基本上「道德」作為中國文化思想的主要特徵之一，是學界的共識，是以探討「德」義的變化過程，當為一件有意義的工作。因為只有釐清古代文獻中的「德」義面貌，我們對於形構自家價值系統的自省工作，才能深刻。本文主要是分成三部份進行討論:首先，本文從「受命」的角度切入，論述「德」義與政治權力間的關係;其次，則透過「心性」的視野，剖析孔孟為「德」所灌注的新義;最後，將以「天」與「內在精神意識」的觀點，彰明儒門後學中的新「德」義。最後，本文希望透過「觀念詞」的切入方式，具體地開展上述問題的解答，使思想史的研究獲得堅實的經典詮釋基礎。 There is a consensus that morality, as one of the main cultural and intellectual characteristics of Chinese culture, develops various meanings. Only when we clearly understand all the aspects of the meanings of the Virtue (De) in ancient Chinese documents, and thoroughly analyze the established value system through self-examination, will an analysis of this matter be possible. Generally speaking, this article is divided into three parts: First of all, analyzing the meanings of Virtue (De) from the perspective of receiving the mandate of Heaven, this article discusses the relationship between the meanings of Virtue (De) and political power. Next, the meanings of Virtue (De) is discussed in from perspective of mental-nature, analyzing the new meanings Confucius and Mencius gave to Virtue (De). Finally, the meanings of Virtue (De) are analyzed from the perspective of Heaven and inner-spirit consciousness, clearly showing the meaning Confucian added to the meanings of Virtue (De). This article hopes to use the method of conceptual terms, thereby concretely developing the answers to the questions mentioned above, in order to allow research in intellectual history to acquire a solid and fundamental interpretation of the classics.