, 18. 261-284.
Byrne, B. M. 1998. Structural equation modeling with LISREL, PRELIS, and SIMPLIS: basic concepts, applications and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cacciatori, E. & Jacobides, M. G. 2005. The dynamic limits of specialization: Vertical integration reconsidered. Organization Science, 26(12): 1851-1883.
Camines, E. & McIver. J. 1981. Analyzing models with unobserved variables: analysis of convariance structures. In G. Bohrnstedt and E. Borgatta (eds.), Social Measurements: Current Issues. CA: Sage.
Cannon, J. P. & Homburg, C. 2001. Buyer-supplier relationships and customer firm costs. Journal of Marketing, 65(1). 29-43.
Carlsson, B. 1989. Flexibility and the theory of the firm. International Journal of Industrial Organization. 7: 179-203.
Carson, S. J., Madhok, A. & Wu, T. 2006. Uncertainty, opportunism, and governance: The effects of volatility and ambiguity on formal and relational contracting. Academy of Management Journal, 49(5): 1058-1077.
Casciaro, T. & Piskorski, M. J. 2005. Power imbalance, mutual dependence, and constraint absorption: A close look at resource dependence theory. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50: 167-199.
Chen, S. F. 2005. Extending internalization theory: A new perspective on international technology transfer and its generalization. Journal of International Business Studies, 36: 231-245.
Chi, T. 1994. Trading in strategic resources: Necessary conditions, transaction cost problems, and choice of exchange structure. Strategic Management Journal, 15: 271-290.
Chin, W.W., & Todd, P. 1995. On the use, usefulness and ease of use of structural equation modeling in mis research: A note of caution. MIS Quarterly, 19(2). 237-246.
Coase, R. 1937. The nature of the firm. Economica, 4(16): 386-405.
Cook, K. S. 1977. Exchange and power in networks of interorganizational relations. The Sociological Quarterly, 18: 62-82.
Cool, K. & Henderson, J. 1998. Power and firm profitability in supply chains: French manufacturing industry in 1993. Strategic Management Journal, 19: 909-926.
Corsten, D. & Felde, J. 2005. Exploring the performance effects of key-supplier collaboration: An empirical investigation into swiss buyer-supplier relationships. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 35(6): 445-461.
Cropanzano, R. & Mitchell, M. S. 2005. Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6): 874-900.
Cyert, R. M. & March, J. G. 1963. A Behavioral Theory of the Firm. NJ: Prentice Hall.
Cyert, Richard M. and March, J. G.. 1964. A behavioral theory of the firm. The American Economic Review. Part 1.Mar. 54(2): 144-148.
David, R. J. & Han, S. K. 2004. A systematic assessment of the empirical support for transaction cost economics. Strategic Management Journal, 25(1): 39-58.
Delerue-Vidot, H. 2006. Opportunism and unilateral commitment: The moderating effect of relational capital. Management Decision, 44(6). 737-751.
Dixit, A. & B. Nalebuff. 1991. Thinking Strategically. NY: W.W. Norton.
Donada, C. & Nogatchewsky, G. 2005. Dépendance Asymétrique dans les Alliances Verticales : Comment un Client vassal Contrôle-t-il ses fournisseurs ? Management International, 10(1): 63-74.
Doney, P. & Cannon, J. 1997. An examination of the nature of trust in buyer-seller relationships. Journal of Marketing, 51: 35-51.
Doz, Y. L., & Hamel, G. 1998. Alliance Advantage: the Art of Creeating Value through Partnering. MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Dwyer, R., Schurr, P. & Oh, S. 1987. Developing buyer-seller relationships. Journal of Marketing, 23: 660-679.
Dyer, J. H. & Chu, W. J. 2003. The role of trustworthiness in reducing transaction costs and improving performance: Empirical evidence from the United States, Japen, And Korea. Organization Science. 14(1): 57-68.
Dyer, J. H. & Hatch, N. W. 2006. Relation-specific capabilities and barriers to knowledge transfers: Creating advantage through network relationships. Strategic Management Journal, 27: 701-719.
Dyer, J. H. & Singh, H. 1998. The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(4): 660-679.
Dyer, J. H. 1996. Specialized supplier network as a source of competitive advantage: Evidence from the auto industry. Strategic Management Journal, 17(4): 271-292.
Dyer, J. H. 1997. Effective interfirm collaboration: How firms minimize transaction costs and maximize transaction value. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7): 535-556.
Dyer, J. H. 2000. Collaborative Advantage: Winning through their Extended Enterprise Supplier Network. NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.
Ebben, J. J. & Johnson, A. C. 2005. Efficiency, flexibility, or both? Evidence linking strategy to performance in small firms. Strategic Management Journal, 26: 1249-1259.
Eisenhardt, K. M. & Martin, J. A. 2000. Dynamic capabilities: What are they? Strategic Management Journal, 21: 1105-1124.
Eisenhardt, K. M. 1989. Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4). 532-550.
Emerson, R. M. 1962. Power-dependence relations. American Sociological Review, 27: 31-41.
Fichman, M. & Goodman, P. 1996. Customer-supplier ties in interorganizational relations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 8: 285-329.
Fiegenbaum, A. & Karnani, A. 1991. Output flexibility: A competitive advantage for small firm. Strategic Management Journal, 12:101-114.
Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. 1981. Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18: 19-35.
Frazier, G. L., & Rody, R. C. 1991. The use of influence strategies in interfirm relationships in industrial product channels. Journal of Marketing, 55(1): 52-69.
Friedman, T. L. 2005. The world is flat: a brief history of the twenty-first century. Ars Longa Press.
Gargiulo, M. & Ertug, G. 2006. The dark side of trust. In Bachmann, R. & Zaheer, A. (Eds.), Handbook of Trust Research. MA: Edward-Elgar.
Geyskens, I., Steenkamp, J. E. M. & Kumar, N. 2006. Make, buy, or ally: A transaction cost theory meta-analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 49(3): 519-543.
Geyskens, I., Steenkamp, J. E. M., Scheer, L.K. & Kumar, N. 1996. The effects of trust and interdependence on relationship commitment: A trans-atlantic study. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 13: 303-317.
Ghosha, M. & John, G. 1999. Governance value analysis and marketing strategy. Journal of Marketing, 63(Special Issue): 131-145.
Granovetter, M. 1985. Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91(3): 481-510.
Gulati, R. & Nickerson, J. A. 2008. Interorganizational trust, governance choice, and exchange performance. Organization Science. 19(5): 688-708.
Gulati, R. & Sytch, M. 2007. Dependence Asymmetry and Joint Dependence in Interorganizational Relationships: Effects of Embeddedness on a Manufacturer’s Performance in Procurement Relationships. Administrative Science Quarterly, 52: 32-69.
Gulati, R. 1995a. Does familiarity breed trust? The implications of repeated ties for contractual choice in alliance. Academy of Management Journal, 38: 85-112.
Gulati, R. 1995b. Social structure and alliance formation patterns: a longitudinal analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(4): 619-652.
Gulati, R., Khanna, T. & Nohria, N. 1994. Unilateral commitments and the importance of process in alliances. Sloan Management Review, 35(3): 61-69.
Gulati, R., P. Lawrence, R. & Puranam, P. 2005. Adaptation in vertical relationships: Beyond incentive conflict. Strategic Management Journal, 26: 415-440.
Halle´n, L., Johanson, J., & Seyed-Mohamed, N. 1991. Interfirm adaptation in business relationships. Journal of Marketing, 55(2): 29-37.
Hamel, G. 1991. Competition for competence and interpartner learning within international strategic alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 12:83-103.
Harrigan, K. 1985. Strategies for joint venture. MA: Lexington Books.
Harrigan, K. 1986. Managing for joint venture success., MA: Lexington Books.
Hawkins, T. G., Wittmann, C. W., & Beyerlein, M. M. 2008. Antecedents and consequences of opportunism in buyer-supplier relations: Research synthesis and new frontiers. Industrial Marketing Management, 37(8):895-909.
Hayduk, L. A. 1996. LISREL issues, debates, and strategies. Baltimore, MA: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Hayduk, Leslie A. 1987. Structural equation modeling with LISREL: Essentials and advances. Baltimore: JohnsHopkins.
He, D. & Nickerson, J. A. 2006. Why do firms make and buy? Efficiency, appropriability and competition in the trucking industry. Strategic Organization, 4(1): 43-70.
He, Z. L. & Wong, P. K. 2004. Exploration vs. exploitation: An empirical test of the ambidexterity hypothesis. Organization Science, 15(4): 481-494.
Heide, J. B, John, G. 1988. The role of dependency balancing in safeguarding trannsacton-specific assets in conventional channels. Journal of Marketing, 52: 20-35.
Heide, J. B. & John, G. 1990. Alliances in industrial pruchasing: The determinants of joint action in buyer-supplier relationships. Journal of Marketing Research, 27(1): 24-36.
Heide, J. B. & John, G. 1992. Do norms matter in marketing relationships?. Journal of Marketing, 56(2): 32-44.
Heide, J. B. & Miner, A. S. 1992. The shadow of the future: Effects of anticipated interaction and frequency of contact on buyer-seller cooperation. Academy of Management Journal, 35(2): 265-291.
Heide, J. B. 1994. Interorganizational governance in marketing channels. Journal of Marketing, 58(1): 71-85.
Heide, J. B., Wathne, K. H. & Rokkan, A. I. 2007. Interfirm monitoring, social contracts, and relationship outcomes. Journal of Marketing Research, 44(3): 425-433.
Hennart, J. F. 1986. What is internalization?. Welwirtschaftliches Archiv. 122: 791-804.
Hennart, J. F. 1991. Control in multinational firms: The role of price and hierarchy. Management International Review, Special Issue: 71-96.
Hennart, J. F. 1991. The transaction cost theory of the multinational enterprise. in C. Pitelis & R. Sugden (Eds.). The Nature of the Transnational Firm. NY: Routledge.
Hennart, J. F. 1993. Explaining the swollen middle: Why most transactions are a mix of market and hierarchy. Organization Science, 4(4): 529-547.
Hill, C. 1990. Cooperation, opportunism, and the invisible hand: implications for transactioncost theory. Academy Management Review, 15(3): 500-513.
Hoetker, G., Swaminathan, A. & Mitchell, W. 2007. Modulartity and the impact of buyer-supplier relationships on the survival of suppliers. Management Science, 53(2): 178-191.
Holmstrom, B. 1979. Moral hazard and observability. Bell Journal of Economics, 10: 74-91.
Homans, G. C. 1958. Social behavior as exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 63 (6): 597-606.
Homans, G. C. 1961. Social behavior: Its elementary forms. NY: Harcourt Jovanovich.
Hymer, S. 1976. The international operations of national firms: A study of direct investment. MA: MIT Press.
Iansiti, M., & R. Levien. 2004. Strategy as ecology. Harvard Business Review, 82(3): 68-78.
Iansiti, M., & R. Levien. 2004. The keystone advantage: What the new dynamics of business ecosystems mean for strategy, Innovation, and Sustainability. Harvard Business School Press.
Ireland, R. D. & Webb, J. W. 2007. A multi-theoretic perspective on trust and power instrategic supply chains. Journal of Operations Management. 25(2): 482-497.
Ivens, B. S. 2005. Flexibility in industrial service relationships: The construct, antecedentsm, and performance outcomes. Industiral Marketing Management, 34: 566-576.
Izquierdo, C. & J Cilla´n, J. G. 2004. The interaction of dependence and trust in long-term industrial relationship. European Journal of Marketing, 38(8): 974-994.
Jacksonk, B. B. 1985. Winning and keeping industrial customers. MA: Lexington Books.
Jacobides, M. G. & Billinger, S. 2006. Designing the boundaries of the firm: from make, buy, or ally to the dynamic benefits of vertical architecture. Organization Science, 17(2): 249-261.
Jacobides, M. G., Knudsen, T. & Augier, M. 2006. Benefiting from innovation: value creation, value appropriation and the role of industry architectures. Research Policy, 35: 1200-1221.
Jacobidies, M. G. & Winter, S. 2005. The co-evolution of capabilities and transaction costs: Explaining the institutional structural of production. Strategic Management Journal, 26: 395-413.
James, L. R., Mulaik, S. A. & Brett, J. M. 1982. Causal analysis: Assumptions, models, and data. CA: Sage.
Jap, S. D. & Anderson, E. 2003. Safeguarding interorganizational performance and continuity under ex post opportunism. Management Science, 49(12): 1684-1701.
Jayachandran, S., Gimeno, J., & Varadarajan, P. R. 1999. Theory of multimarket competition: A synthesis and implications for marketing strategy. Journal of Marketing, 63(3): 49-66.
Johnsen, R. E. & Ford, D. 2002. Developing the concept of asymmetrical and symmetrical relationships: Linking relationship characteristics and firms’ capabilities and strategies. Proceedings from the 18th Annual Insustrial Marketing & Purchasing (IMP) Conference. Dijon, France. http://web.bi.no/forskning/imp2001papers.nsf/
Johnsen, R. E. & Ford, D. 2008. Exploring the concept of asymmetry: a typology for analyzing customer-supplier relationships. Industrial Marketing Management, 37(4): 471-483.
Jones, C., Hesterly, W. & Borgatti, S. 1997. A general theory of network governance: Exchange conditions and social mechanisms. Academy of Management Review, 22: 911-945.
Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1996b). PRELIS: User’s reference guide. Chicago: Scientific Software International.
Jöreskog, K. G.., & Sörbom, D. (1996a). LISREL 8: User’s reference guide. Chicago: Scientific Software International.
Joshi, A. & Stump, P. 1999. Determinants of commitment and opportunisms: Integrating and extending insights from transaction cost analysis and relational exchange theory. Canadian Journal of Administrative Science, 16(4): 334-352.
Kale, P., Singh, H. & Perlmutter, H. 2000. Learning and protection of proprietary assets in strategic alliances: Building relational capital. Strategic Management Journal. 21: 217-237.
Kang, M. P., Mahoney, J. T. & Tan, D. C. 2009. Why firms make unilateral investments specific to other firms: The case of oem suppliers. Strategic Management Journal, 30 (2): 117-135.
Karnani, A. & Wernerfelt, 1985. Multiple point competition. Strategic Management Journal, 6: 87-96.
Kaufmann, P. J. & Dant, R. 1992. The dimensions of commercial exchange. Marketing Letters–A Journal Of Research In Marketing. 3(2): 171-185.
Kaufmann, P. J. & Stern, L. W. 1988. Relational exchange norms, perceptions of unfairness, and retained hostility in commercial litigation. Journal of Conflict Resolution. 32(3): 534-552.
Kaufmann, P. J. 1987. Commercial exchange relationships and the “negotiator’s dilemma”. Negotiation Journal, 3(1): 73-80.
Kim, K. 1999. On determinants of joint action in industrial distributor-supplier relationship: Beyond economic efficiency. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 16. 217-236.
Klein, B., Crawford, R. A. & Alchian, A. A. 1978. Vertical integration, appropriable rents, and the competitive contracting process. Journal of Law and Economics, 21: 297-326.
Klein, P. G. 2004. The make-or-buy decision: Lessons from empirical studies. in Claude Ménard and Mary Shirley. (Eds.). Handbook of New Institutional Economics. Springer. 435-64.
Klein, R. B. 2005. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. 2nd Ed. NY: Guildford Press.
Koza, M. P. & Lewin, A. Y. 1998. The co-evolution of strategic alliance. Organization Science, 9: 255-264.
Krishnan, R. & Martin, X. 2006. When does trust matter to alliance performance? Academy of Management Journal, 49(5): 894-917.
Kumar, N., Scheer, L. & Steenkamp, J.B. 1998. Interdependence, punitive capability and the reciprocation of punitive actions in channel relationships. Journal of Marketing Research, 35: 225-35.
Kumar, N., Sheer, L. K. & Steenkamp, J. E. M. 1995. The effects of perceived interdependence on dealer attitudes. Journal of Marketing Research, 32: 348-356.
Kumar, N., Stern, L. & Anderson, J. C. 1993. Conducting interorganizational research using key informants. Academy of Management Journal, 36(6): 1633-51.
Lado, A. A., Dant, R. R. & Tekleab, A. G. 2008. Trust-opportunism paradox, relationalism, and performance in interfirm relationships: Evidence from the retail industry. Strategic Management Journal, 29: 401-423.
Lai, C. S., Liu, S. S., Yang, C. F., Lin, H. W., & Tsai, H. W. 2005. Governance mechanism of opportunism: Integrating from transaction cost analysis and relational exchange theory. Taiwan Academy Management Journal, 5(1): 1-24.
Larson, A. 1992. Network dyads in entrepreneurial settings: a study of governance of exchange relationship. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37 (March): 76-104.
Lavie, D. & Rosenkopf, L. 2006. Balancing exploration and exploitation in alliance formation. Academy of Management Journal, 49(4): 797-818.
Lazzarini, S. Claro, D. & Mesquita, L. F. 2008. Buyer-supplier and supplier-supplier alliances: Do they reinforce or undermine one another? Journal of Management Studies, 45(3): 561-584.
Lazzarini, S. G., Miller, G. L., & Zenger, T. R. 2008. Dealing with the paradox of embeddedness: The role of contracts and trust in facilitating movement out of committed relationships. Organization Science, 19(5): 709-728.
Leiblein, M. J. 2003. The choice of organizational governance form and performance: predictions from transaction cost, resource-based, and real options theories. Journal of Management, 29(6): 937–961.
Leiblein, M. J., Reuer, J. J. & Dalsace, F. 2002. Do make or buy decisions matter? The influence of organizational governance of technological performance. Strategic Management Journal, 23: 817-833.
Levine,S. & White, P. 1961. Exchange as a conceptual framework for the study of interorganizational relationships. Administrative Science Quarterly, 5(4): 583-601.
Levinthal, D. A., & March, J. G. 1993. The myopia of learning. Strategic Management Journal, 14: 95-112.
Li, Z. G. & Dant, R. P. 1997. An exploratory study of exclusive dealing in channel relationships. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25: 201-213.
Liebeskind, J. P., Oliver, A. L., Zucker, L. & Brewer, M. 1996. Social networks, learning, and flexibility: Sourcing scientific knowledge in new biotechnology firms. Organization Science, 7(4): 428-443.
Lovas, B. & Ghoshal, S. 2000. Strategy as a guided evolution. Strategic Management Journal, 21(9): 875-896.
Luo, Y. 2007. An integrated anti-opportunism system in international exchange. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(6): 855-877.
Lusch, R. F. & Brown, J. R. 1996. Interdependency, contracting, and relational behavior in marketing channels. Journal of Marketing. 60(4): 19-38.
MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, J. M., Hoffman, S. G. & Sheets, V. 2002. A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods. 7: 83-104.
Madhok, A. & Tallman, S. B. 1998. Resources, transactions, and rents: Managing value through interfirm collaborative relationships. Organization Science, 9(3): 328-339.
Mahoney, J. T. 2005. Economic Foundations of Strategy. CA: Sage.
March, J. G. & Simon, H. A. 1958. Organizations. John Wiley & Sons.
March, J. G. & Simon, H. A. 1993. Organizations. 2nd Eds. Blackwell Publishing. MA: Cambridge.
March, J. G. 1991. Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2: 71-87.
Maruyama, G. M. 1997. Basics of structural equation modeling. CA: Sage.
Masten, S. E. 1994. Empirical research in transaction-cost economics: challenges, progress, directions. Mimeo, University of Michigan Business School.
Mayer, K. L. & Salomon, R. M. 2006. Capabilities, contractual hazards, and governance: Integrating resource-based and transaction cost perspectives. Academy of Management Journal, 49(5): 942-959.
McCarter, M. W., Mahoney, J. T., & Northcraft, G. B. 2009. First we try, then we trust! Real options and the cooperation-competition tension in strategic alliance social dilemmas. Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Working Paper. http://www.business.uiuc.edu /Working_Papers/ papers/ 09−0101.pdf
McDondla, F. 1999. The importance of power in partnership relationships. Journal of General Management, 25(1): 43-59.
McEvily, B. & Zaheer, A. 2003. Does trust still matter? Research on the role of trust in inter-organizational exchange. In Bachmann, R. & Zaheer, A. (Eds.), Handbook of Trust Research. MA: Edward-Elgar.
McGee, J. & Thomas, H. 1986. Strategic group: Theory, research and taxonomy. Strategic Management Journal, 7: 141-160.
McGuire, J. W. 1964. Theories of Business Behavior. NJ: Prentice-Hall.
McMillan, J. 1990. Managing suppliers: Incentive system in japanese and u.s. Industry. California Management Review, Summer: 38-55.
Medcof, J. W. 2001. Resource-based strategy and managerial power in networks of internationally dispersed technology units. Strategic Management Journal, 22: 999-1012.
Mesquita, L. F. & Brush, T. H. 2008. Untangling safeguard and coordination effects in long term buyer supplier relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 51(4): 785-807.
Mesquita, L. F. & Lazzarini, S. 2008. Horizontal and vertical relationships in developing economies: implications for firms’ access to global markets. Academy of Management Journal, 51(2): 359-380.
Mesquita, L. F., Anand, J. & Brush, T. H. 2008. Comparing the resource-based and relational views: Knowledge transfer and spillover in vertical alliances. Strategic Management Journal. 29: 913-941.
Michael, S. C. 2000. Investment to create bargaining power: the case of franchising. Strategic Management Journal, 21: 497-514.
Miles, M. & Huberman, A. 1994. Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. (2nd Ed). Thousand Oaks, Sage Publication.
Milgrom, P. & Robert, J. 1992. Economics, organization and management. NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Morgan, R. & Hunt, S. 1994. The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(July): 20-38.
Moriarty, R. T. & Kosnik, T. J. 1989. High-tech marketing: concepts, continuity, and change. Slaon Management Review, 30: 7-17.
Mukherji, A. & Francis, J. D. 2008. Mutual adaptation in buyer-supplier relationships. Journal of Business Research, 61: 154-161.
Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H. 1995. The knowledge creating company: how japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. NY: Oxford University Press
Noordewier, T., John, G. & Nevin, J. 1990. Performance outcomes of purchasing arrangements in industrial buyer-vendor relationships. Journal of Marketing, 54: 80-93.
Oliver, A. L. & Ebers, M. 1998. Networking network studies: an analysis of conceptual confirgurations in the study of inter-organizational relationship. Organization Studies, 19(4): 549-583.
Oliver, C. 1990. Determinants of interorganizational relationships: integration and future direction. Academy of Management Review, 15: 241-256.
Ouchi, W. G. 1980. Markets, bureaucracies, and clans. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25: 120-142.
Parkhe, A. 1993. Strategic alliance structuring: A game theoretic and transaction cost examination of interfirm cooperation. Academy Management Journal, 36. 794-829.
Pfeffer, J. & Salancik, G. R. 1978. The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective. NY: Harper & Row.
Podaskoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. 1986. Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects, Journal of Management, 12 (4): 531-544.
Podolny, J. M. & Baron, J. N. 1997. Resources and relationships: Social networks and mobility in the workplace. American Sociological Review, 62(5): 673-693
Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. 1994. An examination of the psychometric properties and nomological validity of some revised and reduced substitutes for leadership scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79: 702-713.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. 2003. Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879-903.
Poppo, L. & Zenger, T. 2002. Do formal contracts and relational governance function as substitutes or complements. Strategic Management Journal, 23: 707-725.
Porter, M. & Fuller, M. B. 1986. Coalitions and Global Strategy. In M. Porter, ed. Competition in Global Industries. MA: Harvard Business School Press. 315-344.
Porter, M. E. 1980. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitiors. NY: The Free Press.
Porter, M. E. 1985. Competitive Advantage: Creating and sustaining superior performance. NY: The Free Press
Prahalad, C. K. & Ramaswamy, V. 2004. The Future of Competition: Co-Creating Unique Value with Customers. MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Provan, K. G. & Skinner, S. J. 1989. Interorganizational dependence and control as predictors of opportunism in dealer-supplier relations. Academy of Management Journal, 32(1). 202-212.
Provan, K. G. 1980. Recognizing, measuring, and interpreting the potential/enacted power distinction in organizational research. Academy of Management Review, 5: 549-559.
Quinn, J. B., & Hilmer, F. G. 1994. Strategic outsourcing. Sloan Management Review, 35: 43-55.
Ramirez, R. 1999. Value co-production: Intellectual origins and implications for practice and research. Strategic Management Journal, 20(1): 49-65.
Rappaport, A. S. & Halevi, S. 1991. The computerless computer company. Harvard Business Review, August: 69-80.
Richman, B. D. & Macher, J. 2008. Transaction cost economics: an assessment of empirical research in the social sciences. Business and Politics, 10(1): 1-63.
Rindfleisch, A. & Heide, J. B. 1997. Transaction cost analysis: past, present, and future applications. Journal of Marketing, 61(4): 30-54
Ring, P. & Van de Ven. 1994. Development process of cooperative interorganizational relationships. Academy of Management Review, 19(1): 90-118.
Robins, J. A., Tallman, S. & F. L. Karin. 2002. Autonomy and dependence of international cooperative ventures: an exploration of the strategic performance of U.S. Ventures in Mexico. Strategic Management Journal, 23: 881-901.
Rokkan, A.I., Heide, J.B. & Wathne, K.H. 2003. Specific investments in marketing relationships: expropriation and bonding effects. Journal of Marketing Research, 40(2): 210-224
Romer, E. 2004. Managing asymmetric resource dependence and environmental risk in relationships by real options. Management Revue, 15(1): 89-106.
Rooks, G., Raub, W. & Tazelaar, F. 2006. Ex post problems in buyer-supplier transactions: Effects of transaction characteristics, social embeddedness, and contractual governance. Journal of Management and Governance, 10: 239-276.
Rosenkopf, L., & Nerkar, A. 2001. Beyond local search: boundary-spanning, exploration, and impact in the optical disk industry. Strategic Management Journal, 22: 287-306.
Rosenthal, S. R. 1984. Progress toward the factory of the future. Journal of Operation Management, 4(May): 203-228.
Rossetti, C. & Choi, T. 2005. On the dark side of strategic sourcing: Experiences from aerospace industry. Academy of Management Executive, 19(1): 46-60.
Rubin, P. 1990. Managing business transactions: controlling the costs of coordination communication, and decision making. NY: the Free Press.
Sanchez, R. & Mahoney, J. T. 1996. Modularity, flexibility, and knowledge management in product and organization design. Strategic Management Journal, 17: 63-76.
Santoro, M. D. & McGill, J. P. 2005. The effect of uncertainty and asset co-specialization on governance in biotechnology alliance. Strategic Management Journal, 26: 1261-1269.
Santos, F. M. & Eisenhardt, K. M. 2005. Organizational boundaries and theories of organization. Organization Science, 16(5): 491–508.
Schellenberg, J. A. 1965. Dependence and cooperation. Sociometry, 28(2). 158-172.
Scherpereel, C. M. 2008. The option-creating institution: a real options perspective on economic organization. Strategic Management Journal, 29(5): 455-470.
Schellenberg, J. A. 1996. Conflict Resolution: Theory, Research, and Practice. NY: State University of New York.
Schelling, T. 1960. The Strategy of Conflict. MA: Harvard University Press.
Schilling, M. A. & Steensma, H. K. 2002. Disentangling the theories of firm boundaries: A path model and empirical test. Organization Science, 13(4): 387-401.
Schmalensee, R. 1985. Do market differ much?. American Economic Review, 341-351.
Schwab, D. P. 2005. Research methods for organizational studies. 2nd Eds. Mahwah. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Sethi, A. K. & Sethi, P. S. 1990. Flexibility in manufacturing: a survey. International. Journal of Flexible Manufacturing Systems, 2(4). 289-328.
Sheng, S., Brown, J. R., Nicholson, C. Y., & Poppo, L. 2006. Do exchange hazards always foster relational governance? An empirical test of the role of communication. International Journal of Research in Marketing,. 23: 63-77.
Shervani, T. A., Frazier, G., Challagalla, G. 2007. The moderating influence of firm market power on the transaction cost economics model: An empirical test in a forward channel integration context. Strategic Management Journal, 28(6): 635-652.
Shrout, P. E. & Bolger, N. 2002. Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7:422-445.
Slusher, E. A., Rose, G. L. & Roering, K. J. 1978. Commitment to future interaction and relative power under condition of interdependence. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 22(2): 282-298.
Sobrero, M. & Schrader, S. 1998. Structuring inter-firm relationships: A meta-analytic approach. Organization Studies, 19(4): 584-615.
Srinivasan, R. & Brush, T. H. 2006. Supplier performance in vertical alliances: the effect of self-enforcing agreements and enforceable contracts. Organization Science, 17(4). 436-452.
Steensma, H. K. & Corley, K. G. 2001. Organizational context as a moderator of theories on firm boundaries for technology sourcing. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2): 271-291.
Steiger, J. H. 1980. Tests for comparing elements of a correlation matrix. Psychology Bulletin, 87(2). 245-251.
Steiger, J. H., & Lind, J. C. 1980. Statically-based tests for the number of common factor. Annual Spring Meeting Psychometric Society, Iowa City, IA.
Stern, L. W. & Reve, T. 1980. Distribution channels as political economies: a framework for comparative analysis. Journal of Marketing, 44: 52-64.
Subramani, M. R. & Venkatraman, N. 2003. Safeguarding investments in asymmetric inter-organizational relationships: theory and evidence. Academy of Management Journal, 46 (1): 46-62.
Suen, W. W. 2005. Non-cooperation: The dark side of strategic alliance. Palgrave Macmillan.
Teece, D. J. 1986. Profiting from technological innovation: implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy. Research Policy, 15: 285-305.
Teece, D. J., Rumelt, R. P., Dosi, G. & Winter, S. 1994. Understanding corporate coherence: theory and evidence. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 23: 1-30.
Teece, D.J., G. Pisano, & A. Shuen. 1997. Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7): 509–533.
Telser, L. G. 1980. A theory of self-enforcing agreements. Journal of Business, 53(1):27-44.
Thompson, 1976. Organizations in Action. NY: McGraw Hill.
Tiwana, A. 2008. Does interfirm modularity complement ignorance? A field study of software outsourcing alliance. Strategic Management Journal, 29(11): 1241-1252.
Tushman, M. L. & O’Reilly, C. 1996. Ambidextrous organizations: Managing evoloutionary and revolutionary change. California Management Review, 38: 8-30.
Ulaga, W. & Eggert, A. 2006. Value-based differentiation in business relationships: gaining and sustaining key supplier status. Journal of Marketing, 70: 119–136.
Uzzi, B. 1997. Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: the paradox of embeddedness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42: 35-67.
Venkatraman, N. 1989. The concept of fit in strategy research: toward verbal and statistical correspondence. Academy of Management Review, 14(3): 423-444.
Viodt, H. D. 2006. Opportunism and unilateral commitment: the moderating effect of relationshal capital. Management Decision, 44(6): 737-751.
Walker, G. 2007. The incompleteness of research on firm boundaries. Strategic Organization, 5: 227-236.
Wathne, K. H. & Heide, J. B. 2000. Opportunism in interfirm relationships: Forms, outcomes, and solutions. Journal of Marketing, 64: 36-51.
Wathne, K. H. & Heide, J. B. 2004. Relationship governance in a supply chain network. Journal of Marketing, 68(1): 73-89
Weiss, A. M. & Anderson, E. 1992. Converting from independent to employee salesforces: the role of perceived switching costs. Journal of Marketing Research, 29(1): 101-115.
Williamson, O. E. 1979. Transactions-cost economics: the governance of contractual relations. Journal of Law and Economics, 22(2): 233-62.
Williamson, O. E. 1983. Credible commitments: using hostages to support exchange. American Economic Review, 73(4): 519-40.
Williamson, O. E. 1985. The economic institutions of capitalism. NY: The Free Press.
Williamson, O. E. 1991. Comparative economic organization: the analysis of discrete structural alternatives. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36: 269-296.
Williamson, O. E. 1993. Opportunism and its critics. Managerial & Decision Economics, 14: 97-107.
Williamson, O. E. 1996. The mechanisms of governance. NY: Oxford University Press.
Wong, A., Tjosvold, D. 2006. Collectivist values for learning in organizational relationships in china: the role of trust and vertical coordination. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 23(3): 299-317.
Wrong, D. H. 1968. Some problems in defining social power. American Journal of Sociology, 73: 673-681.
Yaqub, M. Z. 2009. Antecedents, consequences and control of opportunistic behavior. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 7(2): 15-32.
Yin, R. 1994. Case study research: design and methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing.
Young-Ybarra, C. & Wiersema, M. 1993. Strategic flexibility in information technology alliances: the influences of transaction cost economics and social exchange theory. Organization Science, 10(4): 439-459.
Zaheer, A. & Harris, J. 2006. Interorganizational trust. In Shenkar, O. and Reuer, J. J. eds. Handbook of Strategic Alliance, Sage Publications.
Zaheer, A., McEvily, B. & Perrone, V. 1998. Does trust matter? Exploring the effects of interorganizational and interpersonal trust on performance. Organization Science, 9(2): 141-159.
Zajac, E.J., & Olsen, C. P. 1993. From transaction cost to transaction value analysis: implications for the study of interorganizational strategy. Journal of Management Studies, 30(1): 131-145.
|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0093355504|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[企業管理學系] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.