「中國崛起」現象的影響，以往被認為僅限於政策領域或現有國關理論選擇和修正的範疇，比如評估「權力移轉」的程度，或美中兩國「攻勢、守勢」的選擇。九十年代中國大陸學界曾提出的「中國特色」，不僅外界不予重視，即大陸國關學界也質疑連連。但近十年來，「中國崛起」現象的影響已經延伸到國關理論本體與方法的領域，使得所謂「中國學派」的呼籲，開始受到西方學界的注意。而「中國學派」發展的一項重要理論資源，即是古代中國外交與東亞國際關係的理念和實踐經驗。「朝貢體系」作為這段歷史中最突出的特徵，其實史學界早有許多研究，只是尚未與國關學界充分對話。但不管是學術研究還是一種道德指斥，卻已經有不少評論聲稱，北京正在營造「新朝貢體系」。本文因此根據古代朝貢史與有關理念，初步設計一套指標，驗證於當代中國周邊外交的四個案例。其結果顯示，「朝貢體系」與其「天下秩序」的理念部分，可以由當前的中國外交實踐局部證實。但若以此聲稱北京已有「天下體系」的外交方略，或說「中國學派」可以藉此確立其理論基礎，則還需要更多哲學、歷史與現實政策相結合的研究，才有發展的前景。 The fact of “China Rise” has been widely recognized as one of the most important impact on the current international order since the end of the Cold War. Various debates are developing surrounding subjects such as how and to what extent will China challenges the post-war order established by the West. This puzzle is not only haunting experts in the West, but also bothering IR researchers in China. The way the Chinese scholars addressed this issue in the past was the so-called “IR theories with Chinese Characters” in the late 1980s. But this claim was jettisoned by mature, well-trained Chinese academics in the 1990s. The circle then experienced a period of learning western theories and doing empirical studies for a decade. The emergence of building a “Chinese School” has gained new momentum since 2005. This trend accompanied Bush Administration’s failure in both military as well as global economic areas. This time the Chinese drew support not from Marxist-Leninist teaching, but Confucianism and the experiences of ancient East Asian tribute system. This study focuses on this new drive of the “Chinese School”, evaluates its theoretical adequacy, and tests it against Beijing’s policy toward a few Southeast Asian countries where the Chinese influences are most vibrant. The result will help explain if the emerging “Chinese School” for IR theories is valid intellectually and empirically.